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2011 Climate Change Action Clean Coal Technology International Cooperation Project CCT Transfer Project Dispatch Technology

Interaction (USC Coal-fired Power Plant Operation Technology)

Power Plant O&M Technology (Troubleshooting)

Power Engineering and Training Services, Inc. (PET)

Table of contents

1

Sheet No. 1. Failure patterns 3~5

2. Process of failure solutions

7 ~ 10

3. Case study on damage of secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station

12 ~ 24

Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.,Inc. All rights reserved.

Failure patterns .1.

(CEPCO) in view of different facilities. in addition to the detailed accident reports. 12. . 28. the failures related to gas turbine equipment account for 6%.0% Electrical related equipment Other electrical equipment.0% Turbine control equipment. 10. 11. 1.0% Boiler 57.0% Desulfurization 5. 49.. 7.Inc. we get to know that the failures related to boiler equipment account to 47% (83×57%) of the total. From the year 1967 to 2008. All rights reserved. 36.0% Generating facilities. 18. 36. Hereby I would like to explain what the failures are like at The Chugoku Electric Power Co. we can understand that the failures related to mechanical equipment account for 83% of the total.0% Other environmental equipment.0% Turbine 23.0% 3 Control 7. When these failures are categorized in terms of different main facilities.0% Electrical 10. Inc. Next to it are the failures related to turbine equipment which account for 19% of the total.0% Transformers.581 pieces of failures had happened at the power stations.0% Boiler control equipment. Besides.0% Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.0% Plant control equipment.0% Control related equipment Control equipment for common equipment. if we further classify the failures related to mechanical equipment. Moreover.0% Outside switching stations..Failure patterns (Facilities) „ Failure proportion of different facilities Mechanical equipment Gas turbine 8.0% mechanical 83.

0% Inadequate maintenance 70.. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. . we find that the inadequate maintenance and inspection accounts for approximately 70% of all major factors causing equipment failures. On the contrary. When we next examine the factors involved in major equipment failures.0% Others 1.0% „ Inadequate maintenance accounts for approximately 70% of all major factors causing facility failure.Failure patterns (Factors) „ Major factors causing facility failure 4 Influence of natural environment 4. what about the features of the factors causing failures? In the aspect of mechanical equipment.Inc. in perspective of electrical and control equipment. operational error accounts for an additional 10% of all major factors causing facility failure. inadequate maintenance and inspection lead to more failures than operational errors. operational errors tend to bring about more failures. (For your information) By the way.0% Incomplete manufacturing 15.0% Operational error 10. while operational errors account for an additional 10%. Besides. All rights reserved.

To ensure effective planned maintenance. cleaning. conditioning. All rights reserved. Methods of equipment maintenance ・Planned maintenance can be classified into preventive maintenance (PM). . we carry out facility inspection. we also conduct corrective maintenance just for the purpose of improving productivity of the equipment itself. spare parts replacement. it is better to incorporate the three methods of TBM. and so on in a periodic manner or on an inspection cycle base for the purpose of preventing sudden accidents and process failures. „ Different methods of planned maintenance are indicated as below. ・In addition. However. CBM. on-stream inspection aims to check the facilities and test the facility soundness when they are in a stationary state.) 3. cleaning.. By CBM (Condition Based Maintenance). and the like on the basis of the results of on-condition monitoring and onstream inspection (OSI). Introduction to different maintenance methods By TBM (Time Based Maintenance). in some cases it is also desirable to improve the equipment for the purpose of achieving higher reliability of the equipment concerned. (Please see the procedures for selecting RBM on the next page. spare parts replacement. we carry out facility inspection. ・Furthermore. and corrective maintenance (CM). as for the facilities which impacts on operation and production are not that significant. time-based maintenance (TBM) can be divided into daily inspection and periodic inspection. breakdown maintenance (BM). On-condition monitoring aims to diagnose and monitor the facilities in the state of operation. The essential thing for equipment maintenance is to restore the equipment to the original state. Purposes of equipment maintenance The purposes of equipment maintenance are to eliminate facility failures and process troubles as close to zero as possible and to minimize the losses incurred. Besides. and BM in an optimal way. This method is used when we decide that breakdown maintenance will have positive effects on the whole from the standpoint of productivity. Maintenance method Planned maintenance PM Preventive maintenance 5 TBM Time-based maintenance Daily inspection Periodic inspection BM CBM Rotary facility diagnosis Stationary facility diagnosis Breakdown Condition-based maintenance maintenance Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. we just have them repaired after breakdown. CM (Corrective Maintenance) is a method for equipment improvement so that the maintenance and repair could be implemented more easily or the equipment might even be able to work without maintenance. conditioning. preventive maintenance can be divided into time-based maintenance (TBM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM). In contrast. in some cases for equipment improvement.Purposes and methods of equipment maintenance „ The purposes of equipment maintenance are to eliminate facility failures and process troubles as close to zero as possible and to minimize the losses incurred. 2. By BM (Breakdown Maintenance). Risk-based Corrective maintenance maintenance CM RBM 1.Inc.

