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WRITING FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

EXAM ADD THE STUDENTS KNOWLEDGE

By: Name NPM Class : Indah Novitasari : 07420254 : VF

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS IKIP PGRI SEMARANG 2009/2010

Out Lining
An Exam is an Official test of Knowledge
Introduction
Topic sentence : An exam is an official test of knowledge. in Senior High School. Supporting detail : - The student can have exam in every week - Exam are designed to be used by inexperience or poorly trained teacher Topic sentence : the teacher selecting commercial it is important to match the material with the goal and objectives of the program me, and to ensure they are consistent Supporting point : Ones belief about the language in the classroom and teaching learning process, as well as with ones learners attitudes, believes and preferences Supporting detail : With ones learners attitudes, believes and preferences. Evaluating and selecting commercial material is not an easy. Supporting point :An Exam usually held in every where, in anywhere, especially

Body Paragraph 1
Topic sentence : The opportunities provided by materials for cognitive, development in the discussion. Supporting point : Materials only take on value in context, and the social and cultural context in which they will be used must understand their evaluation and selection. Supporting detail : the values implicit in the assertions made in this section reflect the knowledge Paragraph 2 Topic sentence : A major term of the book or handout is the need to relate theory research and methods to classroom action of the students Supporting point : The question on such things as rationale, availability, layout and relate to issues which are external in the classroom. Supporting detail : Investigated the possible differences between in experienced and experienced teacher in realizing teaching resources in the classroom

Paragraph 3 Topic sentence

: Materials designed exist at the interface of syllabus design and methodology and issues associated with sequencing illustrated the difficulty of separating syllabus design from methodologyfragmentation is evident in many recently published text books particularly those aimed at low proficiency students

Supporting point : Unless the lesson based on such a sequence at activities is carefully structured and sequenced, the students are likely to perceive the lesson as confusing. A major term of the book or

handout is the need to relate theory research and methods to classroom action of the students Supporting detail : - The communicative need of the students in relation to the topic. - It should be kept in mind that materials prom reputable author sand publishers have been carefully written and extensively trailed, and it is therefore advisable to teach such materials at lest. Paragraph 4 Topic sentence : Teacher question have been the focus of research attention in both content classroom and language classrooms. Supporting point : Classroom research has also shown that certain types of questioning behavior have persisted over many years Supporting detail : - Point out of that is factual question to determine whether or not student know basic information are far from their knowledge - Issue relevant to the management of learning concerns the distribution of question.

- It is generally considered desirable to distribute question among all student rather than restricting them to select few

Introduction
An exam is an official test of knowledge. We have exam usually held in every where, in anywhere, especially in Senior High School .The student can have exam in every week. There is not particularly to have exam. Some are designed to be used by inexperienced or poorly trained teacher, while the others are intended by their author, can be useful modern tool. While the others are intended to replace the teacher completely?. The best material if used in the ways intended by their author. The major concern is that any given handout will be incapable of delivering for the others of need which exist is most language classroom .The government textbook is often more complex but the other hand it can help the teacher to do their duty. The creation of material can be particularly carry some in foreign language contexts, where authentic source and stimulus material may not be readily available. When the teacher selecting commercial it is important to match the material with the goal and objectives of the program me, and to ensure they are consistent with ones belief about the language in the classroom and teaching learning process, as well as with ones learners attitudes, believes and preferences. Evaluating and selecting commercial material is not an easy. The selection process can be greatly facilitated by use of systematic materials evaluation produce is can helps ensure thats materials are consistent with the students needs and interest of the students. They are intended to serve, as well as being in harmony with ideology on the nature of the language and teaching learning process.

Body
EXAM ADD THE STUDENTS KNOWLEDGE In discussing the opportunities provided by materials for cognitive ,development, the discussion in this section underline the deeply ideology nature of the language learning and teaching process as reflected in the material only taken on value in context, and the social. Which provided the springboard for active action of the students? Materials only take on value in context, and the social and cultural context in which they will be used must understand their evaluation and selection. It could be claimed that the values implicit in the assertions made in this section reflect the knowledge. Learners have and infinite capacity to surprise, and there is a danger that the claim of cultural in appropriate may be used as an excuse for avoiding from action. It may also book classroom initiatives which the students themselves might welcome. In the final analysis, we can only judge of the materials by evaluating them in context of use it is to this particular issue that we now turn. A major term of the book or handout is the need to relate theory research and methods to classroom action of the students. This is also important in the case of the materials. While the checklist provided by the teacher. Most of the question on such things as rationale, availability, layout and appropriate relate to issues which are external in the classroom. Any comprehensive evaluation also needs to collect data on the actual use of materials in the classroom, and while we can exercise professional judgment in answering question such as practice. Every teacher who where given an authentic task and accompanying set of worksheet. and asked the students to prepare and teach, of work based on the materials. The different approaches and methods in language teaching learning process have pointed out that different methods imply very different roles for and roles relationship between teacher and student .The same things is it should holds for

