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Table of contents Unit 1:Nouns Exercise 1. Exercise 2 . Exercise 3 . Exercise 4 . Exercise 5 . Exercise 6 . Exercise 7 . Exercise 8 . Exercise 9 . Exercise 10 .

Unit 1 Nouns

Noun - a word that names a person, place, things, ideas or an event. The term noun comes from the Latin word nomen (name). Generally speaking, there are two kinds of noun, namely the proper noun and the common noun. Types of noun

Proper noun- is a word or a sequence of several words which names particular individual, place, event or thing. Typically, English proper nouns spelt beginning with capital letter. Proper nouns are definite. They are almost singular Examples: Marvin, Bulacan, Christmas, Honda Civic, etc. On the other hand, a common noun is used to refer to a member of classes of people, places or things. Examples: parents, province, schools, books, etc. There are two subtypes of common nouns which differ grammatically, namely the count nouns and the mass nouns. A mass noun refers to objects that cannot be counted but can be measured. Mass nouns denote the following: Intangible things like gases, such as air, oxygen, etc. Abstract ideas like intelligence, truth, honesty, etc. Emotions like love, hatred, sympathy, etc. Natural phenomena like heat, sunshine, etc. Modes of behavior like laughter, recreation, etc. Material things that are not countable such as liquids, e.g. water, oil, tea, wine, etc. Material things that are too small to be counted like dust, rice, dirt, etc. Sciences like physics, phonetics, chemistry, etc. Other tangible things like knowledge, information,etc. A count noun is a type of common noun which can be used to refer an individual object or to objects in a countable collection like apple, envelope, mountain, house, etc. There are other kinds of nouns such as concrete nouns, abstract nouns, collective nouns, compound nouns and adjectives used as noun. Collective nouns refer to a number of people or to a group or animals or similar objects that come together and are taken as a unit Examples: congregation, crew, jury, club, council, crowd, etc. An abstract noun is used to name a quality or an idea that cannot be perceived by the senses Examples: love, happiness, kindness, and fear. Concrete noun in contrast to abstract noun have physical forms; they can be seen, touched, tasted heard, or smelled. They can occupy space. Examples: books, fruits, bags, computers, doll, fan etc. Compound noun is made up of two or more nouns or noun and the same other word/s, which form a unit idea. Examples: stairway, grandparents, housemaid, sister-in-law, and commander-in-chief. Adjectives used as noun. Forms of nouns I. Singular and Plural Forms Rules: 1. Nouns ending in s, -x ch, or sh add es, to avoid a double sibilant. Examples match matches kiss kisses branch branches dish dishes radish radishes bench benches box boxes tax taxes 2. Nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s. Examples piano pianos radio radios rodeo rodeos 2. a Nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es.

Examples Hero heroes

Mosquito

mosquitoes

Mango

mangoes

2.b A few ending in o take either an s or -es, Examples Buffalo buffalos or buffaloes Cargo -- cargo or cargoes 3. For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to I and add es. Examples family families duty duties baby babies library libraries lily lilies 3.a For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel add s only as in. Examples donkey donkeys key keys boys boys 4. Nouns ending in f or fe form their plurals by changing f or fe to v ansd add es. Examples leaf leaves life lives elf elves 4.a A few nouns retain the f and add s. belief beliefs roof roofs dwarf dwarfs 5. A words keep the old English form and change the vowel Foot feet Ox oxen Goose geese Child children 6. Some nouns usually names of animals, have the same form in both singular and plural such are deer, fish, sheep, swine, salmon, trout, furniture, information etc. 7. Some nouns are plural in form require plural verbs although their meaning is singular. Examples: barracks, gallows, credentials, shears, auspices, etc. 8. The largest group of irregular plurals occur in nouns borrowed from foreign languages. Alumna alumnae Alumnus alumni Formula formulae Nucleus nuclei Fungus fungi Curriculum curricula Parenthesis parentheses Thesis theses Analysis analyses Criterion criteria Beau beaux datum data 10. Compound words form their plural in several ways: Most compound nouns simply use the plural of the last and more significant unit, e.g. motorboats, raincoats If the most significant word comes first, it usually take the plural as in: sisters-in-law, passers by, justices of the peace, attorneys-in-law The significant words remain plural when preceded by assistant or deputy as in chiefs of staff, deputy ministers Compound nouns ending in ful as a unit of measure add s to the last unit: cupfuls, armfuls, spoonfuls 11. The following nationals are the same in both singular and plural forms: Chinese, Japanese, Javanese, Swiss, Burmese, Vietnamese. 12. Letters, characters, and words spoken of as such form their plural by adding apostrophe andan s (s). e.g. 3 ms in mammal , answer the whys, cross your ts