2. Process of failure solutions .

etc.). Here. We make these efforts in hope that reliability of the facility concerned may get even higher than that prior to the failure. make a decision about whether it is necessary to shut down the unit or it is workable by just lowering the output. All rights reserved. Things to do after failure occurs (Actions to be taken by maintenance team) ① Examination of failure conditions ・Look into the conditions of the damage.Process to deal with failure Things to do when failure occurs ① Make quick and right decision on failure conditions (Actions to be taken by operation team) Basic concept for taking actions 7 Minimize the impacts on the systems and electrical facilities while trying the best to maintain the plant output. when the serious or highly urgent accidents happen. When such a failure occurs. ④ Restoration from accident/Prevention of repeat failure ・Restore the damaged part to the original state and take actions to prevent repeat failures according to the inspection results of causes. ③ Determination of root causes ・Figure out the root causes of damage by using FT diagram. Let me take the failure of boiler tube leak as an example. Based on this. ② Inspection of similar locations ・Look into the conditions of the similar locations. we thoroughly investigate the factors causing this failure and identify the root causes. we also share the accident information with other power stations and ask them to inspect the similar places and take adequate actions in advance.. Moreover. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.Inc. Contact maintenance team (to make work preparations. we find out solutions to restore the facility and take proper actions to prevent repeat failures. ② Contact the parties concerned Report the accident (according to corporate rules and applicable laws). Consequently. the lessons of the failure can be learned in a horizontal manner. In this way. the overall reliability of the entire equipment can be hopefully improved. at Japanese electric power companies. I would like to give a description of how we deal with such a failure from the time when it happens until the time of restoration. try to stop as mildly as possible. . Such a failure like boiler tube leak may make the generating unit stop. If the unit needs to be stopped. In the case of main equipment failure.

. ① Check the spare parts (Boiler evaporation tubes). When tube leaks.Solutions/actions for tube leaks Actions taken by maintenance side 8 ① Confirm the spare parts (Replace the damaged parts) ② Contact the plant manufacturers ③ Prepare materials and machines for installing scaffold in furnace ④ Arrange jet washing vehicle to remove clinker *In the case that a temporary scaffold is needed in furnace. request the operation team to stop the unit.Inc. On this occasion. ④ Arrange jet washing vehicle to remove clinkers. All rights reserved. the maintenance team needs to take the following actions.】 ・ Soot blower (Reduce the time for removing clinker when unit is shut down) ・ Request to stop the boiler by forced cooling Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. ③ Prepare the materials and machines for installing scaffold in furnace. . it is a wise policy to ask the operation team to stop the operation with forced cooling of boiler and start the operation of soot blower. 【If necessary. the maintenance team may get ready to start internal inspection and repair immediately after boiler is cooled off. request the operation side to stop the unit. In this way. ② Contact the plant manufacturers. and ⑤ If necessary.

