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comprising n = 4 transmission conductors (TCs), identified as TC1

to TC4, and a reference or ground conductor (GC).

Fig. 2. Cross-section of a multiconductor stripline interconnection.

Per-Unit-Length Inductance Matrix Computations

Using Modified Partial Inductances

Frdric Broyd, Evelyne Clavelier

Excem

Maule, France

fredbroyde@eurexcem.com

Ronald De Smedt

Alcatel-Lucent Bell

Anvers, Belgium

ronald.de_smedt@alcatel-lucent.com

Lucie Broyd

ESIGELEC

Saint-tienne-du-Rouvray, France

lbroyde@excem.fr

Abstract We summarize the definition and the known properties

of the modified partial inductances of parallel conductors. We show

how modified partial inductances can be used to compute the dc per-

unit-length (p.u.l.) inductance matrix of a multiconductor stripline

interconnection. We then provide accurate asymptotic expansions for

the dc p.u.l. inductance matrix of multiconductor microstrip or

stripline structures, as the ground planes breadth becomes large.

I. INTRODUCTION

This paper is about the dc per-unit-length (p.u.l.) inductance

matrix, denoted by L'

DC

, of a multiconductor interconnection

having a specified cross-section comprising n transmission

conductors (TCs) and a reference conductor (GC), such as the

structures shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

In a recent paper, the modified partial inductances of parallel

conductors have been introduced [1]. Exact analytical expressions

for computing modified partial inductances were provided for the

case where the cross-section of each conductor is a rectangle

having an horizontal side. These formulas were used to directly

compute L'

DC

exactly, in the case where the cross-section of each

TC and of the GC is a rectangle having an horizontal side. We

note that this case covers the multiconductor microstrip structure

of Fig. 1, but not the multiconductor stripline structure of Fig. 2.

The paper [1] also investigated, for a simple multiconductor

microstrip, the influence of the breadth of the ground plane,

denoted by b. It was shown that all entries of L'

DC

become large

and are equivalent to (

0

/(2)) ln b as b .

Section II summarizes the definition and the known properties

of modified partial inductances. Section III shows how they can be

used to compute L'

DC

in the case of a structure having a GC made

of a single rectangular conductor. The new results of this paper

are presented in the following sections. Section IV uses modified

partial inductances to compute L'

DC

in the case of a structure

having a GC made of a two rectangular conductor, such as a

multiconductor stripline. Section V provides asymptotic

expansions of L'

DC

as b , accurate to O(1/b

3

), in the case of

multiconductor microstrip and stripline interconnections.

II. MODIFIED PARTIAL INDUCTANCES

In this paper, we assume everywhere a permeability equal to the

permeability of vacuum, denoted by

0

. This Section is a summary

of II to IV of [1], in which detailed proofs and adequate

references can be found.

We consider the dc inductance matrix, denoted by L

DC

, of a

circuit comprising n independent loops, made of straight segments

which may be regarded as branches of the circuit. Each of said

loop comprises: one long branch extending from z = 0 to z = L for

the TC; another long branch extending from z = 0 to z = L for the

GC; and two short branches, respectively at z = 0 and at z = L. The

traditional technique for the computation of L

DC

uses the concept

of partial inductance applied to the straight segments.

When we compute L

DC

, we find that, if L is much larger than

the transverse dimensions of the loops, L

DC

is nearly proportional

to L . Thus, L'

DC

may be defined as

(1) =

L

L

DC

DC

lim

L

L

because this limit exists and is nonzero.

Analytical expressions providing exact partial self-inductances

Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Workshop on Signal and Power Integrity,

SPI 2013, May 2013, pp. 151-154.

Fig 3. The generic multiconductor microstrip configuration

considered in Section III.

and partial mutual inductances are available for the case where the

cross-section of each conductor is a rectangle having an horizontal

side [2]. They can be used to obtain exact formula for computing

L

DC

. Unfortunately, these formula become numerically unstable

when L is large. Consequently, it is not possible to directly use (1)

to accurately compute L'

DC

.

To avoid this problem, the modified partial inductances of

parallel conductors were defined. The modified partial inductance

of the parallel conductors and extending from z = 0 to z = L,

denoted by m'

, is

(2) =

m

m

lim ln

L

L

L

L

0

0

2

2

where L

0

is an arbitrary length and m

is the partial inductance

between the conductors and . We note that this limit exists and

is nonzero.

A loop among the n independent loops involved in the

definition of L'

DC

contains two branches extending from z = 0 to

z = L, the branches of the subset N'

let us

define

(p) by:

same reference direction,

DC

of L'

DC

is given by

(3)

=

L p q m

DC pq

q N p N

Since (3) contains an equal number of terms with

(p) = 1 and

with

0

used in (2).

