This paper proposes a 3d model data hiding scheme on
a new local coordinate system, which is obtained by a vertex and
its neighbors of the model. Embedding primitives are first
transformed into local orthogonal coordinate systems and then
to local coordinate spherical systems, messages are embedded by
modifying the vertex’s longitude and latitude of the local
spherical coordinate system. There have been several papers
published on 3D model watermarking of local coordinate system
for copyright protection, but the requirement of imperceptibility
is not well considered. Besides, the capacity of the corresponding
algorithms for secret communications is not evaluated. Based on
the above analysis the proposed algorithm is designed and
proved by experimental results to have good imperceptibility
high capacity and robustness against RST attack.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9 views

This paper proposes a 3d model data hiding scheme on
a new local coordinate system, which is obtained by a vertex and
its neighbors of the model. Embedding primitives are first
transformed into local orthogonal coordinate systems and then
to local coordinate spherical systems, messages are embedded by
modifying the vertex’s longitude and latitude of the local
spherical coordinate system. There have been several papers
published on 3D model watermarking of local coordinate system
for copyright protection, but the requirement of imperceptibility
is not well considered. Besides, the capacity of the corresponding
algorithms for secret communications is not evaluated. Based on
the above analysis the proposed algorithm is designed and
proved by experimental results to have good imperceptibility
high capacity and robustness against RST attack.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- TextAndDimensionStylesPamRobertsCADAssist[1]
- DSP_Mini Projects List.pdf
- Secure, Robust, and High Quality DWT Domain Audio Watermarking Algorithm with Binary Image
- Art & Physics 8: The Beginnings of the Modern Age
- Attacks
- math 124 assignment
- CV_Amey Dalvi
- IJCSI-9-2-2-280-286
- Lossless Audio Watermarking Based on the Alpha Statistic Modulation
- 1. Applied - Digital Watermarking - Mayuri v. Chaudhari
- progs
- ert
- antenna
- Final Video
- Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
- 01_C1_June_2008
- sm13-001.8e
- Chaw-Seng Woo Thesis
- Column Design Study
- COMCOM-14

You are on page 1of 4

Coordinate System

ShanchaoYang, Zhiqiang Yao, Bin Weng

Key Laboratory of Network Security and Cryptology

Fujian Normal University

Fuzhou 350007, China

snadms@163.com

Xiaoqing Feng, Li Li, Zhigeng Pan

State Key Laboratory of CAD&CG

Zhejiang University

Hangzhou 310027, China

AbstractThis paper proposes a 3d model data hiding scheme on

a new local coordinate system, which is obtained by a vertex and

its neighbors of the model. Embedding primitives are first

transformed into local orthogonal coordinate systems and then

to local coordinate spherical systems, messages are embedded by

modifying the vertexs longitude and latitude of the local

spherical coordinate system. There have been several papers

published on 3D model watermarking of local coordinate system

for copyright protection, but the requirement of imperceptibility

is not well considered. Besides, the capacity of the corresponding

algorithms for secret communications is not evaluated. Based on

the above analysis the proposed algorithm is designed and

proved by experimental results to have good imperceptibility

high capacity and robustness against RST attack.

Keywords-Data Hiding; 3d Model; Local Coordinate System;

I. INTRODUCTION

As a promising media data, 3d model become more and

more important in daily life and industry applications. There is

much redundancy in the media. Message can be embedded in

by modifying the model imperceptibly, which lead to the art of

data hiding in 3d models. Data hiding is the science of hiding

messages in media in such a way that even the existence of the

message remains undetected to all but the recipient [1], which

can be applied in many fields, such as secret communication

and copyright protection. This article is designed mainly for

secret communication.

There have been many algorithms proposed on 3d mesh

watermarking, Ohbuchi[2] first introduces the issue of 3d

watermarking, and proposed TSQ and TVR algorithms[3], the

algorithms are not robust against common attacks.

