Concise elementary group theory notes.

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(1.1) Mathematical symbols and . is an abbreviation for for all. Thus x(x + 0 = x)

For all, for every, and for each, are pretty well equivalent in mathematics. (x R) x2 = 1

is an abbreviation for there exists . . . such that. Thus xy (x + y = 0) means for all x there exists a y such that x + y = 0. Equivalently, for some y is a better way to read y : one can read the above formula as for all x, for some y (x + y = 0). A more general usage: (x C) x2 = 1

means there exists a complex number x such that x2 = 1. (1.2) Cantors intuitive denition of a set. A set is a collection of objects considered as a whole. (1.3) Various sets of numbers. The natural numbers N are the nonnegative integers: N = {0, 1, 2, . . .}

Z = {. . . 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . .} p Q = { : p, q Z and q = 0} q

The reals R consist of every number which is the limit of a Cauchy-convergent sequence of rationals (this description must sufce). The complex numbers C are C = {x + iy : x, y R}

H = {w + ix + jy + kz : w, x, y, z R}

(1.4) Denition A map with domain A and codomain B is a rule or procedure which associates with each x A a unique element of B . The words function, mapping, transformation are synonyms for map. (1.5) Notation The notation f : A B means that A and B are sets and f is a map with domain A and codomain B . Given x A, f (x) denotes the unique element of B associated to x by f . Alternatively, one can write f : x y to mean that y is the unique element of B associated with x by f . (1.6) The identity map X , also written idX . If X is any set, there is a well-dened identity map X : X X ; xx

for every x X . Frequently the notation idX is used instead of X . Other examples. Squaring: R R; x x2 is the map which squares each real number x. Parity Z Z; x 0 if x is even 1 if x is odd

More examples of maps. Operations like addition and subtraction can be viewed as certain kinds of map. They are functions of two variables, so at present they dont t the pattern, but it will be explained later. Similarly, multiplication, loge (i.e., ln), exponentiation, trigonometric functions, etcetera, can be dened as maps with suitable domains and codomains.

(1.7) Equality of maps. Two maps f : A B and g : C D are equal if and only if A = C, B = D , and for all x A, f (x) = g (x). They may be given be by completely different formulae. Example. f : N Z; x (1)x g : N Z; x 1 2x + 4 (x 2) Although it is not at all obvious, f = g . (Explicitly, you can show that if x is even then f (x) = g (x) = 1 and if x is odd then f (x) = g (x) = 1. Notice that integer division is used, so if x is even then 4 (x 2) = 2x and if x is odd then 4 (x 2) = 2x 2.)

(1.8) Range (or image) of a map and image of a set under a map. Given f : A B , the range of f is the set {f (x) : x A} It is a subset of B , but not necessarily all of B . More generally, for any subset X of A, we write f (X ) = {f (x) : x X } and call f (X ) the image of X under f . Thus range(f ) = f (A) = f (domain(f )). (1.9) Lemma Given a map f , suppose X and Y are subsets of domain(f ). If X Y then f (X ) f (Y ). (Proof: exercise.) Example. Given f : R R; domain(f ) = codomain(f ) = R range(f ) = [0, ) Since N = {0, 1, 2, . . .} is (or corresponds to) a subset of R, f (N) = {0, 1, 4, 9 . . .} That is, the image of N is (or corresponds to) the set of perfect squares. Also, Z = {. . . 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . .} is (or corresponds to) a subset of R, and N Z. By Lemma 1.9, f (N) f (Z). Actually, f (Z) = f (N). x x2

a b c

1 2 a b c

a b c

a #$ # $# b c

%& % &%

!" ! "!

'( '(' )0 ) 0) 12 1 21

3 43 4 5 6 56

7 8 78 9 @9 @

1 2

g f

f g

Figure 1: f , g , g f , f g . (1.10) Compatible maps and composition. Let f : A B and g : C D be two maps. If range(f ) domain(g ) (i.e., C ), then we say g is compatible with f and we dene the composite map g f , g following f , as follows: When g is compatible with f we may simply say that the composite map g f is dened. (1.11) Lemma If domain(g ) = codomain(f ) then g f is dened. (Trivial.) (1.12) Lemma (i) g f : A D; x g (f (x)).