II. Gender of nouns Four types: masculine refers to the male sex , feminine refers to the female sex, common indicates either male or female sex , neuter it has no sex. Masculine man, brother, father, gentleman, uncle, nephew Feminine -- women, sister, mother, lady, aunt, niece Common -- doctor, teacher, engineer, nurse, judge, dean, employer, mayor,dancer Neuter -- lily, umbrella, flower, tree, house, chalk, board Guidelines to observe in determining the gender of nouns: A. Certain nouns especially those referring to people may have different forms to indicate masculine and feminine usage. Man women gentleman - lady Brother sister uncle - aunt Father mother nephew - niece The same case can be said of certain male and female animals: Buck doe ram - ewe Bull -- cow stallion mare Fox vixen III. Cases of nouns Nouns have three cases the nominative which is the case of the subject, the objective which is the case of the object and the genitive or the possessive. A noun in nominative case may function as a subject, a predicate nominative, an appositive, a nominative of direct address, or nominative of exclamation. Julie Ann studies her lessons every night. (subject) His most difficult subject, Calculus, caused him of sleepless nights. (appositive) Elisa, you are so generous. (nominative of direct address) Alex is my bestfriend. (predicate nominative) Spiders! They make my hair on the end. (nominative of exclamation) A noun in the objective case may function as a direct object, an object of the preposition, an indirect object, subject of the infinitive, an appositive, a cognate object, or an adverbial phrase. Rocelle sends money to her family regularly. (direct object) Jill gave chris a beautiful gift last Christmas. (indirect object) This letter came from Fe, my cousin. (appositive) Let us send this message to Ellen. (object of the preposition) The dean wants Minda to organize the fieldtrip. (subject of the infinitive) Millions of people all over the world drink softdrinks everyday. (cognate object) The passengers paid ten pesos for the ride. (adverbial phrase) Nouns in the possessive forms (usually formed by the addition of an apostrophe and a letter s), nouns do not change forms. To show ownership or possession, remember the following pointers: 1. If a singular noun does not end in s, add s. The delivery boys truck was blocking the driveway. 2. If a singular common noun ends in s, add s unless the next word begins with s, add an apostrophe only. (this includes words with s and sh sounds.) The bosss temper was legendary among his employees. 3. If s singular proper noun endsin s, add an apostrophe. Chris exam score were higher than any other other students. 4. If a noun is in form and end in an s, add an apostrophe only, even if the intended meaning of the word is singular (such as mathematics and measles.) The instructors reports have been submitted. 5. If a plural nouns does not end in s, add s.

Many activists in Manila are concerned with childrens rights. 6. If there is joint possession, use the correct possessive for only the possessive closest to the noun. Conde and Gonzalos campaign was successful. 7. If there is a separate possession of the same noun, use the correct possessive form for each word. The owners and the bosss excuses were equally false. 8. In a compound construction, use the correct possessive form for the closest to the noun. Avoid possessives with compound plurals. My father-in-laws BMW is really fun to drive. Exercise 1. Pick out all the nouns on the song "My Favorite Things" from The Sound of Music. Raindrops on roses and whiskers on kittens Bright copper kettles and warm woolen mittens Brown paper packages tied up with strings These are a few of my favorite nouns Cream colored ponies and crisp apple streudels Doorbells and sleigh bells and schnitzel with noodles Wild geese that fly with the moon on their wings These are a few of my favorite nouns Girls in white dresses with blue satin sashes Snowflakes that stay on my nose and eyelashes Silver white winters that melt into springs These are a few of my favorite nouns When the dog bites When the bee stings When I'm feeling sad I simply remember my favorite nouns And then I don't feel so bad. Apologies to Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist of "My Favorite Things" from The Sound of Music