Gas temperature goes down in the downstream direction starting from the leaked part. it is also necessary for the operation team to carefully check the items including steam temperature. metal temperature of different tubes. 2. (In the latter cases. In the case of severe leaks. it is better to change the fuel (from coal into oil) and find out the accurate locations of leaks before making the boiler stop. (On-site inspection) 1. At the same time.) Whatever the case is. 9 Generally in most cases. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. All rights reserved. makeup water flow increases. Before stopping the boiler. 5. although makeup water increases. the makeup water will grow suddenly. fans. we can take time to search for the factors causing this increase. we also need to pay attention to the conditions of the makeup water for the forced cooling of boiler as well as the waste water treatment facility. However. Leaking sound is heard.Problems arising from tube leaks (Problems arising from tube leaks) 1. but the amount of increase is slight compared with the normal amount of makeup water. When plant leaks grow. Boiler draft drops. etc. In other cases.Inc. when boiler tubes leak. . if the conditions of leaks permit. quantity and type of the coal remained in bunker. Leaked part is found when fuel is changed (from coal⇒heavy/light oil). 3. and coal pulverizers). conditions of auxiliary facilities of boiler (such as feed water pumps. we have to roughly figure out where the leaks are located and stop the boiler. main steam pressure decreases and feedwater flow increases. 2. Boiler metal temperature changes. 4..

Prepare the documentation for reviewing the performance of safety regulations and safety administration. Obligation of accident reporting according to the “Electricity Utilities Industry Law” 【Example】 10 Damage to main electrical facilities Accident reporting (Electric utilities) Horizontal expansion (State administration) What is damage to main electrical facilities? When something is wrong with the equipment that is composed of main electrical facilities. the function of the damaged main electrical facilities will be dwarfed or lost. Besides.Reporting of facility failure Purpose of failure reporting On the basis of the analysis of the failures.. Take proper actions to prevent repeat failures. 3. Provide a foundation for the solutions to ensure the safety and enhance the reliability of electrical facilities. we not only make analysis and statistics of the accident.Inc. When the main electrical facilities such as boiler and steam turbine are damaged or broken. In either of the case. the power generating unit may stop automatically through the automatic stop function. or in emergency. the state administration of Japan legally requires the electric power utilities to report the details of accident. Provide a foundation for the solutions to ensure the safety and enhance the reliability of electrical facilities. (Purposes of reporting) 1. but also conduct investigation and give instructions so as to avoid the similar accidents being repeated. Take proper actions for the prevention of repeat failures on the basis of the analyses in report. Meanwhile. All rights reserved. . the unit may be stopped manually by the operator. the unit may stop soon or has to be stopped. As a consequence. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. 2. At the head office of the electric power company. the power stations in Japan are also requested to submit such accident reports to the head office of the electric power company concerned. it is also specified by the relevant laws and regulations what to report and how to make such a report.

3.Case study on damage of secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station .

History of accident ・PM13:00 on the day of accident: Makeup water flow was found increasing.Summary of failure conditions „ Failure conditions are summarized as below.4 / 4. Locations of damage Secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler 4th SH tube Separating wall in the upper part of boiler 12 2. ・PM14:50: Started to stop unit operation. Damage Primary RH tube Primary SH tube ECO tube ECO tube Firing Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. Condition prior to accident Operated at rated output (1.. ・PM14:10: Checked all parts of boiler and detected leaking sound near the left side in the central part of boiler on the 7th floor.000MW) Secondary RH tube 3. Ltd.Inc.900t/h Pressure: 25. ・PM17:35: Parallel off ⇒ Forced cooling.5MPa (SH outlet/RH outlet) Temperature: 604 / 602℃ (SH outlet/RH outlet) Fuel: Coal Operation started: June 1998 Manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. (MHI) in 1997. ・PM17:00 next day: Started internal inspection and repair. Conducted monitoring and patrol inspection. All rights reserved. (Main specifications of Unit 1 boiler at Misumi Power Station) Model: Radiative reheat variable pressure once-through (Indoor type) Maximum continuous rating (MCR): 2. 1. .

50 panel from the left side of boiler (#50-R1). Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. No. . No. No. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”.. All rights reserved.51 panel from the left side of boiler (#51-R1).52 panel from the left side of boiler (#52-R1). Conditions of damage ・Location of primary leak (marked in red ×) The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam. ・Location of secondary leak (marked in blue ×) The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam. No. The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam.52 panel from the left side of boiler (#52-F1). The first tube of secondary reheater (RH) tubes from the downstream direction of steam.Location of damage (Overall boiler diagram) 13 #1 × × ×× #50~52 Location of secondary RH damage #108 References: Detailed report of electric accident.Inc. 1.