R = {f (x) : x domain(f )} g (R) = {g (r ) : r R} = {g (f (x)) : x domain(f )} range(g f ) = {g (f (x)) : x domain(f )} range(g f ) = g (R), i.e., range(g f ) = g (range(f )): that was (i). R domain(g ) g (R) g (domain(g )) (Lemma 1.9); i.e., range(g f ) range(g ), so (ii) is proved.

(1.13) Our denition differs from most (or all) textbooks, including Durbins. In Durbins book, composition g f is dened only when f : A B and g : B D . In other words, the usual practice is to say that g f is dened iff domain(g ) = codomain(f ). In our denition, g f is dened iff domain(g ) range(f ). Now, the codomain of a map is rather arbitrary. For example, would you write sin : R R; x sin x, or sin : R [1, 1]; x sin x? In the second version the range and codomain are the same, in the rst, the range is smaller than the codomain. (1.14) Notice, however, that while the denition of g f depends on the range (image) of f rather than its codomain, the codomain of g f is the codomain of g : domain(g f ) = domain(f ) and codomain(g f ) = codomain(g ). Example. If f (x) = x + 1 and g (x) = x2 , with A = B = C = D = R, then g f (x) = (x + 1)2 and f g (x) = x2 + 1.

Composition of maps is not commutative. This example shows that g f and f g need not be equal, even when both are dened. That is, composition of maps is not a commutative operation. However, (1.15) Lemma Composition of maps is associative in the following sense. Suppose that g is compatible with f and h is compatible with g . Then h is compatible with g f , h g is compatible with f , and h (g f ) = (h g ) f Proof. h (g f ) is dened, because, since h g is dened, range(g ) domain(h). But range(g ) range(g f ) (Lemma 1.12), so h (g f ) is dened. To show (h g ) f is dened, we need to show that range(f ) domain(h g ). This is true, because domain(h g ) = domain(g ). Next, domain((h g ) f ) = domain(f ) domain(h (g f )) = domain(g f ) = domainf codomain((h g ) f ) = codomain(h g ) = codomain(h) codomain(h (g f )) = codomain(h) 5

so the domains and codomains agree. For any x domain(f ), [h (g f )](x) = h((g f )(x)) = h(g (f (x))), and [(h g ) f ](x) = (h g )(f (x)) = h(g (f (x))) In other words, when you evaluate both h (g f ) and (h g ) f at x, you are applying f , then g , then h, and getting the same result, h(g (f (x))). Therefore h (g f ) = (h g ) f . For example, suppose we are considering three maps f, g, h, all with domain R and codomain R, where f : x x + 1, g : sin(x), h : x x2 .

Then g f (x) = sin(x + 1) and h g (x) = sin2 (x). Given x, let y = x + 1, z = sin(y ), w = z 2 . Then h g (y ) = w , g f (x) = z , and h(z ) = w . Therefore (h g )(f (x)) = h(g f (x)). In other words, ((h g ) f )(x) = (h (g f ))(x). It therefore makes sense to write h g f , since it evaluates to the same function that is, of course x sin2 (x + 1)

whichever way the parentheses are placed. This distinction is invisible to us, but there are some simple examples of operations which are not associative. Example: matrix multiplication is associative. Write Rn1 for the set of column vectors of height n. An m n matrix A represents a map (a linear map, of course) a : Rn1 Rm1 ; Given matrices B m , Ck , let b and c be the maps b : Rm1 R 1 ; c: R

1 k 1

X AX.

Z CZ.

Y BY,

Then b a : X B (AX ) c b : Y C (BY ) Matrix multiplication is designed so that X Rn1 Therefore ba: cb: c (b a) : (c b) a : X (BA)X Y (CB )Y X (C (BA))X X ((CB )A)X 6 (BA)X = B (AX ).

T UT UB

XBYB X YX

`BaB ` a` V WV WB bBcB b cb

a b c

a b c

dBdB e de pBp q q B

fBgB f gf r sr sB

1 2

a b c

ABCB A CA

DBEB D ED

a b c

hBiB h ih

FBGB F GF

RBSB R SR

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Figure 2: injective, surjective, bijective maps. Since composition is associative, the latter two maps are the same, so X Rn1 (C (BA))X = ((CB )A)X.