Exercise 2 Match the words on the first column with the words on the second column with the words on the second column to form a compound noun. A B 1. arm wife 2. cup weight 3. basket cake 4. dish store 5. sauce paste 6. bed chair 7. bath bug 8. house lace 9. news tub 10. panty paper 11. neck pot 12. road ball 13. flower life 14. drug hose 15. tooth pan 16. night ground 17. paper lady 18. key washer 19. play chain 20. sales block

Exercise 3 Pick out all the singular nouns in the following sentences and change them to the plural form. 1. The beach here is safer than the other beaches in the country 2. Here is a paragraph for you to fill in with the words above each. 3. A passerby was hit by a stray bullet. 4. In class, the teacher gives a quiz everyday. 5. Every phenomenon has an explanation 6. A child is very precious to his parents. 7. I bought a loaf of bread for breakfast this morning 8. An Ilocano is known to be the thriftiest Filipino. 9. Treat your fungus in your body immediately. 10. There is a only one agendum discussed in the meeting 11. The researcher formulated her hypothesis carefully. 12. Add only a teaspoonful of sugar to my coffee. 13. I admire the generosity of my sister-in law. 14. A modern parent shows a pragmatic approach to the problem of his adolescent child. 15. His argument was laconic but convincing.

Exercise 4 Fill in the blanks with the correct plural form of the nouns in parentheses. 1. The ______ (calf) have muddy ________ (hoof). 2. Those __________ (goose) belong to Nonas three ________ (child). 3. There are _________ (mouse) in my friends _________ (house). 4. Four ________ (consultant) made different __________ (analysis) of the problem. 5. All the ________ (alumnus) visited the six ___________ (alumna). 6. These ________ (sheep) are cared for by the two _________ (manservant). 7. How many ______ (deer) did the three (Chinese) shoot? 8. Most _______ (child) love to attend ___________ (party). 9. These _________ (gladiolus) were sent by my two _________ sister-in-law) 10. The different ballroom ________ (dance) will be demonstrated by the three (pair) of dancers.

Exercise 5 Underline the correct words in the following sentences. 1. Mr. Angeles is the (principal, principle) of the school. 2. The country was under (martial, marital) law. 3. The (boarder, border) between two countries was irregular. 4. The man parked his car at an (angle, angel). 5. The (cavalry, calvary) made its last march. 6. He couldnt (breath, breathe) because of cold. 7. They travel across the Nevada (desert, dessert).

8. A (horde, hoard) of adventures assaulted the castle. 9. The fortunetellers (prophecy, prophesy) came true. 10. Some animals have short and furry (tails, tales). 11. Canada and the United States were (allies, alleys) in the war. 12. One needs (capitol, capital) for such an investment. 13. He joined the police (corps, corpse). 14. The lady received a lovely (complement, compliment) for her singing. 15.The (assent, ascent) to the mountain was gradual.

Exercise 6. Give the opposite gender of the nouns uin parentheses to make the sentence correct. 1. The (best man) _________ is the brides best friend of Mary. 2. The (hostess) _______ of the event was Martin. 3. The (patron) _________ of the town is St. Therese of the Child Jesus. 4. (Sir) _________ , your slip is showing. 5. He is like a (cow) _____________ in the China shop. 6. My (mother) ________ worked as a laborer to be able to send us to school. 7. We are am\waken each morning by the crowing of the (hen) __________. 8. The (God) __________ of love is Venus. 9. Her (fiance) _________ gave her a diamond ring. 10. Marriane is studying to be an (aviator). 11. Mang Pedro has many (sows) ___________ for hire. 12. A (priestess) _________ observes vow of purity. 13. The (prince) ________ saved the damsel in distress. 14. We are (alumni) __________ of an exclusive school for girls. 15. The (bride) _____________ is very much in love with his future wife.