Praun introduces a robust method by constructing a

multiresolution set of scalar basis functions over the mesh[4].

But the method requires original model. Kanai[5] presented a

3d watermarking based on wavelet transform, but the

algorithm is restricted to 4-to-1 topological class of mesh. We

also presents a robust mesh watermarking algorithm[6] based

on the multiresolution decomposition of polygonal mesh

proposed by Guskov et al [7]. The algorithm is robust against

common attacks, yet original model is needed. Algorithms in

frequency domain are generally of low capacity and are

difficult to resist cropping attack.

Based on face normal modification, Benedens[8] proposed

a watermarking scheme which is robust against mesh

simplification, Kwon and Lee[9] improved the scheme by use

of EGI and CEGI, which is more robust against mesh cropping

attack. The two schemes are very complicated and too many

parameters are needed.

Some schemes are designed based on local geometry to

resist RST attack. Wagner[10] introduced the conception of

discrete normal and use it in designing watermarking

algorithms. Aspert[11] used the method for embedding

meaningful information. Maret[12] improved the algorithm by

construct similarity space. This series of algorithm need solve

a large linear equational group, which makes the algorithm

complicated.

In our research group, Sun proposed a watermarking

algorithm[13] against affine transform based on Nielson norm,

Sun also proposed an algorithm against RST attack based on

local coordinate system[14]. Bors and Harte[15] present a

series of watermarking algorithms by means of local

geometrical perturbations while maintaining the local

connectivity. Watermark is embedded by using bounding

ellipsoids. All the above algorithms are not designs directly for

a good imperceptibility. The local coordinate system is based

only on the neighbors of a vertex, not on the vertex and its

neighbors, so the appearance of the local geometry is not fully

considered. Besides, the embedding capacities are not well

evaluated. So in the paper, a data hiding algorithm of 3d model

based on a new local coordinate system is designed. The

coordinate system is related with the vertex and its neighbors

to fully represent appearance properties of the model, the

imperceptibility can be controlled by parameters. The

algorithm has a high capacity and strong robustness against

RST attack, it can be used in secret communication.

The article is organized as follows: Part gives basic

definition and the scheme; Part and describe embedding

process and extracting process respectively; Part shows

experimental results and analysis; and part concludes the

paper.

Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China

(No.60673014, No. 60473111 and No.60703087); Supported by Natural

Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China under (No. 2008J0013);

Supported by the project of Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang

Province (No.2008C23004)

==================

978-1-4244-2251-7/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE

?008 !!th Tlll Tutuut`ouu' Couu ou Commuu`ut`ou Thuo'o_) lod`u_:

8!

(a) Embedding Process

(b) Extracting Process

Figure 1. Flow chart of the scheme

O

j

j

V

j

i

V

i

V

' O

O

i

V

F

i

nb

n

E

D B

A

(a) circle of 1-ring neighbors (b) circular cone and circumsphere

Figure 2. the local coordinate system

II. BASIC DEFINITIONS AND THE SCHEME

A. Basic Definations

A triangle mesh model can be defined as a vertex set, a

face set and an edge set:

{ }

v i i i i

n i } ,z ,y {x V V s s = = 0 | (1)

{ }

f i i i i

n i } ,k ,j {i F F s s = = 0 | (2)

{ }

e i i i

n i } ,j {i E E s s = = 0 | (3)

A set of vertex i and its 1-ring-neighbors is considered as

an EP (Embedding Primitive) in the paper. Each vertex

corresponds with an EP, but not all EPs are selected to embed

information. 1-ring neighbors of vertex i is defined as a 1-ring

vertex set, a 1-ring face set and a 1-ring edge set:

} ,..., n , E, j n edge of {i,j} is a |E {V V

i

v k j

i

nb

2 1 = = = (4)

} ,..., n , , j k or i j or i i |i {F F

i

f j j j j

i

nb

2 1 = = = = = (5)

} ,...,n , ,j V ring face }is a ,j |{i,i {E E

i

e i j j j

i

nb

2 1 of 1 = = (6)

B. Scheme of the Algorithm

The algorithm consists of two processes: embedding

process and extracting process, the corresponding flow charts

are shown in Fig. 1 (a) and (b).