It is easy to deduce that C (BA) = (CB )A. Thus multiplication of matrices is associative. Example. Considering addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division over R: which are associative? Which are commutative? (1.16) Denition Injective, surjective, and bijective maps. A map f : A B is (i) injective (or one-to-one) if it maps distinct elements to distinct elements. i.e., x = y = f (x) = f (y ) or equivalently f (x) = f (y ) = x = y (ii) surjective (or onto) if its range equals its codomain B , and (iii) bijective if it is both injective and surjective. (1.17) Denition (inverse maps). Given two maps f : AB if (i.e., g (f (x)) = x for all x A, see 1.6), then g is a left inverse for f and f a right inverse for g . Examples. Let A = [0, ) (the nonnegative reals. 2i.e., A = {x R : x 0}) and B = R, f : A B taking x x and g : B A taking x x . Then g is a left inverse for f and f a right inverse for g . 7 g f = A and g : B A,

(1.18) Lemma Suppose that f : A B has a left inverse g and a right inverse h. Then g = h and f has a unique two-sided inverse. Proof. g (f h) = g B = g (g f ) h = A h = h g = h. (1.19) Notation If f : A B is a map and Y is any set, then f 1 (Y ) = {x A : f (x) Y }. If y Y , f 1 (y ) = f 1 ({y }). f 1 (Y ) is called the inverse image of Y under f . Example. If f (x) = x2 , A = B = R, and Y = {x R : 1 x 4}, then f 1 (Y ) = {x R : 2 x 2} and f 1 (z ) = { 2}. Remark. f : A B is surjective if and only if f 1 (y ) = for each y B , and is injective if and only if for each y B f 1 (y ) contains zero or 1 elements. Proof. (i) If f is injective, we can dene g : B A as follows. Fix any x0 A. For any y B , if y / range(f ), g (y ) = x0 and if y range(f ), g (y ) = f (x) (1.20) Lemma Except in the trivial case A = , a map f : A B has a left inverse iff it is injective.

where x is the unique element of A such that y = f (x). Then g f (x) = f (x) for every x A. (ii) If f has a left inverse g , then f (x) = f (y ) = g (f (x)) = g (f (y )), x=y so f is injective. (1.21) Lemma A map f : A B has a right inverse iff it is surjective. Partial proof. (i) Suppose f has a right inverse g : (y B ) f (g (y )) = y. i.e.

For all y B , there exists an x A, namely, x = g (y ), such that f (x) = y . Therefore f is surjective. (ii) Conversely, if f is surjective then it has a right inverse. We omit the proof. Actually, the converse is equivalent to the so-called Axiom of Choice in Set Theory. 1 (1.22) Notation If f : A B is bijective, then f 1 denotes its unique 2-sided inverse.

Thus f 1 has more than one meaning. If f is bijective, then f 1 (y ) is a single element x of A, or the set {x}. Whether or not f is bijective, for any Y B , f 1 (Y ) A, and f 1 (y ) A under this interpretation.

1 In Durbins book, only 2-sided inverses are dened, so the relation of surjective maps to the Axiom of Choice is not discussed, nor is the Axiom of Choice mentioned.

A B

A B

A \B

A B

(2.1) Denition Let A, B be any sets. A B = {x : x A x B } ( means or). A B = {x : x A x B } ( means and). A\B = {x : x A x / B} See Figure 3 (2.2) Denition An ordered pair of objects x and y is written (x, y ). It is something like the set {x, y }, but order matters, so that x is its rst and y its second component. The cartesian product of two sets A and B is the following set of ordered pairs. A B = {(x, y ) : x A y B }.

R2 is the same as R R, hence cartesian product. B = always. {0, 1} {0, 1} = {(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)} [0, 1] [0, 1], product of two closed unit intervals, is the unit square. Using cartesian products, we can interpret many operations as maps. For example, addition of real numbers can now be expressed as a map: R R R; (x, y ) x + y 9

A binary relation on a set A is some property connecting pairs of elements of A. This section is concerned with equivalence relations. A good example arises with fractions. The set Q of fractions (quotients or rational numbers) is a Q = { : a, b Z b = 0} b To give a solid denition, we really must regard fractions as little more than ordered pairs, so but also Q = Z (Z\{0})