Exercise 7 Determine the gender of the following nouns. Give the opposite forms of the nouns that are masculine and feminine. 1. aviatrix 2. spinster 3. orchid 4. hind parasol 5. abbess 6. god 7. judge 8. master 9. queen 10. dancer 11. vessel 12. flower 13. professor 14. lily 15. landlord 16. jockey 17. stag 18. monk 19. wizard 20. wolf 21. widow 22. employer 23. dean 24. administrator 25. stallion Exercise 8 Write the possessive form of the nouns on each sentences. 1. The student attempts to solve the problem were rewarded. 2. The boss sister arrived from the province yesterday. 3. Lotis answer were very clear. 4. It is hard to endure the marine corps style of discipline. 5. Everyone was disappointed with the Philippine media. 6. Betty and Chad appeal is absolutely lost on me. 7. The shop and the salon owners were in the city when the fire broke out. 8. The forest ranger truck is painted in all blue. 9. The elves mined a gold yesterday. 10. Monster house is on fire. 11. Fiona and Shrek house is so adorable 12. Baby restaurant is 24 hours open 13. Maroon 5 concert was postponed. 14. Shiela bakery opens in early morning 15. Beowulf enemy was Grendel. 16. The farmer hat is very native 17. Santa Claus sleigh flys so high

18. Sisa sons were lost. 19. Hannah Montana acts were very controversial. 20. Mario wallet is missing.

Exercise 9 insert an apostrophe and an s (s) or just an apostrophe () where it is necessary to form the possessives of the nouns in the following sentences. 1. The teacher schedule is written on the board. 2. The peoples hair rarely grows longer than four feet. 3. Have you ever read any of Edgar Allan Poe masterpieces? 4. In the earlier times, women clothes were fancy and beautiful. 5. The twin sisters picture was in Saturday paper. 6. Are men works heavier than women? 7. Joseph amazing skill made him the season best player. 8. My cousin report is in hour drive from Manila. 9. Do you want a year subscription to a boys magazine? 10. The children choir is planning a two days tour. Exercise 10 Determine how the underlie noun is used in each of the following sentence. Encircle the correct answer. 1. Would you donate a month's salary to our cause? a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition

2. Kathy buried her money in the yard. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition

3. The students watched a video about the Civil Rights Movement. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 4. Will Steve present the team leader a list of instructions? a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object 5. We heard that the new director is a scientist from Argentina. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object 6. The clue did not help the contestants with the puzzle. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object 7. Katie gave her daughter money for lunch.

d. object of the preposition

d. object of the preposition

d. object of the preposition

a. direct object

b. predicate nominative

c. indirect object

d. object of the preposition

8. You will find the spices in the stove under the sink. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object 9. The dog that Dennis gave his brother is a beagle. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object

d. object of the preposition d. object of the preposition

10. The announcement said that Ellen would be the new director of the department. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 11. Grace called to the girl who lives across the street. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 12. Bruce is often mistaken for the actor John Malkovich. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 13. Does Heather offer the customers ideas for how to solve the problems they face? a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 14. After waiting for Tom for an hour, Trishia decided to go to the movie alone. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 15. The deputy wrestled the criminal to the ground. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 16. Karen left the house without her watch or keys. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 17. The man who got arrested last week is the coach of the hockey team. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 18. Rich became the latest casualty of the slow economy. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 19. Altoids, a curiously strong peppermint, are made in England. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 20. Some of the contestants used tactics that seemed unethical. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition Answer key 10 11.d 1. a 2.d 3. a 4.c 5.b 6.d 7.c 8.d 9.b 10.b 12 d 13a 14d 15a 16b 17b 18d 19d 20.a

Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun. The substantive which is replaced by a pronoun is its antecedent. Types of Pronoun 1. Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns can be the subject of a clause or sentence. They are: I, he, she, it, they, we, and you. Example: They went to the store. Personal pronouns can also be objective, where they are the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. They are: me, her, him, it, you, them, and us. Example: David gave the gift to her. Possession can be shown by personal pronouns, like: mine, his, hers, ours, yours, its, and theirs. Example: Is this mine or yours?

