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Corruption in Pakistan. Mother of all ills. Outline:Introduction: Definition of corruption Root cause of all ills in Pakistan Socio-economic backwardness. outcome of corruption Thesis statement leading to conclusionCauses of corruption:Political causes: Absence of culture of accountability Incompetent judiciary Highly centralized economic system Absence of rule of law Punctuated constitutional supremacySocio- economic causes: High inflation and food prices Meager salaries of government servants Class conflict due to capitalism Evasion of ethical and religious values Nepotism and favoritism FeudalismImpacts of corruption: Pakistan ranked 139th by transparency international Increased crime rates Tarnished image of society and state Discouraging FDI Nepotism. Order of the day NROPragmatic ways to curb corruption: Emancipating accountability Need for ethical councelling through education Ensuring meritocracy instead of red tapism

Enhancing transparency Increase in salaries of govt. servants Implementing law in its true letter and spirit.Conclusion. Power tends to corrupt and absolute power tends to corrupt absolutely. Corruption is a method and a technique adopted just to bypass the rule of law and engulfing the whole system into socio-economic turmoil. Furthermore, corruption being the mother of all ills gives birth to multifarious problems including nepotism, favoritism and negating meritocracy, transparency and accountability. It is an established fact that the cruelty shows its influence as the rule of law is abrogated. Banking scams, industrialists monopoly to create baseless crises, bypassing the constitutional supremacy, lavish living styles of the ruling class, foreign tours under the head of national exchequer, general apathy, neglect, carelessness and an attitude of indifferent towards national issues are all the outcomes of corruption which is root cause of all evils in the motherland. The poor are sidelined, the rich are bestowed, the needy are ignored and the affluent are delivered. However, the story does not end here. The socio economic situation is much more dubious and gloomy than as expected.Lack of accountability is an outcome of nepotism and favoritism. How can a corrupt person being galloped by a corrupt authority? All in all the entire unfortunate system is prone to the monster of corruption. In such dismal state of affairs the question of accountability does not arise. Only lucrative and emotionally charged speeches and pledges can never come up to the expectations of the people. Rule of law is the only option that can pave way for accountability.Moreover, the crippled and dwindling economy and ever rising levels of inflation are the major source of corruption. The more the prosperous a country, the more the rule of law are followed. But it is quite unfortunate to mention that Pakistan is a country rated in the third world where neither the rule of law prevails nor the economic system is strengthened. The per capital income is significantly low, the renders the lower strata of society more prone towards corruption. The ongoing scenario regarding food crisis, where prices have never been able to take a fix figure, corruption takes the first stride on the way to the hurdles.Incompetent judiciary in terms of not bringing the culprits in to the gallows of law and absence of bringing the corrupt politicians and policy makers to the books is another deciding factor in todays sorry state of affairs. In the same manner the unnecessary delay in deciding the cases of corruption is a clear explanation of the adage as the justice delayed is justice denied.In much the similar fashion, highly centralized economy, breeds conflict amongst the poor and the rich. The growing influence of the bestowed class always uses the influential authority to snub the poor people. In such a grim situation, the victims and the upper both use their influence at their maximum extent to have maximum benefit from the opportunity. Thus the capitalism is in the fore front in bringing and paving ways for corruption.Corruption evolves as a result of evasion of ethical and religious norms. Religion always asks the believers to have a solid strive in bringing a moderate society. It agrees in favor of decentralized economy. Regulation of wealth according to rule of law is the motto of Islam.All the above mentioned factors have brought Pakistan at number 139th among the most corrupt countries of the world. According to CPI report, Pakistan has 2.3 score out of 10 which shows its position very weak while on contrary, New Zealand showed 9.4 out of 10 in the race and toppled the entire scenario. Pakistan on the other hand, is lagging behind in all spheres