1 2 = 2 4 and so on, so we dene equality of fractions as follows: a c = (def) ad = bc. b d This equality relation is looser than equality as applied to ordered pairs. It is a very good example of an equivalence relation. Of course we also need to dene sum, negative, product, and inverse, and prove, for example a a c c a c a c ( = = ) = + = + , b b d d b d b d etcetera, but this section concentrates on the equivalence relation side. (3.1) For example: The relation on N, Z, R. The relation < on N, etcetera. The relation on the set of subsets of a xed set. The relation m divides n on Z The equality relation on any set. The relation m and n have the same parity on Z. The relation y = x + 1 on N. Given a xed (positive) integer d, the relation between integers x, y (i.e., x, y Z) This is conventionally written or alternatively d divides x y . (mod d) xy

d

xy

but we can write xRy (like x y ) to indicate that x and y are in relation R to one another. (3.2) Denition A binary relation R on A is transitive if (x, y, z A) (xRy yRz ) = xRz

Technically, a binary relation on A can be dened as a subset (any subset) of A A. Technically, a relation R is just a set: R AA

In the above list of examples (3.1), they are all transitive except for the relation y = x + 1. (3.3) Denition A binary relation R on A is reexive if (x A) xRx

In the above list of examples, the relations < and y = x + 1 are not reexive. The others are. (3.4) Denition A binary relation R on A is symmetric if (x, y A) x R y = y R x

d

In the above list of examples, equality, equal parity, and are symmetric. The others are not. (3.5) Denition An equivalence relation is a binary relation which is reexive, symmetric, and transitive. If R is an equivalence relation on A and x A, then the equivalence class of x (modulo R) is {y : x R y }. [x]R denotes the equivalence class of x. Example. The equal parity relation is the same as . It has 2 equivalence classes, the even 2 integers, and the odd integers: [0] :

2

{. . . 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, . . .} {. . . 3, 1, 1, 3, 5, . . .}

[1] :

2

(3.6) Lemma (i) Given any map f : A B , the relation xRy : on A is an equivalence relation. (ii) For any x A, Proof. (i) 11 f (x) = f (y )

[x]R = f 1 (f (x))

It is reexive, i.e., xRx for all x, because f (x) = f (x). It is symmetric, i.e., xRy = yRx, because f (x) = f (y ) = f (y ) = f (x). It is transitive, i.e., (xRy yRz ) = xRz because (f (x) = f (y ) f (y ) = f (z )) = f (x) = f (z ). (ii) [x]R = {y : f (x) = f (y )} = f 1 (f (x)). (3.7) Lemma For any positive integer d, is an equivalence relation.

d

Proof. The recognised abbreviation for d divides x y is d|(x y ). As a relation on Z, it means Reexivity: Since 0 = 0d, it follows that every integer divides 0, hence (x) In other words, is reexive.

d d

(q Z)

x y = qd

d|(x x).

d

Transitivity: Suppose xy and y z . This means that there exist integers q1 and q2 such that

d d

x y = q1 d, and y z = q2 d Then x z = x y + y z = q1 d + q2 d, so (because integer multiplication is distributive) x z = (q1 + q2 )d d|(x z ) Thus is an equivalence relation. Q.E.D.

d

In the above list of examples (3.1), equal parity, equality, and (congruence modulo d) are d equivalence relations. The others are not. 12

(3.8) Lemma Let R be an equivalence relation on A. For any x, y A, either [x]R = [y ]R or [x]R [y ]R = . Proof. It is enough2 to assume [x]R [y ]R = and deduce that [x]R = [y ]R . First, x w [x]R . For any z [x]R , z [x]R means xRz x R w (similarly) w R x (symmetry) w R z (transitivity), i.e., z [w ]R That is, for every z [x]R , z [w ]R . In other words, In particular (since x [x]R and [x]R [w ]R , w [x]R = [x]R [w ]R . w [x]R = x [w ]R and also x [w ]R = [w ]R [x]R . w [x]R = [x]R = [w ]R . [x]R = [y ]R . (3.9) Denition A partition P of a set A is a family {Ai : of subsets of A such that All the sets Ai are nonempty,

2

Therefore

i I}

No it isnt.

13

they are pairwise disjoint, i.e., (i = j I ) (Ai Aj = ). (3.10) Lemma Let P be a collection of subsets of A, all of them nonempty. Then P is a partition of A if and only if for every x A there is a unique set S in P such that x S .