Nominative Sing Plural person

Objective Sing Plural

Possessive Sing Plural

first

We

Me

Us

My

our

Mine ours

second

You

you

You

you

Your Yours

your yours

third

He They She It

Him Her It

them

His Her Hers Theirs its

their

2. Indefinite Pronouns These pronouns do not point to any particular nouns, but refer to things or people in general. Some of them are: few, everyone, all, some, anything, and nobody. Example: Everyone is already here. 3. Relative Pronouns These pronouns are used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. These are: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that. Example: The driver who ran the stop sign was careless. 4. Intensive Pronouns These pronouns are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun. These are: myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves, and ourselves. Example: He himself is his worst critic. 5. Demonstrative Pronouns There are five demonstrative pronouns: these, those, this, that, and such. They focus attention on the nouns that are replacing. Examples: Such was his understanding. Those are totally awesome. 6. Interrogative Pronouns These pronouns are used to begin a question: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever. Example: Who will you bring to the party? 7. Reciprocal Pronouns This is used to denote an interchange of action- one another, each other. Examples: Cely and Martin used to love each other Community members must help one another. 8. Extensive Pronouns

There is one more type of pronoun, and that is the reflexive pronoun. These are the ones that end in self or "selves." They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and the object are the same noun.

I told myself not to bet all my money on one horse. The bookie hurt himself chasing me through the alley. We also use them to emphasize the subject. Usually, bookies send an employee to collect their money for them, but since I owed so much, he himself came to my house.

Verbs Verb denotes an action, condition, but it can also express a state of being. Examples: Nora cooks all our meals. Jeremy plays the piano. Mel is reading an interesting novel. The king made his wishes known. In the above examples, verb cooks, plays, is reading, and made denote all actions. Observe following examples: Sonia is the company accountant. Herman was the president of the club last year. The girls were responsible for the stage decorations. Anna and Leah are sisters. The verbs is, are, were and was denote states of being and not actions. Classifications of Verbs

1. Transitive verb indicates an action passing fro the doer (subject) to th receiver (direct object) of the action. Ferdie drives his own car to work Melissa gives her friends beautiful presents. 2. Intransitive verb indicates an actin that does not pass from a doer to a receiver. It is complete by itself. The flowers wilted The salesman left early Chona is suffering from a rare heart ailment 3. A linking verb shows the relationship between the subject and the noun, the pronoun, or adjective that follows it. It is also called a copulative or joining veb. The most common linking verbs are be, appear, become, feel, grow look, prove, remain, seem, smell, sound stand, taste and turn. Gil and Nestor are my brothers Solita sounds disturbed on the phone. 4. An auxillary or helping verb is used to help a principal verb in forming tenses, voice, mood, and certain precise ideas. An auxillary verb together with aprincipal verb forms a verb phrase. The children are playing in the yard, I have been waiting for you since 9 o clock. They will visit their grandparents on Saturday. 5. Modal Verbs are the verbs that are used to talk about ability, permission, obligation and necessity, obligation and advice, possibility, probability, request, offer, suggestion, habit and promise. Most Modal Verbs can form question and negative sentence by themselves. There are many Modal Verbs as following. a) Ability We use can, could and be able to to talk about the ability. Can: is used in the present. Example: He can play the guitar. Could: is used in the past. Example: My sister could speak when she was 15 years old. Be able to: can be used both in present and past. Example: Last year I wasnt able to speak at all, but now I am able to speak smoothly. b) Permission We use can, could, may and might to ask to a permission. Example: - Can I use your pen for a moment? -Could I ask you a personal question? - May I make a suggestion? c) Obligation and necessity We use must and have to/ have got to to express obligation or necessity. Example:

