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Air Receivers

WHY AIR RECEIVERS ARE REQUIRED

Air receivers are tanks used for compressed air storage and are recommended to be in all compressed air systems. Using air receivers of unsound or questionable construction can be very dangerous. Therefore, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has developed a code regarding the construction of unfired pressure vessels, which has been incorporated into many federal, state, and local laws. This particular code is ASME Code Section VIII Division 1. Air receivers should always meet or exceed this code in addition to any other state, municipal, or insurance codes that may apply. Browse our selection of Air Receiver Tanks or call us toll-free: 866-650-1937 if you have any questions. Learn more with this helpful article about How to Size an Air Receiver Tank. The ASME also approves the receiver accessories. They are equipped with a safety valve, which is set at a pressure lower than the working pressure for which the air receiver was stamped and at a higher pressure than the operating pressure, to safeguard against excessive pressure. In addition, receivers have a drain valve to eliminate accumulated moisture. They also have pressure gauges, handholes or manholes, and a base for vertical air receivers. Standard receivers are designed for horizontal or vertical mounting. Air receivers serve several important purposes: Decrease wear and tear on the compression module, capacity control system and motor by reducing excessive compressor cycling. Eliminate pulsations from the discharge line. Separate some of the moisture, oil and solid particles that might be present from the air as it comes from the compressor or that may be carried over from the aftercooler. Help reduce dew point and temperature spikes that follow regeneration. Offer additional storage capacity made to compensate for surges in compressed air usage. Contribute to reduced energy costs by minimizing electric demand charges associated with excessive starting of the compressor motor. The benefit of extra storage capacity alone outweighs the additional cost of this component. Wet vs. Dry Receiver: There are wet air receivers (supply) and dry air receivers (demand). (fig. AR1-3)

Wet Receivers: Wet receivers provide additional storage capacity and reduce moisture. The large surface area of the air receiver acts as a free cooler, which is what removes the moisture. Because the moisture is being reduced at this point in the system, the load on filters and dryers will be reduced. The term "wet receiver" refers to the storage vessel or tank placed immediately after the compressor. This device helps with contaminant removal, pressure stabilization and pulsation reduction. Dry Receivers: When sudden large air demands occur, dry air receivers should have adequate capacity to minimize a drop in system air pressure. If these pressure drops were not minimized here, the performance of air dryers and filters would be reduced because they would no longer be operating within their original design parameters.The term "dry receiver" refers to the receiver placed after the air dryer and other air preparation equipment. Air receiver sizing: The size of the air receiver is dependent upon air usage and the compressor style. The general rule to size a air receiver is: Receiver Size = Compressor ACFM * 1 Gallon/ACFM For a 200 ACFMCompressor = 200 Gallons With a Conversion Factor of 7.48 Gallons/Cubic Ft. = 27 Cubic Ft. Installation Recommendations: Wet receivers should be installed downstream of the moisture separator and before other purification equipment. Dry receivers are installed after purification equipment. All air receivers should be on blocks or some other small foundation to keep them dry and rust-free. There also should be enough space left around the receiver to allow for easy draining. Exercise care when installing air receivers outdoors because any condensed moisture may freeze and interfere with the operation of drain valves, pressure gauges and safety valves. Never install a valve between the air receiver and the safety valve. The exhaust from the safety valves should be directed away from personnel and in a way that the thrust will tighten threaded pipe fittings if it lifts and blows, as opposed to unthreading them. Pressure gauges should be of good quality and large enough to read while standing on the floor. Install an isolation valve between the gauge and the tank so that the gauge can be removed and replaced or recalibrated every six months without depressurizing the tank. It is essential that air receivers have an automatic trap/drainage system. Also, the receiver needs to be bolted or clamped to the floor or base on which it is mounted in case of a line fracture. Maintenance Requirements Moisture should be drained from the receiver regularly, especially in cold weather to avoid problematic accumulation. If you need to add any braces, struts, base supports or nozzles to an air receiver, use an ASME Coded weld shop for any welding or repairs. Many companies have a policy to annually hydrotest the air receiver's integrity. Besides hydrotesting, older air receivers should be checked periodically with an ultrasonic thickness gauge or meter. Corrosion effects can be determined by comparing readings of head and shell to the nameplate.

Sizing the Air Receiver The air receiver must in general be sized according

the variation in the consumption demand the compressor size and the modulation strategy

In general it is possible to calculate the maximum consumption in the system by summarizing the demand of each consumer. The summarized consumption must be multiplied with a

usage factor ranging 0.1 - 1

depending on the system. In practice it is common that the manufacturer use standardized receivers for specific compressor models based on their know-how.

For calculating the receiver, note that it is necessary with a pressure band for the receiver to be effective. If the consumption process requires 100 psig and the compressor is set to 100 psig, there is no storage and no buffer. Any increased demand makes a pressure drop below 100 psig until the compressor controls respond by increasing the volume compressed. If the compressors operates at 110 psig the difference between 110 psig and 100 psig accounts for the air stored in the receiver. If the demand increase, the pressure can drop 10 psig before the minimum requirement is met. Pressure and flow controllers can be used after the receiver for stabilizing downstream pressure to 100 psig and flattening demand peaks. Note that in a compressed air system the pipe work also makes the purpose of a buffered volume. The receiver volume may be calculated with the formula: t = V (p1 - p2) / C pa (1) where V = volume of the receiver tank (cu ft) t = time for the receiver to go from upper to lower pressure limits (min) C = free air needed (scfm) pa= atmosphere pressure (14.7 psia) p1 = maximum tank pressure (psia)

p2 = minimum tank pressure (psia) It is also common to size receivers:


to 1 gallon for each ACFM (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute), or 4 gallons per compressor hp (horse power)

Horizontal - Vertical Air Receiver Tanks Prices - Specs

Virtually every industrial building in the USA has an air receiver installed somewhere in it. The usual function of an air system is to transmit energy generated at a single source to different areas of a facility. The air receiver stores and delivers air pressure when the compressor is not running, and also serves as a pulsation damper and moisture trap. Vacuum receivers act in a similar manner, except that the system imparts suction at the point of usage. Bottling and canning plants are examples of facilities where vacuum handling systems are used. Vacuum receivers do not need to be built to meet the ASME pressure vessel code. However, if code construction is required by the user, vacuum testing is required at extra cost. Because of its compressibility, air can store large amounts of energy which can be dangerous if released suddenly, for example if a vessel ruptures. The rules for the design and construction of air receivers are therefore very stringent, and Hanson air receivers are built and tested strictly to the ASME pressure vessel code. Most smaller air receivers are made with a platform on top for the compressor and motor to

mount on. These are known as "Pump Mounts", and are built to withstand the vibrations of the pump and motor. Some are made for two compressors, with supports that extend to the ground. These are known as "Duplex" units. Air receivers that are installed separately from the compressor, are called "Remote" units. These are usually bigger in size, and part of a system that can include a dryer and other equipment. To save floor space, they are usually vertical. They can range in size from 30 gallons to 15,000 gallons and larger. However, 240 gallons thru 2000 gallons sizes are more typical. Hanson Tank manufactures a comprehensive range of industrial air receivers in all sizes and in working pressures up to 3000#, and carry large stocks of both pump mounts and remotes up to 1500 gallons.