.49-51 . ・#52-R1 The fracture surface was thick. In addition. ) in No. The shape of the rupture opening looked like a fish mouth. The shape of the rupture opening looked like a fish mouth. The shape of the rupture opening looked like a fish mouth.Location of damage (in detail) 14 Thinned tube due to steam spray #50-R1 R F #52-F1 F12 F1 R1 R12 Direction of gas flow #51-R1 References: Detailed report of electric accident. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”. The photos here show the location of damage at the secondary reheater (near No. All rights reserved. ・#51-R1 The fracture surface was thin and in the shape of knife edge.5052 panels) The appearance of the leaks looked like as below. Four tubes leaked. twelve steam tubes (marked in panels were eroded by the steam spray. The rupture opening was in the shape of a fish mouth.Inc. ・#52-F1 The fracture surface was thin and in the shape of knife edge. #52-R1 Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. ・#50-R1 The fracture surface was a little bit thin and in the shape of knife edge.

due to the leaked steam from the tube #52-F1. All rights reserved. It was found that except for #52-R1. the tubes of #50-R1 and #51-R1 ruptured then. The fracture surface of #52-R1 was thick while that of the other tubes were thin and in the shape of knife edge. That is to say. the tube #52-F1 ruptured. Right side of boiler Root cause tube Likely being an embrittlement damage. Steam first leaked from the tube #52-R1. Due to the leaked steam. Due to the leaked steam. the tube of #50-R1 and #51-R1 ruptured then. we could estimate that #52-R1 might be the root cause tube. the story could be like this. the tube #52-F1 ruptured. . it was supposed to be the root cause tube. Steam first leaked from the tube #52-R1. After that. References: Detailed report of electric accident. erosion took place on the outer surface of the tubes concerned. The four ruptured tubes were examined. the rupture opening (fractured surface) was thicker than other part of damage.Damage location of primary leaks 【Location of ruptured tubes】 【Presumption of root cause tube】 Rupture location (direction) Left side of boiler From the header at To the header at secondary RH inlet secondary RH outlet Panel No. Considering this. due to steam leaking from #52-F1. Besides. the rupture openings of the four tubes were all in the shape of a fish mouth. 15 Gas flow Tube No.Inc. After that.. Considering all these matters (location and direction of rupture). Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”.

. the following tasks are carried out. it is necessary to gather the following data and information. etc. dimensional inspection. ③ Referring to operating.). color. In order to determine the factors causing damage. ・・・ we try to make clear the conditions in a broad range related to the upper and lower part of the damage locations. thickness. attachment analysis.Procedures of damage inspection General procedures for damage inspection 16 1. PT or MT) (Macro/Micro-metallurgical examination) ②’ ①’ ②’ ◆Data analysis ◆Identify causes ④ ◆Stress analysis (Dimensional inspection/Attachment analysis) (Component analysis/Mechanical test) Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. .). volume of makeup water. Inspection flow chart To determine the root causes. ・・・ we look at the records of previous maintenance. and so on).). etc. ③④ ② ◆Inspect similar damage locations (Diameter/Thickness/Appearance) (PT/MT/UT) (Replica examination) ① ◆Evaluate damage (Damage locations/materials) (Damage features/Colors) (Diameter/Thickness)(PT. appearance. damage features. thickness. Keep damage locations in original conditions. etc. ③ For damage sampling: we examine the fractured part (such as fractography examination. metallurgical structure examination. thermal stress due to temperature distribution and the like). ・・・ we can get a picture of the damage conditions and gather the data such as the operating conditions until the time when damage occurs. Damage inspection ① Examine damage locations ② Identify related locations ③ Refer to operating/maintenance/construction records ④ Conditions before failure/Relevant data 2. (for example. color. It is very important to collect the information related to the above-mentioned ①~④. times of startup/shutdown) (Conditions right before damage. MT. the best caution should be taken to keep the damage locations in the original conditions. Inspection flow chart For identifying the root causes. and operation (such as the times and operations of start-up and shut-down. thickness in terms of strength. ⑤ As for design specifications: we study the conditions of the facilities to make clear such data (as pressure.) (Construction records) ④ ◆Design specifications (Pressure/Temperature/Thickness in terms of strength) ①’ ◆Damage sampling (Fractographic study. ② To inspect similar damage locations: we look into the locations of the similar damage (including diameter. inspection is made on the damaged part and the causes are determined on the basis of the inspection results. damage features. etc.). ・・・ we study the conditions at and around the damaged part (including location. and construction records.Inc. etc. construction. ① To examine damage locations. maintenance. diameter. replica sampling.). All rights reserved. etc. ② To identify related locations. ① To evaluate damage: we look into the locations of the damage (including material. ④ To clarify the conditions and collect relevant data prior to failure. temperature. ④ For fact-finding of damage: we check and review the operating conditions (including operating hours. construction records. ⑥ For stress analysis: we analyze the stress being applied to the facilities. Meanwhile. and so on). times of startup and shut-down. UT) ◆Fact-finding for damage (Operating hours.