The embedding process is described as: firstly select a EP

for embedding message, which is described in section TTT.A;

then transform EP into the local coordinate system, which is

shown in section TTT.B; next information is embedded in the

EP under local coordinate system, which is shown in section

TTT.C; finally the EP is mapped back into the original

coordinate system, which is shown in section TTT.D.

The extracting process is very similar with the embedding

process in most steps except for step 3, which will be

described in Section IV.

III. EMBEDDING PROCESS

We will give detailed description on each step of the

embedding process shown in Fig. 1 (a).

A. Selection of EP

Embedding order of EP is important for extracting

process of synchronization, we use a strategy adopted in paper

[15]. Each vertex has a flag indicate whether the vertex is a

neighbor, if it has been selected as a neighbor, it can not be

selected as an EP again.

B. Mapping EP into Local Coordinate System

To embed information, the EP i is first transformed into

local orthogonal coordinate system, and then to local spherical

coordinate system. As shown in Fig. 2(a), for a given vertex

i

V ,

Centroid O of its 1-ring neighbor vertices is first calculated. A

plane

ni

H is defined by giving its normal as in (7):

_

=

i

e

n

i

j

i

j

i

nb

n A n

1

(7)

Where

i

j

A ,

i

j

n is respectively area, normal of

triangle

j j

j i

V OV A ,

i

e

n is the corresponding triangle number.

Then a circle Co in the plane with center O , area A

i

nb

n A = is formed. The radius r can be calculated

?008 !!th Tlll Tutuut`ouu' Couu ou Commuu`ut`ou Thuo'o_) lod`u_:

8?

by t / A r = . As shown in Fig 2 (b), the circle and vertex

i

V

can form a circular cone, and a circumsphere

' o

S of the

circular cone with the center ' O can be defined. Let us

calculate the center and radius of the circumsphere, first

i

V is

projected on to the plane

ni

H at point D , a diameter

AB through D of circle Co can be found, then circumcircle

' o

C of triangle AB V

i

A must be a big circle of circumsphere

' o

S , then the radius and center of

' o

S can be calculated. The

local coordinate system is based on the above analysis.

1) Local Orthogonal Coordinate System: The local

orthogonal coordinate system xyz O' with origin ' O and

z y x , , coordinate axes is defined as follows:

) ( '

i

nb

n Normalize z O = (8)

)) n Normalize( )) n Normalize( OV ( OV ( {Normalize O'x

i

nb

i

nb j j

=

}} OV arg max{ , and j V |V

j

i

nb j

= e (9)

z O x O y O ' ' ' = (10)

2) Local Spherical Coordinate System: Coordinate in

xyz O' can be easy mapped into a unit sphere with a longitude

and latitude u . The mapping processing to spherical

coordinate system is:

(z) arccos = (11)

< +

> +

=

0 ) arccos( 2

0 ) arccos(

2 2

2 2

y y x x

y y x x

t

(12)

The reverse mapping process is described as:

u cos = z (13)

u cos sin = x (14)

u sin sin = y (15)

Given a constant r , B AV

i

Z is invariant, which can be a

metric of the maximum principal curvature of tip of the cone.

A diameter EF vertical with AB can be found, F EV

i

Z then

can be a metric of the minimum principal curvature of the tip,

which is related with u coordinate of

i

V . So the surface

property can be controlled by u and .

C. Data Embedding in EPs under Local Coordinate System

The range of u and is respectively [0,2] and [0, ].