of life. This is the outcome of corruption that Pakistan has lost its identity and failed to establish its credibility in the whole world.The discussion on corruption in Pakistan would never be complete without having a glance on National Reconciliation Ordinance, a symbol of corruption in Pakistan. It was promulgated by a military dictator to serve his own vested interests. It freed all the politicians and civil servants until 1990 that were convicted on charges of corruption. PPP and PML (N), the big political giants remained the beneficiaries of this ordinance. Under the provisions of NRO, the civil servants, politicians and major industrialists were given a safe passage to escape from all the charges of corruption and made them free of any sin. NRO, most appropriately can be termed as the law that legitimized corruption in Pakistan.Given the dismal state of affairs as is evident from all the above explained short story, there is a stringent need of implementing religious and ethical values if the nation wants to get out of the clutches of monster like corruption. The religious counseling must be given at all levels so that ethics and values have a strong hold on the characters and actions of the people. Educational reforms based on morality must be given place in the social system.Red tapism, nepotism, favoritism must be eradicated by grooming and nurturing a culture of accountability based on trickledown effect that runs from top to bottom. Independence of judiciary and rule of law can only bring in meritocracy so that talented and high caliber people must be given suit at the higher posts.Another pragmatic solution is to increase the salaries of the government servants. Financial satisfaction to all and sundry can bring in a positive change in the society. It forces the workers to follow the principles of morality and honesty.Moreover, the laws must be made strict and their implementation be ensured. Unfortunately, Pakistan is a land of laws which are never implemented. One thing must be given preference that it is not the severity of punishment but the certainty of punishment that matters. Such practices put the things in order and in right directions. Therefore, strict implementation of laws is the only way forward. the China after the empowerment of communist party, paved this way for a cause of change.Corruption is social curse that must be ditched. The law makers in the parliament must take stringent efforts and evolve practicable strategies to eradicate the mushrooming menace. Rule of law, supremacy of the constitution and independence of judiciary and off course a free and vibrant media being the fourth pillar of the state, must be implemented in true letter and spirit. The accused must be given a cold fist. Time is ripe that drastic measures be taken to get rid of this tsunami of corruption that undoubtedly has torn and destructed our very social and economic fabric. Enough of apathy and negligence, the need of the hour is to join hands on all fronts by all members and areas of society to ouster this curse. If Pakistan wants to run in the race of socio economic development, evils like corruption do not fit in the scenario.

By: Quratul Ain GoharDMG 2010

Need for good Governance in Pakistan

By Ainuddin Kibzai in CSS HELP (Files) Edit Doc

No one more sincerely wishes the spread of information among mankind than I do, and none has greater confidence in its effect towards supporting free and good government.Thomas Jefferson



Definition and concept of good governance

Pre requisites/ Essentials of good governanceEssentials of good governance:

Stable democracy/ political stability

Constitutional supremacy

Rule of law/ effective implementation of law

Independence of judiciary

Efficient administrative hierarchy

Vibrant foreign policy

Equality/ transparency

Equal distribution of resources

Public participation in all decisions making processes

Free and uniform education system

Financial satisfaction

Social security

Freedom of media Status of good governance in Pakistan:

Poor scenario/ grim picture of governance

Political instability

Vacuum of leadership ever since Quaids death

Vulnerable national integrity, piety, solidarity and sovereignty

Rampant corruption owing to vested interests of ruling elites

Lack of culture of accountability

Crippled economy

Poor law and order situation

Inefficient law enforcement agencies

Social insecurity and uncertainty

Socio economic backwardness of the masses

Suggestions for good governance :

Ensure stable democratic system

Supremacy of constitution

Rule of law

Efficient administrative system

Investment friendly environment

Public participation in policy making

Education for all

Good governance is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development and building good governance.

(Kofi Annan )

Good governance is an indeterminate term used in development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in order to guarantee the realization of human rights. Furthermore, Governance describes the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented. Good governance can also be termed as the effective use of power, legislation of policies, transparent accountability, and development of human resources and supremacy of constitution with the absolute rule of law.

Good government does not mean autocratic government. Good government does not mean despotic government. Good government means, a government that is responsible to the representative of people.(Jinnah, the Quaid of Pakistan.)

