You are on page 1of 11

CANDIDATES DECLARATION

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the thesis entitled MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION FOR THERMAL GENERATION by RUPINDER KAUR in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree of M.Tech. (Power Engineering) submitted in the Department of Electrical Engineering at GURU NANAK DEV ENGINEERING COLLEGE, LUDHIANA under PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNVERSITY, JALANDHAR is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period from Jan 2012 to Sept. 2013 under the supervision of Dr. YADWINDER SINGH BRAR, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, GNDEC Ludhiana. The matter presented in this thesis has not been submitted by me in any other University / Institute for the award of M.Tech Degree.

Signature of the Student This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my/our knowledge.

Signature of the Supervisor The M.Tech Viva Voce Examination of RUPINDER KAUR has been held on ____________ and accepted.

Signature of Supervisor

Signature of External Examiner

Signature of H.O.D.

ABSTRACT

A major objective for the thermal power generation is to minimize fuel consumption by allocating optimal power generation to each unit (Economic Dispatch) and to maintain emissions within the environmental license limit (Emission Dispatch) subject to equality and inequality constraints. The economic dispatch problem minimizes the total operating cost of a power system while meeting the total demand plus transmission losses within generator limits. The emission of NOx, SO2, and CO2 gases from thermal power plant cause detrimental effects on human beings and considered as an objectives in optimization problem. But the improvement of one objective can be achieved only at the expense of another. Due to conflicting nature of economy and emission objectives, problem becomes multiobjective in nature. In this research work weighting method is applied to convert multiobjective optimization into scalar optimization. The weighting method assigns different weights to each objective function based on its importance. The Lagranges multiplier method is applied to convert constraint scalar optimization problem into unconstraint scalar optimization problem. Fuzzy approach is used to achieve the one best compromised solution. The best solution attains maximum satisfaction level from the membership functions of the participating objectives. In order to show the effectiveness of this technique, the proposed approach is applied to a test system with six number of generating units. The numerical results obtained are compared with other techniques such as min-max and max-max price penalty factor by taking different power demands and are found satisfactory.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I would like to express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Yadwinder Singh Brar, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, GNDEC, Ludhiana. His knowledge, valuable guidance and unlimited patience inspired me in the

completion of the thesis. Thanks sir for all your moral support and ideas. I would also like to thanks Er. Jaswinder Singh, Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, for providing the necessary infrastructure, various facilities and opportunities, which lead to successful completion of this thesis work. I also express my gratitude to other faculty members of the department for their intellectual support throughout the course of this work. Last but not least, thanks God for giving me a great family and great teachers in all respect of life, for allowing me to share all these experiences with them and for helping me remember the essential things in a life. I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to all those who helped and inspired me in various ways for successful completion of my thesis work.

Rupinder Kaur

iii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Figure Title A simple model of a steam turbine unit Operating cost of a thermal unit Heat rate curve of steam turbine generator Incremental cost curve steam turbine generator Conflicting nature of objectives (for PD = 150MW) Conflicting nature of objectives (for PD = 175MW) Conflicting nature of objectives (for PD = 200MW) Conflicting nature of objectives (for PD = 225MW) Conflicting nature of objectives (for PD = 250MW) Page No. 5 6 7 7 40 44 48 52 56

iv

LIST OF TABLES

Table No. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Table Title Input data for fuel cost coefficients Input data for NOx emission coefficients B-Coefficients for six generator units , cost, emission, (F1),(F2), of 6 unit system for power demand (PD) = 150MW

Page No. 35 36 36

37 38

5.5 5.6

Economic dispatch in Rs/h for values of w1 and w2 Generation schedules of six unit system for power demand (PD) = 150MW

39

5.7

, cost, emission, (F1),(F2), of 6 unit system for power demand (PD) = 175MW 41 42

5.8 5.9

Economic dispatch in Rs/h for values of w1 and w2 Generation schedules of six unit system for power demand (PD) = 175MW

43

5.10

, cost, emission, (F1),(F2), of 6 unit system for power demand (PD) = 200MW 45 47

5.11 5.12

Economic dispatch in Rs/h for values of w1 and w2 Generation schedules of six unit system for power demand (PD) = 200MW

48

5.13

, cost, emission, (F1),(F2), of 6 unit system v

for power demand (PD) = 225MW 5.14 5.15 Economic dispatch in Rs/h for values of w1 and w2 Generation schedules of six unit system for power demand (PD) = 225MW 5.16 , cost, emission, (F1),(F2), of 6 unit system for power demand (PD) = 250MW 5.17 5.18 Economic dispatch in Rs/h for values of w1 and w2 Generation schedules of six unit system for power demand (PD) = 250MW 5.19 Comparison of CEED fuel cost ($/h) of 6 unit system

49 50

51

53 55

55 57

vi

NOMENCLATURE
CEED FT CO2 Combined Economic Emission Dispatch CEED fuel cost Carbon-dioxide Convergence tolerance $/h DM ELD EED F(Pi) ai, bi and ci GA Kg/h MW MOOP MWh NOx SO2 PD Pi Dollar per hour Decision Maker Economic Load Dispatch Economic Emission Dispatch Fuel cost of ith generator Fuel cost coefficients Genetic Algorithm kilogram per hour Mega watt MultiObjective Optimization Problem Megawatt hour Oxides of nitrogen Sulphur dioxide Power Demand Real power generation of unit i Lower limit of generator output Upper limit of generator output n di, ei, and fi Lagranges multiplier Step length No. of generators NOx emission coefficients vii

F1 F2 IT ITMAX PG PL , B0i, B00 M w1 and w2 (F1) (F2) Rs/h

Total Fuel Cost Total NOx emission Summation No. of iterations Maximum no. of iterations Power generation of the system Transmission losses Transmission loss coefficients No. of objectives Weighting coefficients Membership function of fuel cost Membership function of emission Rupees per hour

viii

CONTENTS
Candidates Declaration Abstract Acknowledgement List of Figures List of Tables Nomenclature CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview 1.2 Thermal Power Plant 1.3 Economic Load Dispatch 1.4 Emission Dispatch 1.5 Combined Economic Emission Dispatch 1.5.1 Fuel Cost Objective 1.5.2 Emission Objective 1.5.3 Equality constraints 1.5.4 Inequality constraints 1.6 Weighted Sum Method 1.7 Outline of Thesis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 3: PROBLEM FORMULATION CHAPTER 4: PRESENT WORK i ii iii iv v vi 1-13 1 4 5 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 12 14-19 20-22 23-34

ix

4.1 Introduction 4.2 Multiobjective Dispatch Problem 4.3 Calculating 4.4 Stopping Criterion 4.5 Updating 4.6 Best Compromise Solution 4.7 Algorithm of Problem 4.8 Flowchart of the Problem CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1 Multiobjective economic emission dispatch (CEED) of 6 unit system for Power demand PD = 150MW 5.2 Multiobjective economic emission dispatch (CEED) of 6 unit system for Power demand PD = 175MW 5.3Multiobjective economic emission dispatch (CEED) of 6 unit system for Power demand PD = 200MW 5.4 Multiobjective economic emission dispatch (CEED) of 6 unit system for Power demand PD = 225MW 5.5 Multiobjective economic emission dispatch (CEED) of 6 unit system for Power demand PD = 250MW 5.6 Comparison with different techniques

23 23 27 28 28 29 30 32 35-57

36

41

45

49

53 57

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 6.1 Conclusion 6.2 Future Scope

59-60 59 60

REFERENCES

xi