Longitude and latitude is divided respectively in to m and m 2

section and each section have a length m

ra

t = A . The totally

2

2m grids are formed. Each grid is re-divided into about

2

n

sub-grids which represents embedding states, by dividing n

sections in longitude direction and n sections in latitude

direction:

min

A A =

ra

n . Let

n n

2

log ' = , totally ' 2n bits are

embedded in an EP, each direction of latitude and longitude

embedding ' n bits. There are some cases information can not

be embedded, one case is when circle Co is located at a too

low or too high latitude, another case is when R is too larger

than r , each of which can cause bad imperceptibility. The

pseudo codes of this step are:

) ( r R and latitude and Co's ude Co's latit if

ra ra ra

< < >

( ) n 0.5 high

ra ra ra

+ +

( ) n 0.5 low

ra ra ra

+ +

the EP) titude of minmun la s latitude if(Co < '

ra

+

the EP) atitude of maximum l e 's latitud else if(Co >

ra

1 + j j

j

n

j j j

W W W W high

1 ' 2 1 0

= and

j

n

j

n

j

n

j

n

W W W W low

1 ' 2 2 1 + +

= is

respectively the value of high and low ' n bits of j th ' 2n bits

of information to be embedded in EP i . Some necessary

explanations are given below. For the purpose of

synchronization, whether information is embedded in EP i ,

flags of '

i

V s neighbor must be changed. When information

is embedded, the condition capable of embedding information

maybe not satisfied, so additional process must be done.

D. mapping EP back from local coordinate system

The EP must be transformed back into the original

coordinate system, firstly u, coordinate is transformed into

z y x , , coordinate of the local orthogonal coordinate system,

and secondly into z y x , , coordinate of the original orthogonal

coordinate system, which can be a reverse process of St`ou

TTT.b, uud will be omitted for the length of the paper.

IV. EXTRACTING PROCESS

As the extracting process is very similar to the embedding

process, the major difference is step 3 in Fig. 1 (b). After the

EP is transformed into the local coordinate system, the

coordinate u and is calculated. High ' n bits and low ' n

bits are extracted by formula:

( )

ra ra ra

n high A A A = u u ' (16)

( )

ra ra ra

n low A A A = ' (17)

' high and ' low can be represented by:

' ' ' ' '

1 ' 2 1 0

i

n

i i i

W W W W high

= (18)

' ' ' ' '

1 ' 2 2 1

i

n

i

n

i

n

i

n

W W W W low

+ +

= (19)

Then ' n bits of binary information '

' 2

i

n

W is gotten by:

' ' ' ' '

1 ' 2 2 1 0

' 2

i

n

i i i i

W W W W W

n

= (20)

?008 !!th Tlll Tutuut`ouu' Couu ou Commuu`ut`ou Thuo'o_) lod`u_:

83

Bunny Cat Dino Feline

Fish Footbone Rabbit Rorder

Sphere57 Sphere240 Shpere288 Torus

Figure 3. Original models

Bunny Cat Dino Feline

Fish Footbone Rabbit rorder

Shpere57 Shpere240 Sphere288 Torus

Figure 4. Embedded models

Original Embedded

Translation Rotation scaling noise adding

Figure 5. Experimental results of venushead

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

In the experiment, plain text is used for secret message.

Character streams are transformed into bit streams to embed

and extracted bit streams are and transformed back into

character streams. Many cover models are tested as shown in

fig 3 and 4. The algorithms run successful in far less than one

second and is proved to have a good imperceptibility (SNR>60

in most cases).A detailed test is carried on Venushead of

15002 vertices, the controlling parameter m and

min

A can

adjust imperceptibility, capacity and robustness of the scheme.

The maximum embedding capacity of the model is 44534 bits

with 22 bits per EP. The algorithms is robust against rotation

scale and translation (RST) attack. The corresponding

experimental results are shown in Fig. 5.

VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In the paper, a new data hiding algorithm of 3d model

based local coordinate system is designed for secret

communication. The proposed data hiding algorithm with good

imperceptibility and maximum capacity of 44534bits has been

tested to be robust against rotation, translation and uniform

scaling. Parameter m and

min

A can be used as secret key.