- I have got a trouble pain in my back, so I must go to the doctor now. - We have to drive on the left in Britain. d) Obligation and Advice We use should, ought to, had better, and shall to talk about the obligation and advice. Should and Ought to is used talk about the obligation and duty, to ask for and give advice and in general, to say what is right or good. Example: - You ought to learn to swim. - I shouldnt tell a lie. Had better: is used to express a strong recommendation in a particular situation. Example: Its going to be cold tonight, so I had better turn on the heating. Shall is used when we want to know someones opinion, or when we want advice or instruction. Example: - I have missed my last bus. What shall I do? - Im not sure what to do. Shall I apply for a job or not? - How long shall I cook this rice? e) Possibility We use may, might and could to talk about present or future possibility. Example: - There is someone at the door. It may be Sara. - We arent sure what we are going to do tomorrow. We might go to the beach. f) Probability We use should and ought to to say that something is probable at the moment of speaking or in the future. Example: - Sally should be at work by now. Shes normally there at this time. - She ought to pass his driving easily. She hasnt got much to do. g) Request We use can, could, may, will and would to ask for something, to ask for permission or to ask someone to do something. Example: - Can I ask you a pen? - Could I ask you some questions? - May I have some more coffee? h) Offer We use will, shall, could and would when we are willing to do something for someone. Example: - I will lend you some money. - Shall I open the door for you? - I can write this letter for you. - I could help you to lift this box. - Would you like me to help you? i) Suggestion We use shall, can and could to ask for and make a suggestion. Example: - Shall we stay at home? - We can watch TV if you like. - We could go to the cinema. j) Habit

+ We use used to to talk about past habit which are now finished. Example: Robert used to play football when he was young. + We use will and would to talk about the actions which are repeated again and again, and we use will for present habits and would for past habits. Example: - Every day Jane will come home from school and ring up the friends shes just been talking to. - In those days people would make their own entertainment. k) Promise We use will to express strong intention in promises and threats. Example: - I will be careful with the car, I promise. - Stop making that noise or I will scream! Kinds of verbs Verbs may be either regular or irregular depending on how and past participle are formed. PRESENT TENSE Share Scare Dare PAST TENSE Shared Scared Dared PAST PARTICIPLE Shared Scared Dared

Irregular verbs form their past and past participle in variety of ways. PRESENT TENSE Go Run Think PAST TENSE Went Ran Thought PAST PARTICIPLE Gone Run Thought

Tense is the property of verbs which denotes the time of the action or state of being. In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. Here is a list of examples of these tenses and their definitions: Simple Forms Progressive Forms Perfect Forms have/has taken had taken Perfect Progressive Forms

Present take/s Past took

am/is/are taking was/were taking

have/has been taking had been taking

Future

will/shall take will be taking

will have taken

will have been taking

Simple Forms Present Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth. Example The mountains are tall and white. Every year, the school council elects new members. Pb is the chemical symbol for lead. Meaning Unchanging action Recurring action Widespread truth

Past Tense Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized. Example W.W.II ended in 1945. Ernest Hemmingway wrote "The Old Man and the Sea." Form Regular -ed past Irregular form

Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb. The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998.

The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to. The surgeon is going to perform the first bypass in Minnesota. We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase to show future time. The president speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.)

Progressive Forms Present Progressive Tense Present progressive tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense is formed by using am/is/are with the verb form ending in -ing. The sociologist is examining the effects that racial discrimination has on society. Past Progressive Tense Past progressive tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using was/were with the verb form ending in -ing. The explorer was explaining the lastest discovery in Egypt when protests began on the streets. Future Progressive Tense Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing. Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist language next week.