Proof. If: to show P is a partition, we need show (a) / P : that is given; (b) their union is A, i.e., every x in A belongs to at least one set in P ; that is also true; and (c) they are pairwise disjoint: otherwise some x in A would belong to more than one set in P . Only if: from (b), every x in A belongs to at least one S in P , and from (c) no x in A belongs to more than one S in P , hence every x belongs to a unique x P . Q.E.D. (3.11) Corollary If R is an equivalence relation on A then its equivalence classes form a partition of A. Proof. (a) Every equivalence class is nonempty, (b) every x belongs to an equivalence class, namely, [x]R , and (c) the equivalence classes are pairwise disjoint (Lemma 3.8). (3.12) Lemma For every partition P of A there is a unique equivalence relation R on A whose equivalence classes constitute the partition P . Proof. Write the partition P as a family of subsets of A with an indexing set I : (Implicitly, Ai is a function with the single argument i, establishing a bijection between I and its codomain. Does that make sense?) Dene the following map: From Lemma 3.10, f is a well-dened function. Then the relation xRy : is an equivalence relation. For any x A, (Lemma 3.6). Suppose x Ai . Then y [x]R iff f (x) = f (y ) f : A I; x unique i in I such that x in Ai P = {Ai : i I }.

[x]R = f 1 (f (x))

Thus [x]R = Ai . The equivalence classes of R are the sets in P . Suppose that S is another equivalence relation whose equivalence classes are the sets in P . For any x A, [x]S is the unique set X such that 14

X P and x X. But this coincides with [x]R ; and because [x]S = [x]R for all x A, the relations R and S are identical. Q.E.D. Summarising. This is important. (3.13) Theorem Equivalence relations R on A are interchangeable with partitions P of A in the sense that the equivalence classes of any equivalence relation form a partition of A, and every partition arises in this way from a unique equivalence relation on A.

(4.1) An associative binary operation on a set S is a map f : S S S with the property that for all x, y, z S , f (x, f (y, z )) = f (f (x, y ), z ) Recall A map f : S T is a rule or procedure which associates with each x S a unique element f (x) T . The cartesian product S T is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y ) where x S and y T : The formal f (x, y ) notation for maps is seldom used: rather inx form like x + y , x y , x y . The binary refers to the fact that f is a function with two variables. (4.2) Denition A semigroup consists of a nonempty set S together with an associative binary operation on S , The operation is often called multiplication and sometimes addition. As in ordinary algebra, the can be omitted so x y becomes just xy . (As in ordinary algebra, if the operator symbol is + then it is not omitted.) (4.3) Examples of semigroups N, Z, Q, R, C and H under addition N, Z, Q, R, C and H under multiplication Any nonempty set S with , a strange operation dened as follows: x y = y , for all x, y S . 15 S T = {(x, y ) : x S, y T }.

a b f a b

a b

a b g a b a b

a b

a b p a b

a b

a b q a b a b

a b

Figure 4: All maps from {a, b} to itself; q p f = q . As above, except now x y is dened as x. The set of maps f : X X where X is any set and the operation is , composition of maps. The set of 2 2 matrices with coefcients in N, Z, , Q, R, or C under addition (see below) the set of 2 2 matrices . . . under multiplication 4. For an example involving maps S S , let S = {a, b}. There are four maps, illustrated in Figure f : a a, b a, g : a a, b b, p : a b, b a, q : a b, b b

(4.4) Identity and inverses. A left identity a in a semigroup S, is an element such that for all x S, Similarly, a right identity b satises x b = x for all x A. A two-sided identity, or identity for short, is an element e which is both a left- and a right-identity for S . (4.5) Lemma If S possesses a left identity and a right identity they they are equal and S possesses a unique (two-sided) identity. (Easy proof omitted.) (4.6) Notational conventions. Often one leaves out the operation sign, so xy might mean x y . However, one usually uses + to represent the operation when the semigroup is commutative, and the addition sign is not omitted. Just like in ordinary algebra. Generally, a two-sided identity will be represented either as 1 or as e. In a commutative group, where + is the symbol used, the identity is written as 0. (4.7) Denition A monoid is a semigroup containing a (two-sided) identity. As already remarked, the identity is unique. Since it is unique, we may as well give it a special name: 1, 0, or e, depending on context. a x = x.