Further security can be satisfied by encryption before

information being embedded. Watermarking algorithm can be

redesigned to resist cropping, faces deleting, vertex order

changing, noise adding, and mesh simplification attack, etc. in

the future.

[1] Alexander Bogomjakov, Craig Gotsman, and Martin Isenburg,

Distortion-free Steganography for Polygon Meshes, Computer Graphics

Forum, Proceedings of Eurographics'08, 27 (2), pages 637-642, April

2008.

[2] Ohbuchi R, Masuda H, Aono M.: Watermarking Three-Dimensional

Polygonal Models.Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on

Multimedia 97. Seattle, USA, November 10-13, (1997) 261272

[3] Ohbuchi R,Masuda H,Aono M.Watermarking three-dimensional

polygonal models through geometric and topological

modifications[J].IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in

Communication,1998,16(4):551-560

[4] Praun E,Hoppe H,Finkelstein A.Robust mesh watermarking[C]

Computer Graphics Proceedings,Annual Conference Series,ACM

SIGGRAPH,Los Angeles,1999:325-334

[5] S. Kanai, H. Date, and T. Kishinami, Digital watermarking for 3d

polygons using multireso-lution wavelet decomposition, in Proc. Of

International Workshop on Geometric Modeling: Fundamentals and

Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 1998, pp. 296307.

[6] Kangkang Yin, Zhigeng Pan, Jiaoying Shi, David Zhang: Robust mesh

watermarking based on multiresolution processing. Computers &

Graphics 25(3): 409-420 (2001)

[7] I. Guskov, W. Sweldensy, and P. Schroder, "Multiresolution signal

processing for meshes," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH'99. New York:

ACM Press, 1999, pp. 325-334.

[8] Benedens O. Watermarking of 3D polygon based models with

robustness against mesh simplification [A]. In: Proceedings of SPIE:

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, San Jose,

California, 1999. 329340

[9] S.-H. Lee, and K.-R. Kwon, A watermarking for 3D mesh using the

patch CEGIs, Digital Signal Processing 17 (2007) 396413

[10] Wagner M.Robust watermarking of polygonal meshes[C]. Proceedings

of Geometric Modeling and Processing,Hong Kong,2000:201-208

[11] Aspert N,Drelie E,Maret Y,et al.Steganography for three-dimensional

polygonal meshes[C] Proceedings of SPIE,Seattle,2002,4790:705-708

[12] Maret Y,Ebrahimi T.Data hiding on 3D polygonal meshes[C]

Proceedings of ACM Multimedia and Security

Workshop,Magdeburg,2004:68-74

[13] Sun S,Pan Z,Li L,et al. Robust 3D model watermarking against

geometric transformation[C] Proceedings of the 8th International

Conference on Computer-Aided Design and Computer

Graphics,Macao,2003:87-92

[14] Shusen Sun, Zhigeng Pan: A Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking Scheme

Based on Local Coordinate System. IEEE 7th Workshop on Multimedia

Signal Processing, Oct. 2005 Page(s):1 4

[15] Adrian G. Bors: Watermarking mesh-based representations of 3-D

objects using local moments. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing

15(3): 687-701 (2006)

?008 !!th Tlll Tutuut`ouu' Couu ou Commuu`ut`ou Thuo'o_) lod`u_:

