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**A Dynamic TDD Inter-Cell Interference Coordination scheme for Long Term Evolution Networks
**

Mohammed Al-Rawi, Riku J¨ antti Aalto University, School of Science and Technology Department of Communications and Networking, Finland. {mohammed.alrawi, riku.jantti}@aalto.ﬁ

Abstract—In this paper we propose an inter-cell coordination scheme that coordinates the transmission time and mode of users in neighboring cells. The scheme is designed for 3G LTE systems and therefore takes into account interface constraints especially for the uplink. The objective of the scheme is to assign physical resource blocks together with the transmission mode to users in a way that minimizes interference by maximizing a utility function subject to a certain quality of service. Numerical results show that interference coordination with Dynamic-TDD actually provides signiﬁcant gains when compared to Static-TDD for noticeable differences of trafﬁc between the downlink and uplink.

I. I NTRODUCTION Interference is known to have a signiﬁcant impact on the capacity of wireless networks. We consider in our study a multi-cell multi-user network that implements 3G LTE (Long Term Evolution). The impact of interference in a cell differs from one user to another. Usually, users situated at the edge of the cell suffer the most since the strength of a signal is inversely proportionate to the distance. This in turn will result in a low signal to interference+noise Ratio (SINR) and consequently higher coding and lower data rates. Inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) is one way to organize the shared resources among users in neighboring cells. The most common form of ICIC is reuse partitioning [1]. The frequency band in this case is divided into several partitions and the cell is sectorized according to each partition allocation. Neighboring sectors of two neighboring cells will have different partitions which reduces interference but at the cost of utilizing less resources. Some papers have for that reason proposed ways to reduce the effect of partitioning e.g. [2]-[4]. However, a study by Ellenbeck [5] shows that the gains of reuse partitioning actually decrease as the number of users grow up to a point where they provide almost similar performance as reuse1 with 30 users/cell. Nevertheless, given that the average number of users in LTE-Advanced cells is 10 users/cell [6], reuse partitioning can still be implemented with considerable gains. We have previously suggested an ICIC scheme that carries out reuse partitioning through centralized scheduling of users in multiple cells [7]. In this paper we extend that scheme to include the transmission modes of the cells. For that reason, we consider time division duplex (TDD) which divides the air interface access time between the downlink

and uplink. It was found in [8] that with large ﬁle sizes, TDD in LTE systems actually outperforms FDD, hence justifying the consideration of TDD in our scheme. Furthermore, we consider dynamic TDD (D-TDD) where it is possible to vary the transmission mode over time in favor of maximizing a certain utility function. Interference reduction in D-TDD systems has been discussed in a number of papers, eg. [9] which proposes time-slot approaches by assigning subscribers to extra time slots in a way that would maximize certain quality of services. In [10], the authors utilize adaptive power control to cycle through dynamic and static TDD. However, interference coordination in D-TDD LTE systems has yet to be investigated, we therefore, attempt in this paper to show the beneﬁts of such a coordination. Deriving the solution for coordinating the transmission of multiple users in multiple cells along with their transmission mode is a challenging task especially with the constraints of the radio interface. We were able to formulate the optimization presentation of the problem that can be solved with integer programming. Finding the optimal solution for large scaled problems can be computationally demanding, for that reason we propose a heuristics to provide solutions for large numbers of users, cells and resources. We consider the gradient algorithm as the scheduling metric in the problem which mainly works on ﬁnding the schedule that maximizes the total utility gradients of users. Stolyar proved in his paper [11] the asymptotic optimality of the method when dealing with multiple users. This paper is organized as follows. Section II describes the system model of the work. Section III describes the optimal coordination part. Section IV introduces the heuristics for the coordination scheme. Section V presents the numerical results obtained from applying the algorithms. Finally, Section VI concludes the paper. II. S YSTEM MODEL We consider a multi-cell model where base-stations of the cells communicate simultaneously with N mobile terminals and relay information to each other. The bandwidth B consists B of Ω subcarriers that are grouped into C = Δ fc physical resource blocks (PRB)s where Δfc denotes the coherence