materials. The materials will focus on communicative s abilities of interpretation, expression and negotiation. Materials will focus on understandable relevant and interesting exchange of information rather than on grammatical form. Material will involve different kinds of text and different kinds of media, which the students can use to develop. The teacher considers the motivation and interest in learning. Of these, the teacher considers the provision of comprehensible input, consciousness-raising and the roles which have been particularly enhanced by communicative language teaching. Materials designed exist at the interface of syllabus design and methodology and issues associated with sequencing illustrated the difficulty of separating syllabus design from methodology- fragmentation is evident in many recently published text books particularly those aimed at low proficiency students. Unless the lesson based on such a sequence at activities is carefully structured and sequenced, the students are likely to perceive the lesson as confusing; unprincipled this is very much depends on the skill of the teacher in linking together the various activities in the lesson. One at the great advantages of beginning with written and spoken text is that classroom work is referenced against the types of language which learners will encounter out side the classroom. The teacher and the handout or text book writer probably juggle topic, text and task elements in creating materials beginning, perhaps with a topics such a finding accommodation. Which reflect the communicative need of the students in relation to the topic .Most commercially produced materials can be adapted to fit a range of needs and goals not originally envisaged by the materials writers. However, before adapting materials, it should be kept in mind that materials prom reputable author sand publishers have been carefully written and extensively trialed, and it is therefore advisable to teach such materials at lest once in the ways suggested by the author before experimenting and adapting them. Illustrated the way in which a teacher adapted a unit f room a set of commercial materials to suit her own purposes .The unit on which the lesson was based contained a tape consisting of two parts. Teacher question have been the focus of research attention in both content classroom and language classrooms. Classroom research has also shown that certain types of questioning behavior have persisted over many years. Point out of that is factual question to determine whether or not student know basic information are far from their

knowledge. The following running sequence of the teacher question is extracted from a teacher to the student exchange in which the teacher is trying to her the students to talk about the previous lesson. It is worth nothing that virtually all of the questions are closed requiring little more than yes / no or single word responses from the student. Hello, Monica how are you? Last Wednesday, you went to Sandy, did you? What did you do on Wednesday? It was nice, was it? Did you look at the animal? What else? What animal did you see? Was is good? Can you draw it? It is small or big? Another issue relevant to the management of learning concerns the distribution of question. It is generally considered desirable to distribute question among all student rather than restricting them to select few. While some students who do not actively in lesson do well .While the teacher probably imagine that they are even handed in their treatment of student, they might find, if they obtain an objective record of their teaching, that they favor certain students over others with our question. The basic different between the two sequences is that the first is driven by a sequence of display question whereas the second is initiated by question from the teacher to which she does not know the answer: This, as can be seen, has a marked effect on the language produced by the students. In general, the length and complexity of the responses increases.

Conclusion

An exam is an official test of knowledge. Some are designed to be used by inexperienced or poorly trained teacher, while the others are intended by their author, can be useful modern tool. The best material if used in the ways intended by their author. The major concern is that any given handout will be incapable of delivering for the others of need which exist is most language classroom. A major term of the book or handout is the need to relate theory research and methods to classroom action of the students. This is Materials designed exist at the interface of syllabus design and methodology and issues associated with sequencing illustrated the difficulty of separating syllabus design from methodology- fragmentation is evident in many recently published text books particularly those aimed at low proficiency students also important in the case of the materials. While the checklist provided by the teacher. Unless the lesson based on such a sequence at activities is carefully structured and sequenced, the students are likely to perceive the lesson as confusing; unprincipled this is very much depends on the skill of the teacher in linking together the various activities in the lesson. While some students who do not actively in lesson do well .While the teacher probably imagine that they are even handed in their treatment of student, they might find, if they obtain an objective record of their teaching, that they favor certain students over others with our question

Sources
Nunan, David. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY.UK: Great Britain by Redwood Books, Trowbridge, Wiltshire. 1991 www.google.com www. wikipedia.com