Let W

conductor , which has a uniform rectangular cross-section. The

modified partial self-inductance of this conductor is

(4) = m T W

" ,

where

(5)

= =

+

+

+ +

+ +

" " x y y x

x y x

y

y

x

y

x

x

y

x

y

y

x

y

x

x

y

, ,

ln tan tan

ln ln

0

2 2

0

2

1 1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

4

4

3

1

6

1 1

13

6

L

For a square cross-section of side S

, we get

(6)

= +

+

m

S

S

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

4

2 2 2

3

13

6

4

2

0 303321

ln

ln

ln .

L

L

which should be used in the place of the equation (23) of [1],

which contains an incorrect constant.

The axis of the conductor , along which the current flows, is

parallel to the z axis. The reference direction is the direction of

increasing z. The cross section of the conductor extends from x =

x

to x = x

+ T

and from y = y

to y = y

+ W

. For this

conductor, we define the two vectors

(7) X Y

=

+

=

+

x

x T

y

y W

and

The modified partial inductance between two such parallel

conductors, the cross section of each of which is a rectangle

having an horizontal side, is given by

=

+ + +

= = = =

m

X X Y Y m

T T W W

I J L M

I

L

J

M

I J L M

M L J I

1

4

2 2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

, , ,

(8)

where

(9) =

=

m

Y Y X X

Y Y X X

I J L M

J

M

I

L

J

M

I

L

, , ,

if

, else

0 0

,

"

The modified partial mutual inductance formula (8) comprises

16 terms containing 5 ' (x, y) defined by (5). In the case = , only

4 terms are nonzero and the nonzero terms are equal, so that (8)

and (9) give the same result as (5).

III. COMPUTATION OF DC P.U.L. INDUCTANCE MATRIX

CASE OF A SINGLE GROUND PLANE

Since there is no interaction between the dc current distribution

in the conductors, the generic configuration shown in Fig. 3 can be

used to compute the entries of any dc p.u.l. inductance matrix

having a GC made of a single rectangular conductor. In Fig. 3, we

note that h

1

, t

1

, w

1

, h

2

, t

2

, c

2

, w

2

, a and b are positive and c

1

is

negative. We have to determine (7) for 3 different conductors. We

use, for {1, 2},

(10)

X Y

=

+

h

h t

c

w

c

w

,

2

2

and

Fig. 4. The generic multiconductor stripline configuration

considered in Section IV.

Fig. 5. For the multiconductor stripline interconnection, the dc p.u.l.

self-inductances (2 curves A), the diagonal entries of L

0

(2 curves

B), the dc p.u.l. mutual inductances (4 curves C) and the non-

diagonal entries of L

0

(4 curves D) as a function of b.

(11)

X Y

3 3

0

2

2

=

a

b

b

,

For this problem, L'

DC

is exactly given by

(12) = + L m m m

DC 33 3

2

and

(13) = = + L L m m m m

DC DC 12 21 12 13 23 33

The results of (12) and (13) are independent of L

0

used in (5).

These formula have for instance been applied to the multi-

conductor microstrip interconnection shown in Fig. 1, in the case

t = h = a = w

1

= w

2

= d

1

= d

2

= 50 m, to obtain the Fig. 3 of [3].

IV. COMPUTATION OF DC P.U.L. INDUCTANCE MATRIX

CASE OF TWO GROUND PLANES

If the GC is made of two conductors of rectangular cross

section, each of them may be regarded as a separate branch, of

respective dc p.u.l. resistance R'

GC 1

and R'

GC 2

. A current I

injected in the GC splits into a current I

GC 1

in the first of these

conductors and a current I

GC 2

in the second, I

GC 1

and I

GC 2

being

given by

(14)

I k I k

R

R R

I k I k

R

R R

GC

GC

GC GC

GC

GC

GC GC

1 1 1

2

1 2

2 2 2

1

1 2

= =

+

= =

+

with

with

We can then follow the reasoning used in [2, 4], to obtain

L'

DC

. In the special case of two identical ground planes, we have

k

1

= k

2

= 0.5.

The generic configuration shown in Fig. 4 can be used to

compute the entries of any dc p.u.l. inductance matrix having a GC

made of two superimposed and identical rectangular conductors.

In Fig. 4, h

1

, t

1

, w

1

, h

2

, t

2

, c

2

, w

2

, a

1

, a

2

, b and H are positive

and c

1

is negative. We have to determine (7) for 4 different

conductors. We use (10) for {1, 2}, and

X Y X Y

3

2

3 4

1

4

0

2

2

2

2

=

=

+

a

b

b

H

H a

b

b

, , ,

(15)

For this problem, L'

DC

is exactly given by

(16)

= +

+ +

L m m m

m m m

DC 3 4

33 44 34

2

4

and

(17)

=

+ + +

+

+ +

L m

m m m m m m m

DC12 12

13 23 14 24 33 44 34

2

2

4

The results of (16) and (17) are independent of L

0

used in (5).