16

(4.8) Denition Let S be a monoid, e its identity. If a and b are elements of S with a b = e, then a is a left inverse for b and b is a right inverse for a. If b is both a left- and a right-inverse for a the it is called a two-sided inverse for a or inverse for short. (4.9) Lemma Let b be an element of a monoid S . If b has a left inverse a and a right inverse c, then a = c and b has a two-sided inverse which is unique. (Proof exercise.) (4.10) Denition A group G is a monoid in which every element has a (two-sided) inverse. As noted, the inverse of x depends uniquely on x, so we can show it as a function of x: usually x , or if the group is commutative we usually write + for the group operation, 0 for the indentity, and x for the inverse of x: thus x + x = 0. The inverse of x is usually written x1 , or x if the group operation is denoted +.

1

Let d be a xed positive integer. (5.1) Proposition The relation xy on Z, meaning x y is an (integer) multiple of d, is an equivalence relation on Z.

d

(5.2) The principle of well-ordering for N. In the denition below, we invoke a very useful property of the integers, the principle of well-ordering, or least integer principle according to Durbin. If P is a property of integers, and at least one nonnegative integer has property P , then there exists a smallest nonnegative integer with property P , and it is unique. This principle is equivalent to the principle of Mathematical Induction. (5.3) Lemma Given a positive integer d, and an integer n, the equivalence class [x] = {r : nr }

d

contains a nonnegative integer, and hence a (unique) smallest nonnegative integer. Proof. This class contains n, so if n 0 then there is nothing more to prove. If n < 0, look at n nd. It, too, is in the class, and n nd = n(1 d) = (n)(d 1). It is the product of two nonnegative integers, therefore nonnegative. Q.E.D. We write n mod d for the smallest nonnegative integer in the class [n] . The proof below applies d certain facts about integers without always justifying them: they could ultimately be deduced from a suitable axiom system, such as Peano Arithmetic. 17

(5.4) Theorem (division algorithm.) Given a positive integer d and an integer n, there exist unique integers q and r such that n = qd + r and 0r<d. Proof. (i) Existence. Let r = (n mod d). 0 r : that is given. Also, r < d, because otherwise r d would be a smaller nonnegative integer in the class of n. Also, nr , i.e., d divides n r , i.e., n r = qd for some integer q . Therefore

d

n = qd + r where 0 r < d, as required. (ii) Uniqueness. Suppose n = q1 d + r 1 = q2 d + r 2 where 0 r1 < d and 0 r2 < d. Without loss of generality, r1 r2 . Therefore (q1 q2 )d = r2 r1 But 0 r1 r2 < d, so and also 0 r2 r1 < d, q1 q2 0.

But the only nonnegative multiple of d which is less than d is 0. Therefore r 1 = r2 . Finally, q1 q2 = 0 since otherwise (q1 q2 )d would be nonzero. Q.E.D. (5.5) Denition Given a positive integer d and an integer n, the unique q and r such that n = qd + r where q is an integer and r an integer between 0 and n 1, are called the quotient and remainder, respectively, on dividing n by d. The remainder is, of course, n mod d. We write x n for the quotient. (5.6) Integers mod n under addition and multiplication. Congruence modulo d is an equivalence relation. It is more than that (hence the word congruence is used, and congruence class rather than equivalence class), because for any m 1 , m2 , n2 , n2 Z, (5.7) Lemma (m1 m2 n1 n2 ) = m1 + n1 m2 + n2

d d d

(Proof: exercise.)

18

We can then dene a semigroup whose elements are the congruence classes (mod d) with the following operation [m] + [n]

d d d

= (def)

[m + n]

d

Any congruence class [m] has innitely many elements, so for any two congruence classes there are innitely many ways to dene [m + n] . Bowever, no matter which way is chosen, the answer d which is another congruence class is the same. Moreover, it is a commutative group traditionally called an abelian group for the following reasons. For any integers , m, n, (5.8) Lemma To make it more readable, write [m] instead of [m] .