The fracture opening was not like the narrow one featured by fatigue destruction. × ○ × × ○ × × × × × × × × Thinning Erosion due to steam spray Fatigue Facility deterioration Corrosion Repeated load (stress) External corrosion due to combustion gas Internal corrosion due to bad water quality Operating hours/Stress/Metal temperature Creep Rupture of secondary RH tubes Design/ Construction Poor weld Condition of use (Temperature. Same as above. Standard values were satisfied. Standard values were satisfied. Weak material strength Material (Material and size) Weld defects Residual stress Scale formation due to minerals O&M Partial overheating due to abnormal combustion Poor water quality control Intrusion of seawater Insufficient combustion air Poor combustion condition Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. Flow chart of FT diagram ① Failure ⇒ Dig deep into the causes of damage in the order from primary ⇒ secondary ⇒ to tertiary causes.Inc. ② Figure out the verification method to demonstrate the tertiary causes. Creep voids and decreased hardness were noticed. Therefore.. All rights reserved. “cross-sectional examination” and “crosssection structural examination” have been made to explore the causes that led to the leaks of secondary reheater tubes. . (※) Procedures for FTA FTA is short for Fault Tree Analysis. and tertiary ones. pressure. NDT was not conducted because rupture did not occur in the welded part. In most cases. Pock-like concave-convex surface arising from corrosion was not noticed. secondary. Standard values were satisfied. As a result. we determined that it was “creep” that caused damage. References: Detailed report of electric accident. Standard values were satisfied. After that. we found that creep voids grew and the hardness dropped. It was found that overall erosion thinning occurred due to steam spray from other ruptured tubes. we explore the possible causes in depth ranging from the primary. Then. we normally use fault tree (FT) diagram to determine the factors causing damage to piping. and atmosphere) Strength was enough for condition of use. determine the causes of damage by analyzing the evaluation results. “Damage to ○ Regarding the damage. we verify the tertiary causes and make evaluation on the basis of the verification results. Material specifications were satisfied. ③ Make an evaluation of all the tertiary causes. As for the failure example stated here. secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”.Determination and verification of the factors causing leaks Failure Root causes Ash in gas Steam drain of soot blower Contact of attached metal 17 Result Verification Visual inspection of appearance Thickness measurement Visual inspection of appearance Thickness measurement Inspection of fracture and rupture shape Visual inspection of inner and outer surface Crosssection/Crosssection structure examination Review of design strength statement Analysis of material components Non-destructive test (NDT) Annealing record Water quality record Water quality record Combustion control Combustion control Evaluation No abrasion thinning was detected.

Inspection results of the factors causing leaks #50-R1 #51-R1 #52-F1 #52-R1 18 Erosion was detected at #50-R1.. #51-R1. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. (Visual inspection of inner and outer surface) No erosion was found on either the inner or outer surface of the tubes.Inc. However. an overall thinning due to erosion was detected at and around the rupture opening. (Visual inspection of appearance) There was no trace of erosion on the root cause tube H52-R1. All rights reserved. and #52-F1. (Sacrificed tubes) Visual inspection of appearance No erosion was found. . In the following. I would like to talk about the inspection results of the factors causing leaks. Knife edge shape Thick fracture Visual inspection of inner and outer surface References: Detailed report of electric accident. Such a thinning might be caused by the steam spray from other tubes. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”. (Root cause tube) Knife edge shape Knife edge shape Erosion was detected Erosion was detected Erosion was detected No erosion was found. as for the other tubes (#50-R1. and #52-F1). #51-R2.