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If zi.j is the link gain between interfering BS j and user i. μi.m.n. l ∈L i∈Nϕ where Bn is the bandwidth of PRB n.j is the link gain between interfering user j and BS i.li . 3) i is in uplink and j is in downlink: Gi. t)Tslot ≤ Qi (l. t) − → − → − zi. the coherence time of the channel is assumed to be longer than the duration of the TTI and thus the channel exhibits block fading characteristics.l = 1. 2) i and j are in downlink: Gi.li = N j =i (7) i∈Nϕ n = 1. n + 3. 4) i is in downlink and j is in uplink: Gi.uplink ( j .n. t) ≤ 1. (7) enforces the requirement of consecutive blocks.l ( j . k .m.lj is the power from interferer j utilizing PRB n in transmission mode lj and 2 Gi.n.uplink ( j .n.li and σl represent the maximum i transmission power and the noise power respectively for transmission mode li . ui (xi ) is the utility function of user i which is a function of the mean rate xi . The variable i is the user index and Nϕ is the set of users − → in cell ϕ. · · · .n+1. If C z (t) in (3) represents the PRB allocation at time t.Gi.n. Eq. Pmax. t) z (t) = arg max z − → − n=1 ϕ∈Ψ l∈L i∈Nϕ → j ∈J−ϕ k ∈K −ϕ (3) 1591 .l )). Ci is the number of PRBs assigned to user i.m.l is the data rate of user i with PRB n and transmission → − → − mode l.l = 1 and zi.n.Gi. t) ∈ {0.n. Pi.l ( j . The vector j represents a set of selected users in another cell and J is the total sets of selected users in other − → cells. We assume that the channel is subject to Rayleigh fading. That is. n is the PRB index and C is the total number of physical resource blocks available.CELL I NTERFERENCE C OORDINATION In this section. uplink and downlink. We do not utilize power control in our model and therefore. If on the other hand both zi. · · · .l ( j . The interference link gain Gi. The main objective of the algorithm is to solve the constrained optimization problem by ﬁnding the set of (PRBuser-transmission mode) allocations that would maximize the aggregate of the gradient utilities of the users.l = 0 then the inequality states that zi. the inequality requires that zi. t)zi. 1} → − → − zi. k . → → − → − − → − ∇ui (xi )μi.i 2 Pj.n.n. these forms can be listed as follows: 1) i and j are in uplink : Gi.n.n.l ≤ − (1 − (1 − zi. Pj.n. k . Gi.l ≤ 0 for m > n + 1. but the fading seen by individual subcarriers in a PRB is approximately the same since subcarrier spacing is small compared to the coherence bandwidth of the channel. Vector k is the transmission mode for those users with K representing the total possible modes. If zi. γi.lj . t) + i∈Nϕ → − → − zi. k . k . The PRBs fade independently. III. The rate-SINR mapping considered for the PRB is a logarithmic mapping.n.li = Pmax.n. we formulate the required optimization problem. l denotes the transmission mode and L is the total transmission modes available which are mainly only two. zi.n. Qi (l. the inequality becomes redundant. 2.j is its link gain.n. Eq.j of (2) takes on different forms for different transmission modes.n+1.li denotes the SINR of user i on PRB n in transmission mode li and is computed in the following manner γi. t)zi. t) is the selection probability that PRB n is allocated to user i in transmission mode l and users in → − − → the vector j with transmission modes k are selected in the other cells at time t.l ( j . t) ≤ 1 → → − − zi. k .n. The channel is assumed to be slowly fading such that the channel state stays essentially constant during one TTI. The duration of the time slot is represented by Tslot . ϕ is the BS index with Φ denoting the set of base-stations that are coordinating with each other. then zi.l ( j .uplink ( j .n. O PTIMAL D-TDD I NTER .j + σl i .l ( j .l ( j .n.li is the amount of power allocated to PRB n for user i in transmission mode li . t) (8) The variable Pi.n+1.n. The optimization formula for the problem is derived in (3) and is subject to the following constraints: → − → − zi. k .m.j is the link gain between interfering BS j and BS i. That is.l ( j . therefore.l ≤ 1.li = Bn log2 (1 + γi. Each PRB will contain Ω/C consecutive subcarriers.j is the link gain between interfering user j and user i. It is possible to solve (3) with simple integer programming. t) denotes the l-mode transmission buffer occupancy of user i at time t. assume all users transmit at maximum power.bandwidth of the channel.n.l = 0. k . (5) will limit a PRB to one user only in each cell and (6) will insure selecting only one transmission mode. k .li ) (1) log (x) is used as the utility function then the result of the optimization problem will follow a proportional fair decision for the distribution of resources of the coordinating cells. C C n=1 i∈Nϕ Pi. The utility function is based on the average throughput of the users. k .li Ci (2) → → → − − − → − μi. k .i is the path gain between user i and base-station (BS) i. (8) is to insure the matching between the amount of granted resources to the actual need of the user. t) ≤ 1 i∈Nϕ (4) (5) (6) → − → − zi. C m = n + 2. Eq.n.l = 1 and zi. the capacity of PRB n for user i at TTI t is given by Ri.