Perfect Forms Present Perfect Tense Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present.This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized.

Example The researchers have traveled to many countries in order to collect more significant data. Women have voted in presidential elections since 1921.

Meaning At an indefinite time Continues in the present

Past Perfect Tense Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended. Future Perfect Tense Future perfect tense describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using will have with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting.

Perfect Progressive Forms Present Perfect Progressive Present perfect progressive tense describes an action that began in the past, continues in the present, and may continue into the future. This tense is formed by using has/have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). The CEO has been considering a transfer to the state of Texas where profits would be larger. Past Perfect Progressive Past perfect progressive tense describes a past, ongoing action that was completed before some other past action. This tense is formed by using had been and the present perfect of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). Before the budget cuts, the students had been participating in many extracurricular activities.

Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense describes a future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. This tense is formed by using will have beenand the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years. Exercise 1
Identify what kind of verb being underlined in the sentences. Encircle the correct answer. 1. The burglar disappeared with the cash. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 2. The director told the actors, Do your best, and well be a hit. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb 3. He would tell me if he thought we were in danger. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb 4. His ability to concentrate is legendary. d. auxiliary verb d. auxiliary verb

a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 5. The campers hid inside the cabin when they saw the bear. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 6. Alexis is swimming in the state championship next week. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 7. Frustrated with the officials call, Ethan kicked the bench. a. transitive verb a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb d. auxiliary verb d. auxiliary verb d. auxiliary verb 8. The student procrastinated too long and failed to finish the project. 9. The vegetarian burger tasted like salted cardboard. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb 10. Ellen nodded to the audience and sang her song. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb 11. Her brother likes bananas, but she likes peaches.

a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 12. Adjunct faculty are teaching in several of the lower division courses. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 13. The director told the actors, Do your best, and well be a hit. a. transitive verb a. transitive verb a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb b. intransitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb c. linking verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb d. auxiliary verb d. auxiliary verb 14. Regis Philbin, the host of Who Wants to be a Millionaire, smiled at her answer. 15. When the contestant completed the first test, she received another clue.

16. Dennis became impatient when Thomas took so long choosing a movie. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 17. President Clinton pushed into the crowd and shook her hand. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 18. The hiker turned quickly toward the noise behind him. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 19. Our teacher gave each of us another chance to take the exam. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb 20. After the chef completed the demonstration, she left the students to clean the kitchen. a. transitive verb b. intransitive verb c. linking verb d. auxiliary verb

Adjectives describe, point out or denote quantity or number. An adjective that describes the quality of a noun or a pronoun. An adjective that describes the quality of a noun or a pronoun is called a descriptive adjective. A limiting adjective, on the other hand, may point out or denote the quality or number of a noun or a pronoun. A descriptive adjectives may be either common or proper. 1. Common adjectives denote the quality of a person, place, or thing. Example: beautiful girl, intelligent answer, kind neighbor 2. Proper adjectives are derived from proper nouns. As such, they should begin with capital letters. Example: Japanese soldier Hawaiian dance French fries

There are many kinds of limiting adjectives. Among them are: 1. Articles- a, an, and the A and an are indefinite articles while the is used to point out a specific person, place, thing. Use a before words that begin with a consonant, except those that begin with silent h . Use an before words that begin with a vowel. Example: The manager is looking for more workers. A computer is needed badly in our office. An elephant has huge ears. 2. Pronominals are kinds of pronouns that may be used as adjectives. a. Possessive pronouns My parents are both teachers b. Demonstrative pronouns That lady is a good teacher of English c. Indefinite pronouns Many students enjoy surfing the Internet. d. Interrogative pronouns What book are you reading now? 3. Numerals may either cardinal or ordinal numbers. Cardinals are used to give the number or quantity involved while ordinals are used to indicate the order of a person, place or thing in a series.