Good governance is a continuous process that determines the fate of the nations. It is a fundamental factor that is inevitable in taking the nations to the zenith of glory in the world community. Good governance is quite a wider term that encompasses with in itself multiple factors that are considered inevitable for its proper implementation that includes democracy, rule of law, constitutional supremacy, accountability and public participation in decision making.Unfortunately, the situation of good governance in Pakistan is quite gloomy and grim due to weak leadership ever since independence, incompetent administrative hierarchy and weak accountability accompanied with poor law and order situation

Democracy and good governance are interred related to each other. In case there is no democracy; there can be no good governance. It I a matter of grave misfortune for the entire nation that ever since the advent of Pakistan, democracy could not flourish here due to frequent martial laws and unnecessary intervention of military dictators in the state affairs. It is a matter of serious concern that for more than three decades, the country has remained entangled in the oppressive clutches of dictatorship. In 1951, the countrys first PM, Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated and in 1958, the first military coup was invoked. In 1971, the country went through the tragic episode of debacle of East Pakistan and in 1977 again Zias martial law was imposed. The span of 1988 to 2000saw acute political instability through dissolution of National assembly by another martial law in the light of the up given picture of countrys political situation, good governance seems a far cry for the moon.

Corruption is another crucial factor that can prove to be a serious impediment in the way of good governance. Corruption perception index 2009 by Transparency International ranks Pakistan at 139th position out of 180 countries which is alarmingly bad. Indias ranking is much better (84th out of 180.) good governance is a distinct reality when the process of accountability of the corruption ridden elements is either weak or missing. National accountability Bureau was formulated in 1999 after military coup by general Musharraf, but the sad fact is that the said body suffers from corrupt practices and lack of accountability with in itself, making it a laughing stock in the eyes of other national institutions. Another jerk to the governance was NRO formulated in Musharrafs era in 2007 to secure his otherwise illegal and unconstitutional reelection as the president. Pakistan today happens to be the classic example of ingenuities for bribery and exchange of favors. More than 7000 beneficiaries of this defunct law had to face reopening of their cases in 2009. This was an open violation of the principle of good governance.

Effective and in time implementation of the law is another deciding factor in the process of good governance. Pakistan unfortunately has become a classic example of worst law and order situation. Every other day a substantial number of innocent citizens are targeted by the law enforcement agencies that are just silent spectators.

Flourishing economy is one of the major components of good governance as both are inter related to each other in one way or the other. In Pakistan, economic governance is the victim of political instability. Pakistans commission for human rights stated that 208 people committed suicide in August 2011 predominantly out of economic crisis.

Good governance is pointed out as one of the largest goals in the Millennium development goals but in Pakistan nothing is realized on the ground except paper work. It must be remembered that economic prosperity and good governance are deeply interconnected. The alarming figures of crippled economy lead us to the prompt measures for ensuring good governance in the country.

Political stability and efficient administrative hierarchy are the vibrant components of good governance. Both political leaders and bureaucracy go hand in hand for bringing about cult of good governance through effective implementation of public policies. The tradition of nepotism, lack of democratic norms and political recruitments on high government offices must be eliminated in order to promote transparency, accountability and supremacy of law at all levels.

Moreover, the government should create an investment friendly environment in order to boost up the economy and industrial activity as raising the standard of living is the key component of good governance. Law and order situation should be made conducive and encouraging for the foreign investors so the FDI may be enhanced for the ultimate benefit of the nation and the country at large. Most importantly, the government must also try to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of energy. New dams and barrages must be built without putting national and political stability at stake. Government should have control on the hoarding mafia, particularly those involved in the hoarding of eatable commodities. Having strict check on the inflation would increase the standard of living of the general masses at larger scale. Furthermore, imparting education and awareness for the common people is necessary to have good governance as the masses have to be the part of this process.

Medias role in the advent of true democracy and good governance cannot be stressed enough. Media is recognized as the fourth pillar of the state. Media can prove to a vibrant factor in motivating public participation in national decision making processes and can also create the awareness of rights and duties among the general public. Media can also bring government authorities under accountability for their violations of power and bad governance.

In nut shell, it may be stated that good governance is an inevitable phenomenon for the smooth working of any state machinery. Therefore, political stability, rule of law, constitutional supremacy and public participation in policy making and implementation must be ensured. The entire nation must think and act as one nation and collectively contribute for the prosperity of the country. Time is now ripe to come out of the false and baseless concepts of provincialism, sectarianism and nepotism. With all the leadership vacuum and political instability, the nation can still step ahead to create an environment, where good governance is not merely a dream

You will have to be alert, very alert, for the time for relaxation is not yet there. With faith, disciplined and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.

(Jinnah, the Quaid of Pakistan.)

By: Quratulain MalikCSS: 2010 DMG