#51-R1. Micro-cracks and voids were detected in microstructure.. (Microstructure inspection) Creep voids were discovered in the ruptured part at the tubes of #50-R1. (Cross section inspection) It was found that the ruptured part in the tubes of #50-R1 and #52-R1 bulged out. . The inspection results of the factors causing leaks are described as below. Micro-cracks and voids were detected in microstructure. External erosion was significant. However. Microcracks and voids were detected in microstructure.Inc.Inspection results of the factors causing leaks #50-R1 In front of boiler 19 #52-R1 #51-R1 #52-F1 Cross section inspection Microstructure Evaluation Strength decreased in front of boiler. and #52-R1. Strength decreased in front of boiler. All rights reserved. Strength decreased in front of boiler. References: Detailed report of electric accident. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. No voids were found in microstructure. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”. Strength decreased slightly in front of boiler. there was no creep void at the tube #52-F1.

000 hours. not exceeding the time (100. Measured value Uplift size Uplift range 300μm 330μm 100μm 385μm 30% About 40% Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.Estimation and verification of factors causing creep 20 Failure Root causes Verification Evaluation Result Operating hours Consumption of creep life due to long-time operation Stress higher than allowable one Unit 1 cumulative operating hours (Operation diary) The present operating hours were approximately 30. × Stress Calculate stress × #52-R1 creep rupture Drop of steam flow due to intrusion of foreign matter into tube Increase of heat load due to gas temperature rise Metal temp.4kg/mm2. However.Inc. it was +50℃ higher than the gas temperature in the case of creep life diagnosis (1.050℃.6kg/mm2). Investigate tube inside by fiberscope and RT No foreign matter was found inside ruptured tube and at inlet/outlet headers.000 hours) to start creep rupture test. Meanwhile.. The stress was 2.000℃±100℃). (See the table below) × Compare with gas design temperature △ Deviation of heat load Check the data of metal thermometer △ Disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale Examine the inner surface scale of fractured tube ○ Results of scale inspection Scale thickness Standard value References: Detailed report of electric accident. lower than the standard value (5. (Subsidiary factor for the rise of metal temperature) Maximum deviation of metal temperature in the acrossthe-width direction of furnace was about 30℃. The creep has led to the rupture of the root cause tube #52-F1. within the allowable design gas temperature (1. Gas temperature was about 1. . “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”. the creep damage of the root cause tube was found arising from the “disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale”. lower than the standard value (60℃). (Subsidiary factor for the rise of metal temperature) The results of scale inspection exceeded the standard values. The root causes for this are described in this FT (fault tree) diagram.000℃). All rights reserved.

For another reason. In addition.050 Outlet 940 Temp. Temp. (℃ ) Inlet Outlet Trial operation 500 Status quo 480 602 602 Heat absorption (Gcal/hr) 125 150 Gas temp.Inspection results of the factors causing creep Increase of heat load due to gas temperature rise Steam temp. and thus the gas temperature at the inlet of the secondary reheater increased. the gas temperature in the central part of boiler is high.Inc.050℃ (degrees Celsius). (Increase of heat load due to gas temperature rise) The heat absorption was calculated.(℃) Secondary SH Tertiary SH 4th SH Secondary RH Heat absorption during trial operation Heat absorption during failure Temp. Due to the ash deposits or so. secondary superheater (SH).(℃) 970 21 Increase of heat load due to heat load deviation Exhaust gas temperature distribution Metal temperature in the central part is high. The result indicated that the gas temperature in the cavity part of secondary reheater had reached 1. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”. (Measured) Steam flow distribution Left side of boiler Right side of boiler References: Detailed report of electric accident.065 1. Heat absorption Flow ratio Metal temperature distribution Secondary RH inlet Tube length Secondary RH outlet Steam temp. the furnace. as for the secondary reheater (RH).. . Because of this. the maximum temperature deviation in the across-the-width direction of furnace has reached about 30℃ (degrees Celsius). the heat absorption decreased. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co. and the fourth superheater (the heat exchanger on the upper side of the secondary reheater) became dirty. The reason for that could be something like this.115 Cavity 1. (Increase of heat load due to heat load deviation) The metal temperature in the central part of boiler has got relatively higher. (℃) Inlet 1. tertiary superheater. the steam flow is also small in that part.000 1. For one reason. (Planned) Inlet/outlet steam temp. All rights reserved.