Repeat step 1 for other cell pairs until all the pair combinations are exhausted. we ﬁrst schedule the PRBs to the users locally and at this stage any scheduling method can be utilized for this purpose. The variable μi. Fig. For example both cells can be in uplink or downlink mode or one cell can be in one mode while the other is in another. H EURISTIC D-TDD I NTER . In a simple two-cell example we will have the following scenarios: i) Cell 1 transmits while cell 2 is turned off. 1592 .1 Step 1: Start with cell pair BS = {1. Uplink Tx power Downlink noise power Uplink noise power Radio propagation Packet mean inter-arrival time Value 375 kHz 4. Based on that. [13].l1 (j )(t) + ∇uj (xj )μj. In this section we consider the comparison of D-TDD coordination with static TDD (S-TDD) coordination and non-coordination only due to the fact that we have made a previous study on S-TDD coordination and compared it with other methods [7]. We consider log (x) for the utility function U (x) [14] in our model with x being the average throughput. Both users can utilize transmit otherwise. a search is carried out to ﬁnd the inter-cell combination of allocations that would maximize the aggregate of marginal utilities. Fig. Downlink} If ∇ui (xi )μi.g. 2}.l1 denotes the data rate of user i in transmission mode l1 .l2 (i)(t) ≥ ∇ui (xi )μi. System parameters for the simulator are listed in Table I. e ∈ BS End End TABLE I S YSTEM PARAMETERS Parameter PRB bandwidth Total number of PRBs TTI duration Number of terminals Radio propagation Max. We compare the aggregate marginal utility of the cells in one time-slot with different transmission arrangements and choose the one which provides the highest value. we implement iterative improvement for the coordination. For l1 = {Uplink. Figs 3 and 4 show Where l1 is the transmission mode in cell 1 and l2 is the transmission mode in cell 2. of shadow fading 8 dB Downlink: 10 ms Uplink: 70 ms Step 2: With the new assignment. 10 users/cell Site to site distance 100 m 43 dBm 23 dBm -100 dBm -110 dBm Path loss component 3. The resulting coordination is later coordinated with other cell pairs and so on i. we try to ﬁnd the arrangements that would achieve the highest objective values. V. we propose a heuristic approach for coordinating the transmission of users in neighboring cells. 1 shows that the heuristic solution provides a fairly good result when compared to the optimal solution. so there is no need for any retransmission mechanisms. we perform a comparison between the optimal solution and the heuristics we proposed. iii) Both cells transmit simultaneously.l1 (t). We then proceed to simulating the case of a congested downlink and a lightly loaded uplink (the opposite is also valid). We can clearly see that the gain diminishes at high volumes of uplink trafﬁc. We assume non realtime trafﬁc with large ﬁxed size packets arriving according to a log-normal distribution. In one example.CELL I NTERFERENCE C OORDINATION In this section. 32 (25 subcarrier/PRB) 1 ms 2. This in turn will produce a proportional fair rule when used in the gradient algorithm for the inter-cell scheduling. This pairing approach has also been implemented in e. then.l1 (j )(t) + ∇uj (xj )μj. This result will help us in the remainder of this section where we only consider the heuristic solution but with higher numbers of users and resources.l2 (i)(t) ≥ ∇uj (xj )μj. j ∈ N 2 and ∇ui (xi )μi. Afterwards.52 Std. The heuristics consists of ﬁrst carrying out local allocation of the PRBs to the users in each cell. ui (xi ) is the utility function of user i and xi is the mean throughput.l2 (t). The difference in the amount of trafﬁc between the uplink and downlink plays an important role in D-TDD.ly (t). Furthermore in each of the preceding scenarios we will have an additional setting for the transmission mode. The basic idea of the scheme is to switch cells on and off to maximize a certain utility which is subject to the SINR of the users in different transmission modes. i ∈ N1 . As mentioned earlier. Ne (n) is the set of users in cell e. we simulate a congested downlink and vary the uplink trafﬁc.e. N UMERICAL R ESULTS The numerical results for this work have been obtained with the aid of a computer simulator that generates equally loaded cells of N uniformly distributed users over the cell area. We assume a pedestrian proﬁle for the the speed of the users. In the ﬁrst part. We also consider perfect channel estimation. hence channel conditions are slowly changing and the channel is assumed to be constant during one TTI. Algorithm 4. ii) Cell 2 transmits while cell 1 is turned off. 2 shows the amount of gain in downlink throughput as a function of the uplink trafﬁc when D-TDD is utilized compared to S-TDD. Select only: y ∗ = arg maxy∈Ne (n) ∇uy (xy )μy. Downlink Tx power Max. We then proceed with a 2-cell approach where coordination is carried between 2 cells at a time. For the inra-cell scheduling we consider a Round Robin scheduler. This comparison is carried for a small number of users and resources due to the complexity of the optimal solution.IV. Downlink} For l2 = {Uplink.