The Fig. 5 shows the entries of L'

DC

and of the high-frequency

p.u.l. external inductance matrix, denoted by L'

0

, computed as a

function of b, for the multiconductor stripline interconnection of

Fig. 2, in the case t = h = a = w

1

= w

2

= d

1

= d

2

= 50 m. The

entries of L'

DC

were obtained using (10) and (15) to (17). The

entries of L'

0

were computed by the method of moment using

pulse expansion and 1400 matching points. Among the differences

between L'

DC

and L'

0

, we note that: negative nondiagonal entries

exist in L'

DC

but not in L'

0

; and, for b > 2(w

1

+ d

1

+ w

2

) + d

2

+ 2h

= 450 m, L'

0

is close to a limit obtained for an infinite ground

plane, whereas such a limit does not exist for L'

DC

.

V. ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSIONS FOR A BROAD GROUND PLANE

We now want to explore the behavior of L'

DC

as b , using

accurate asymptotic expansions. We omit the corresponding

derivations. For the generic multiconductor microstrip

configuration of Fig. 3, {1, 2} and {1, 2}, we obtain:

Fig. 6. For the multiconductor stripline interconnection, the dc p.u.l.

self-inductances (2 curves A), their asymptotic expansions (2

curves B), the dc p.u.l. mutual inductances (4 curves C) and their

asymptotic expansions (4 curves D) as a function of b.

(18)

= =

+ + + + +

L L m

b

E

b

a

b

b

a

F

b

O

b

DC DC

0

0

2

2 2 3

4

2

4

1

3

1

ln ln

L

where

(19)

E

a t h t h

F

a

h a t h at t w c

h a t h at t w c

=

+ + + +

=

+ + + +

+ + + +

4 3 6 3 6

3

71

36

12 12 6 4 12

3

12 12 6 4 12

3

2

2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

For the generic multiconductor stripline configuration of Fig. 4,

in the case a

1

= a

2

= a, for {1, 2} and {1, 2}, we get:

(20)

=

+

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

L m

b U

b

a

b

b

a

H a

a b

b

H a

H

a b

b

H

H a

a b

b

H a

V

b

O

b

DC

0

0

2

2

4

2 2

4

2 2

4

2 2 2

3

4

2

4

1

6

2

12 2 12

6

1

ln ln

ln ln

ln

L

where

(21)

U

a H

V

H aH a

H h t h a t H t

at t w c

H h t h a t H t

at t w c

=

+

=

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+ +

2 3

3

75 150 4

36

1

3

6 6 6

6 4 12

1

3

6 6 6

6 4 12

2 2

2

2

2 2 2

2

2

2 2 2

According to (18) and (20), all entries of L'

DC

become large and

are equivalent to (

0

/(2)) ln b as b . This corresponds to an

oblique asymptote in a semi-log plot, presenting a slope of about

461nH per decade of b. The curves A and C of Fig. 6 show the

entries of L'

DC

, computed as a function of b, for the multi-

conductor stripline interconnection considered in Section IV. The

curves B and D of Fig. 6 show the approximate values given by

(20) and (21). The agreement is good for b > 0.6 mm.

VI. CONCLUSION

Modified partial inductances can be used to compute L'

DC

of a

muticonductor microstrip or stripline interconnection. We have

computed accurate asymptotic expansions for large values of b.

We observe that, unlike L'

0

, L'

DC

is only defined for a finite b,

because all entries of L'

DC

are equivalent to (

0

/(2)) ln b as

b . This is a consequence of the dc current distribution in the

GC, which is such that the average distance between the current

lines in a TC and in the GC increases when b increases. Also,

unlike L'

0

, L'

DC

may have negative non-diagonal entries, in a

range of values of b.

The results of this paper will be used to derive an approximate

analytic model for the low-frequency p.u.l. inductance matrix,

intended to allow a discussion of the underlying physics.

REFERENCES

[1] F. Broyd, E. Clavelier, L. Broyd, A Direct Current Per-Unit-Length

Inductance Matrix Computation Using Modified Partial Inductances, Proc.

of the CEM 202 Int. Symp. on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Rouen,

France, April 2012, session 2C. Available: http://www.eurexcem.com.

[2] C. Hoer, C. Love, Exact Inductance Equations for Rectangular Conductors

With Applications to More Complicated Geometries, J. Res. Nat. Bur.

Stand., Vol. 69C, No. 2, pp. 127-137, April-June 1965.

[3] F. Broyd, E. Clavelier, D. De Zutter, D. Vande Ginste, A discussion of an

Analytical Per-Unit-Length Impedance Matrix Model, Proc. IEEE 2

st

Conference on Electrical Performance of Electronic Packaging and Systems,

EPEPS 202, Tempe, pp. 113-116, Oct. 21-24, 2012.

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