of problem tube 613℃ (Standard) +37℃ (Approx. respectively. All rights reserved. Among this temperature rise. “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”. 70%) 732℃ Creep fracture life over 4. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.Inc. Therefore. (Disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale) An inspection was made on the scale condition of inner surface at the ruptured tubes.Inspection results of the factors causing creep Disturbed heat transfer due to the uplift of steam oxidation scale 22 In front of boiler At the back of boiler Impacts of different factors on metal temperature Metal temp. It was found that the scale was 330μm thick and the uplift was 385μm. rise + Heat load deviation Scale uplift Estimated temp.500hrs Creep fracture life over 100.000hrs Factors References: Detailed report of electric accident. (Impacts of different factors on metal temperature) It was estimated that the metal temperature of the leaked part this time was +119℃ higher than the design value. . it was estimated that the “rise of inlet gas temperature+heat load deviation” had contributed to a metal temperature rise of +37℃ while a rise of +82℃ (degrees Celsius) was attributed to the “scale uplift”. (℃) Design value Gas temp.. in terms of percentage. 30%) +82℃ (Approx. Approximately 40% uplift was noticed along the circumferential direction. the contribution ratio of the “rise of inlet gas temperature+heat load deviation” and that of the “scale uplift” could be around 30% and 70%.

we replaced the material with SUS (Thermal SUS304J1HTB9). “Damage to secondary RH tubes at Unit 1 boiler of Misumi Power Station”.. we worked out the permanent measures to be implemented in the next periodic inspection. We examined the factors causing the leaks of secondary reheater tubes and thus verified these factors.000 hours. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.Inc. Considering this.1-4 in the inner periphery had been replaced. . The tubes of No.Solutions/Actions Current state (Materials) 9% Cr steel tube Thermal SUS304J1HTB Cr-Mo Permanent measure (Materials) 9% Cr steel tube Thermal SUS304J1HTB Cr-Mo All of the panels No. References: Detailed report of electric accident. The uplift of steam oxidation scale has caused the creep. All rights reserved. Their remaining life was less than 100. With the use of this kind of material. On the basis of the verification results. steam oxidation scale is not likely to come into being and lift up.1-108 23 Replaced tubes Thermal SUS304J1HTB was replaced by 9% Cr steel.

the thicker the steam oxidation scale will grow.(FYI) Comparison of steam oxidation scale between different high-temperature materials 24 The higher steam temperature rises. The steel tubes include those such as 18Cr9Ni. Copyright© Power Engineering and Training Services Co.hitachipowersystems. Fig. and 25Cr20Ni with high chromium (Cr) content. For this sake. Therefore. as well as the 18Cr steel tubes with inner surface shot blasted. As for the 18Cr-9Ni tubes with low chromium (Cr) content. All rights reserved. about 20μm oxidation scale can be developed at the temperature of 600℃ (degrees Celsius). in the case of the 25Cr20Ni steel tubes with high chromium (Cr) content or the steel tubes with inner surface shot blasted. scale drops down considerably and only about 1μm scale is initiated.Inc. or shot blasted steel.000 hours. it is needed to develop such steel that oxidation scale can hardly grow. The higher the temperature goes up. . p-10..pdf. This figure shows the thickness of oxidation scale that grows when steel tubes have been exposed to high-temperature steam for 1. in the case of USC boiler with increased steam temperature. the thicker the oxidation scale will grow. we need to be very careful in selecting materials and designing boiler structure. 9. However.us/supportingdocs/forbus/hpsa/technical_papers/EP2003B. The effective types of steel tubes are steel with high Cr content or steel with fine particles on inner surface. 20Cr25Ni. Source: Excerpts from http://www.