8+

- TextAndDimensionStylesPamRobertsCADAssist[1]Uploaded byferro5555
- DSP_Mini Projects List.pdfUploaded byRanjith Shesha
- Secure, Robust, and High Quality DWT Domain Audio Watermarking Algorithm with Binary ImageUploaded byJournal of Computing
- Art & Physics 8: The Beginnings of the Modern AgeUploaded byapi-25958671
- AttacksUploaded byAfaque Azam
- math 124 assignmentUploaded byapi-272488699
- CV_Amey DalviUploaded bysachinjain1986_1
- IJCSI-9-2-2-280-286Uploaded byMd.Selim Reza
- Lossless Audio Watermarking Based on the Alpha Statistic ModulationUploaded byIJMAJournal
- 1. Applied - Digital Watermarking - Mayuri v. ChaudhariUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- progsUploaded byramdas1991
- ertUploaded byChusnadi
- antennaUploaded byVijaykumar Sahu
- Final VideoUploaded byshivagurram
- Cylindrical and Spherical CoordinatesUploaded bySankar Karuppaiah
- 01_C1_June_2008Uploaded byMatt Dennis
- sm13-001.8eUploaded byRolando Hernandez
- Chaw-Seng Woo ThesisUploaded byjamal ahmed
- Column Design StudyUploaded byHellboyRBJ
- COMCOM-14Uploaded byzxczx
- Jackson3.7solUploaded byAragornn Elessarr
- Dharmraj sanghiUploaded byDevendrasinh Jadeja
- [IJCST-V5I3P11]:Lakshman JI, Smeer AwasthiUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- correction of final al-mahdi10thg 16-17Uploaded byapi-253679034
- Nikola Tesla :: On Roentgen RadiationsUploaded byrealm_of_arcadia
- 01_05_Circles_5.pdfUploaded byrohit kumar
- 9783319169576-t1Uploaded by葉彥均
- Base Paper IeeeUploaded bybhanu prakash
- Surface Areas and Volumes ProblemsUploaded bysmeena
- An Approach for Securing Voice Communication via Image Watermarking TechniqueUploaded byAI Coordinator - CSC Journals

- A Biometric Templates Secure Transmission Method Based on Bi-layer.pdfUploaded byajv1234567890
- 86 subrat 4gUploaded bychamalla
- Adaptive Steganography-Based Optical Color Image CryptosystemsUploaded byajv1234567890
- An image encryption scheme using Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform and Dual Chaotic Logistic MapsUploaded byajv1234567890

- Imprint_2011-03-18_v33_31Uploaded byChris Vandevelde
- TNT Case Study SecurityUploaded byGM1969
- The Saturn S-IIUploaded byBob Andrepont
- S88 WhitePaper BeginnersUploaded byikhsan_aeb
- Final Year Project ProposalUploaded byAdib Yusof
- Liquid Injection Molding Technology: Pushing the Limits, if anyUploaded bykaasplankje
- Elec Coaching 1 ( From Villamor)Uploaded byJose Angelo E. Magat
- Ad9361 ManualUploaded byvidya k j
- Pinto Pm4 Inppt 12-PrUploaded byAbdullahRafiq
- Weco Pneumatic Actuator Safety AlertUploaded byRafael Granado
- 183033Uploaded byElisabeth Johnson
- syllabus pptUploaded byrashmigupta15
- Recruitment and Selection Process in Castle ToyotaUploaded byramkumarloi
- 6. Landscape Design 2Uploaded byHeba Ezzat Kamel
- Megger-Sales Guide MIT1525Uploaded byJarrett Mathews
- R-D listUploaded byGomathi Sankar
- Adding Linux to the Vista Boot Loader Using EasyBCDUploaded byHMaSN
- Mysql ObjectsUploaded byPrameela Chandra Dantuluri
- Visitor Management SystemUploaded byMuhammad Imran
- Common Emitter Ampliier - Supplimentry ReadingUploaded byUtpal
- Zeolite StructureUploaded bysecond
- Forms for Expression of Interest and Detailed MOOC PlanUploaded byVivek Dubey
- The Top 10 Leadership QualitiesUploaded byswarna_14
- Modular Welding Fixture.pdfUploaded bykirandasi123
- ASHRAE52Uploaded byImranAtheeq
- MAC _ My Appliance CalculatorUploaded byShem Barro
- CuNi flanges.pdfUploaded byganesh
- Class LibUploaded byAmmar Naveed Bajwa
- leadership practices inventoryUploaded byapi-266890935
- Levin Et Al 2016 Bio LettersUploaded byDiana Gil Vargas

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.