d

[ ] + ([m] + [n]) = ([ ] + ([m]) + [n]. [m] + [n] = [n] + [m]. [m] + [0] = [0] + [m] = [m] [m] + [m] = [m] + [m] = [0]. Similarly, for any positive integer d, the set {0, . . . , d 1} is a commutative monoid under multiplication (mod d). It is not a group, except in the trivial case d = 1. What is the order of this group? By the division algorithm, every congruence class [n] contains a unique integer r where 0 r < d. Therefore there are at most d congruence classes [0], [1], . . . , [d 1]. Moreover, they are all different, since otherwise there would exist a class containing more than one r such that 0 r d 1. and these congruence classes form an abelian group of order d under the operation [m] + [n] = [m + n]. We can do with those square brackets by using the numbers 0, . . . , d 1 as representatives for their congruence classes. Since [m] + [n] = [m + n] = [(m + n) mod d], we can make the following denition. (5.9) Corollary For any positive integer d, the relation has d congruence classes [0], . . . [d 1],

d

19

(5.10) Denition Given a positive integer d, the additive group Zd of integers mod d is the set {0, . . . , d 1} together with the operation r + s = (def) ((r + s) mod d). It is an abelian group of order (i.e., cardinality) d. It is also called the cyclic group of order d. Similarly, (5.11) Denition The multiplicative monoid Z d of integers mod d is the set {0, . . . , d 1} together with the product rs = (def) (rs mod d). + 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 0 2 2 3 0 1 3 3 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 2 0 2 0 2 3 0 3 2 1

6 Groups

Recall a semigroup is a nonempty set together with an associative binary operation on it, a monoid is a semigroup with a 2-sided identity, necessarily unique, and a group is a monoid in which every element has a two-sided inverse, necessarily unique. In a monoid or group, e or 1 usually denote the identity. In a group, x 1 usually denotes the inverse of x. (6.1) Denition The order |S | of a semigroup, group, or monoid S is the number of elements it contains.. There is, essentially, just one semigroup of order 1, and it also happens to be a group. For the only possible operation on {a} is aa = a. There are two monoids of order 2, in the sense that given two objects {e, a}, where e is to be the identity, so ee = e and ea = ae = e, we have two choices for aa: either a or e. e a e a e e a e e a a a a a a e Two see that these tables dene associative multiplication, you need to consider all 8 possible values of x, y, z and show in each case that (xy )z = x(yz ). In the rst table, x(yz ) and (xy )z both evaluate to e if x = y = z = e, otherwise they both evaluate to a. In the second table, (xy )z and x(yz ) both evaluate to a if an odd number of the objects x, y, z is a, otherwise they both evaluate to e. A quicker way of showing that the operation is associative is to note that the multiplication table for {1, 0} has the same form, and that we know to be associative. In the second case, the multiplication table for {1, 1} has the same form, and that also is associative. The second one gives a group shince a and e both have inverses. The rst is not a group since a does not have an inverse. 20

(6.2) Lemma If G, is a group, then for any a G, the two maps (i) x ax and (ii) x xa are bijective. Proof. A map f : X Y is bijective iff for every y Y there is a unique x X such that f (x) = y . (i) Where f maps x ax: given y , let x = a1 y . Then f (x) = aa1 y = y , so there exists at least one x such that f (x) = y . Conversely, suppose ax = y . Then a1 ax = a1 y , so x = a1 y . This shows x is unique. (ii) is proved similarly. Q.E.D. Let us count the essentially different groups with four elements {e, a, b, c}. From the above lemma, ab = a because ae = a, and ab = b hecause eb = b. Either a2 = e or a2 = e. In the latter case, we may as well assume that b = a2 , otherwise just interchange the roles of b and c. Indeed, under the rst case we can include the possibilities b2 = e and c2 = e, since these just interchange the roles of the letters. Thus there are two cases to consider: (i) a2 = b (ii) a2 = b2 = c2 = e.

In case (i), ac = b, ac = a, ac = c, so ac = e. Then ab = c. Thus a 2 = b, ab = a3 = c, and ac = a4 = e. From these equations, the rest of the table can be lled in easily. This gives the rst table below. It is the only possible table for a group in which a2 = e. In fact, it does dene a group (is associative). It has the structure of Z4 under addition. In case (ii), a2 = b2 = c2 = e. Then ab cannot equal e nor a nor b, so ab = c. Similarly, ac = b, bc = a, etcetera. e a b c e a b c e e a b c e e a b c a a b c e a a e c b b b c e a b b c e a c c e a b c c b a e These groups happen to be commutative. In fact the smallest non-commutative group is the group of permutations of 3 letters (its order is 3! = 6).