Fig. H. [13] Z. [8] R. [3] N.1366-1376.2. Ostergaard. Torsner and M. Figs 5 and 6 show the cumulative distribution functions of the users’ throughputs in all cells. no. Z. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Kelly. 2006. No.” IEEE Transactions on Communications . pp. M.” VDE/ITG Fachgruppe 5. no. “Requirements for further advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA).” VTC Fall 2008: 1-5. the larger the difference the higher the gains. 2008. R. 2002. Teo. Once more we see in the downlink the clear gains of using D-TDD coordination while in the uplink again we see identical results for D-TDD and S-TDD due to the abundance of resources compared to the offered trafﬁc. J. Thesis. [5] J.913. ”Combination of Dynamic-TDD and Static-TDD Based on Adaptive Power Control. Liu. ”Internet Access Performance in LTE TDD. 3 that D-TDD coordination clearly outperforms S-TDD as well outperforming the case where static TDD reuse-1 is considered. [4] X. Susitaival. 2005. Aggregate throughput (Downlink+Uplink) comparison for the optimal and heuristic solutions. Page(s):1 . 2005. In Fig. April 22-24. D. Charging and rate control for elastic trafﬁc. R EFERENCES [1] 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 R1-060667 “Interference Coordination for EUTRA Uplink. 2. Downlink throughput gain of D-TDD over S-TDD as a function of the uplink trafﬁc. A. Lee. [9] W.6 . Ellenback.Sc. C ONCLUDING R EMARKS In this work we have been able to show the advantages of associating transmission modes with the inter-cell interference coordination apparatus. 53. funded by Ericsson. Prague. Han. 1627-1636. large scales of the problem can be computationally heavy. While we were able to formulate the optimization problem for D-TDD interference coordination. “Adaptive Soft Frequency Reuse for Inter-Cell Interference Coordination in SC-FDMA Based 3GPP LTE Uplinks. Vol. Kavehrad. pp 33-37. the gains of DTDD are mainly dependent on the difference of trafﬁc between the downlink and uplink i. S˚ agfors. 4 all schemes deliver almost similar results due to the scarcity of trafﬁc. 1593 . Finally. ”Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Techniques in Mobile Networks”.” in Proc.4 Workshop Darmstadt. [7] M. ”Cochannel interference reduction in dynamicTDD ﬁxed wireless applications. 1. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 1997. 2010.” VTC Spring 2010: 1-5.” IEEE GLOBECOM 2008. the aggregate cells’ throughput for the downlink and uplink respectively. J. [6] 3GPP TR 36.53. 2007. 1. Ji. vol. Reider. ”Channel-Aware InterCell Interference Coordination for the Uplink of 3G LTE Networks. there will naturally be no gains of performing any dynamic TDD.” NTT DoCoMo. Aug. “Interference Management: From Autonomous to Closely Coordinated Approaches.H.TCOM . K. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research has been supported by the Advances in Wireless Access (AWA) project.e. R. It should be noted that in cases where both downlink and uplink are congested. 2009.” Alcatel. Stolyar “On the asymptotic optimality of the gradient scheduling algorithm for multiuser throughput allocation”. Anna Larmo. 2007. 2006. pp. [14] F. NokiaSiemens Networks and the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (TEKES). 10. we proposed a heuristic approach and results showed that it delivered an acceptable performance when compared to the optimal solution in a small scaled problem. [2] 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 R1-070099 “Frequency Domain ChannelDependent Scheduling Considering Interference to Neighbouring Cell for E-UTRA Uplink. Maaref. J¨ antti. IEEE WTS 2009. Operations research. Cho. Mao.12 D−TDD Coordination S−TDD Coordination 10 Downlink throughput gain (Mbps) Optimal Heuristics Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) 120 100 8 80 6 60 4 40 2 20 0 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Uplink traffic (Mbps) 45 50 55 60 Fig.” 2009.” Freescale Semiconducter. J. [11] A. For this reason. pp. [10] H. vol. Figs 7 and 8 show the cumulative distribution functions for packet delays with noticeable gains for D-TDD. Jeong. [12] 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 R1-061213 ”System Evaluation of localized and distributed subcarrier mapping for Uplink Single Carrier FDMA (SCFDMA). ”Fair Multiuser Channel Allocation for OFDMA Networks Using Nash Bargaining and Coalitions”. 50. European Transactions on Telecommunications. It can be seen in Fig. M.8. Al-Rawi. Vol 8. Czech Rebublic. VI. using time slot allocation algorithms. and K. 12-25. Wiemann.