Example: I have three brothers and two sisters. Baliuag University has more than 3,000 students. Ellen is the third daughter in the family. Exercise 1 change the following sentences using an ordinal in each Ex: He is number one He is the first 1. She is number four 2. I saw it in column three 3. He is number seven among twenty contestants. 4. You are number fifteen in the list. 5. I sat I row five 6. We will stay in booth eight. 7. She is the last of the twenty girls to register for the contest. 8. Problem number five is the easiest. 9. Sentence number ten is wrong. 10. We are number seven.

Degrees of comparison There are three degrees of comparison: the positive degree, comparative degree, and superlative degree. Positive degree- is a simple form of adjective. No comparison between persons, places, and things is being made. Examples: lovely, bright, high, thin, responsible, generous Comparative degree- when two persons or things are compared. It has positive form (more) and a negative form (less). The suffix er may also be added to the simple form of adjective. Examples: Intelligent more intelligent/less intelligent

Obedient Pretty Bright High

more obedient/less obedient prettier brighter higher

To show an equal degree or level of quality, the expression as ____ as is used. Examples: Joshua is as tall as Marvin The Filipinos are as smart as the Americans. Bananas are as nutritious as apples. In making comparisons with a group, exclude the person or thing from the group. Examples: Nina is prettier than any other girl I her batch. Luzon is bigger than any other island in the country. Superlative degree - when three or more persons, places or things are compared. Like comparative degree it also has positive (most) and negative (least). The suffix __ est may also be added to the simple form of adjective. Examples: courageous gorgeous friendly small nice most courageous/least courageous most gorgeous/ gorgeous friendliest smallest nicest

However, there are adjectives that form their comparisons irregularly. Among these adjectives are:

Positive Ill/evil/bad

Comparative worse

Superlative worst

many/much late little near/nigh old

more later,latter less/lesser nearer older,elder

most latest,last least nearest,next oldest,eldest

Some adjectives do not admit of comparison because they express a quality as absolute or complete. Examples of these are: unique single sound correct faultless immaculate round

Note: beware of double comparisons. Wrong: Lucy is more prettier than Abigail. Correct: Lucy is prettier than Abigail.

Exercise 1 Add two new sentences to each of the following sample sentences using the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives in the sample sentences. Example: a. Denzel is as smart as Carla b. Denzel is smarter than Carla. c. Denzel is the smartest student in the class. 1. a. This town is as progressive as the next town. b. c. 2. a. The deans car is as new as the presidents car. b. c. 3. a. Joshua is as talkative as Cheen-Cheen. b. c.

4. a. Our lesson today is as easy as yesterdays. b. c. 5. a. Our mayor is as good as your mayor. b. c. 6. a. The weather today is as bad as the other days. b. c. 7. a. The climate in Baguio as cold as Tagaytays. b. c. 8. a. The students in College of Education are as active as the students in the College of Nursing. b. c. 9. a. St. paul School is as big as St. Marys Academy. b. c. 10. a. Sherwin is as humble as Rodel. b. c.

Exercise 2 Give the comparative and the superlative forms of each of the following.

POSITIVE 1. sad 2. unusual 3. dashing 4. fascinating 5. clever 6. hot 7. immaculate 8. wonderful 9. little 10. square 11. unique 12. admirable 13. absolute 14. precarious 15. witty 16. peculiar 17. careful 18. bitter 19. rich 20. much Exercise 3

COMPARATIVE ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

SUPERLATIVE ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Write the appropriate form of the given adjectives on the blanks.

tall.. Rolly seems to be _____________ than either Henry or Gil. sweet.. Your name is the ______________ sound that you can hear bad Our harvest this year is _____________ than last year. diligent. Boys should be as _____________ as girls big The ______________ supermarket in this area is Em Mart. large.. A ______ than normal pay increase was given by the management this school year. 7. challenging Undergoing a mock job interview is ___________ than taking a written examination. 8. patient. A __________ man will soon receive his hearts desire 9. good Why doesnt the _____________ man marry the bride? 10. much. Ferdie display as ______ courage as he can muster. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.