5. Cumulative distribution function for the throughput of the users (Uplink). Aggregate throughput of the cells (Downlink).4 0.9 0.6 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 400 Packet delay (ms) D−TDD Coordination S−TDD Coordination S−TDD Reuse−1 500 600 700 1 0.4 0. 8. 6.6 CDF CDF 0.7 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 Packet delay (ms) D−TDD Coordination S−TDD Coordination S−TDD Reuse−1 400 500 Fig.1 0 0 1 Throughput (Mbps) 2 D−TDD Coordinatioon S−TDD Coordination S−TDD Reuse−1 3 Fig. Cumulative distribution function for the packet delay of the users (Uplink).1 0 0 5 Throughput (Mbps) 10 D−TDD Coordination S−TDD Coordination S−TDD Reuse−1 15 1 0.9 0.200 180 160 Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 D−TDD coordination S−TDD coordination S−TDD Reuse−1 Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 D−TDD coordination S−TDD coordination S−TDD Reuse−1 Fig.2 0. Fig.3 0.3 0.2 0.6 CDF CDF 0. 1594 . 1 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.3 0. 3.3 0. Fig. 1 0.4 0. Cumulative distribution function for the throughput of the users (Downlink).7 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.5 0. Cumulative distribution function for the packet delay of the users (Downlink).8 0. 7.9 0.7 0. Aggregate throughput of the cells (Uplink). 4.5 0.2 0.6 0. Fig.2 0.8 0.7 0.

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