A set A is nite if it can be listed in the form A = {a1 , . . . , am } where it is assumed that the elements ai are all distinct. Thus A contains exactly m elements and we write |A| for its size (also called its cardinality): |A| = m If A is not nite then we write It can be shown that |A| = 21

(7.1) Lemma Suppose f : A B is a map. If A is innite and f is injective then B is innite If B is innite and f is surjective then A is innite. (Proof omitted, because although this is all quite plausible, it needs some set theory.) When innite sets are involved, even if domain and codomain are the same, maps can be injective without being surjective and vice-versa. For example let f : N N; x 2x g : N N; x x 2 Integer division is used, so 3 2 = 1 etcetera. Clearly f is injective but not surjective and g is surjective but not injective. (7.2) Lemma Let f : A B be a map where A and B are nite sets, i.e., |A| < and |B | < . (i) If f is injective then |A| |B | (ii) If f is surjective then |A| |B | (iii) If |A| = |B | and f is injective then f is bijective (iv) If |A| = |B | and f is surjective then f is bijective . (Proof omitted; some of this has appeared in problem sets.) Finally, a useful fact: (7.3) Lemma (Pigeonhole principle). If A and B are nite sets and |A| > |B | then no map from A to B can be injective (see above lemma, part (i)). Also, if A and B are nite sets and |A| < |B | then no map from A to B can be surjective. (see (ii)).

Let A = {1, . . . , n}. The set of all maps from A to A is a monoid (of size nn ), and the set of all bijective maps from A to itself is a group of order n!. This is almost obvious, since the identity is bijective and bijective maps are invertible. But the following facts need to be shown. The proofs are easy and omitted. (8.1) Lemma Suppose f and g are maps and g f is dened. If f and g are injective, so is g f . If f and g are surjective, so is g f . 22

u u u u u u u u u u u u

u u u u u u

u u u u u u u u u u u u

Figure 5: Inverse of a bijective map If f is bijective, so is f 1 . (8.2) Denition A bijective map f : {1, . . . , n} {1, . . . , n} is called a permutation of n letters. The group of permutations of n letters is Sn , called the symmetric group on n letters. When maps are given diagrammatically, it is easy to see if they are bijective and to give their inverse. The inverse is computed just by taking the mirror image of the diagram. See Figure 5 The word permutation of n letters used to mean an arrangement of n different letters, like acbd. So there should be 2 permutations of 2 letters 12, 21 and 6 of 3 123, 132, 213, 231, 312, 321 Ambiguity of this representation. How are we to interpret these as bijective maps? Certainly 123 should represent the identity permutation. Also 132 is not a problem: 2 and 3 are swapped. Similarly, 213: 1 and 2 are swapped. But 231 is not so easy. Im inclined to think of this as a map taking This is a map taking positions to labels. Under such an interpretation, let us look at the composition Result: 132. On the other hand, you could also interpret the arrangements as mapping labels to positions, so 231 maps 2 1, 3 2, 1 3 and the composite map 213 231 : 2 1 2, 3 2 1, 1 3 3 213 231 : 1 2 1, 2 3 3, 3 1 2 1 2, 2 3, 3 1. A is bijective.

is 321. So, there are two natural ways of interpreting 231, position value and value position, and I nd the rst more natural. Sometimes the second is more natural. For example, when it comes to permuting rows of a matrix, or the symmetries of a triangle, the second is more natural. The ambiguity is not in Sn , it is in how we interpret arrangments and gures. 23

(8.3) Notation (nonstandard). Every permutation describes an arrangement, and the permutation 1 r, 2 s, 3 t, . . . is represented by the arrangement rst . . .. In this notation 123 . . . represents the identity permutation. Example. S0 contains one element, the empty map. S1 = {1}, S2 = {12, 21}, S3 = {123, 132, 213, 231, 312, 321}, and S4 = {1234, 1243, 1324, 1342, 1423, 1432, 2134, 2143, 2314, 2341, 2413, 2431, 3124, 3142, 3214, 3241, 3412, 3421, 4123, 4132, 4213, 4231, 4312, 4321}. (8.4) Lemma |Sn | = n! (from school). (8.5) Function composition operator omitted. Since Sn is a group, we write rather than for the composition of two permutations. The multiplication table (Cayley table) for S1 is completely trivial and for S2 is trivial. 12 21 12 12 21 21 21 12 For S3 it is not (this is the smallest noncommutative group). In the table, we use the position value interpretation. 123 132 213 231 312 321 123 123 132 213 231 312 321 132 132 123 312 321 213 231 213 213 231 123 132 321 312 231 231 213 321 312 123 132 312 312 321 132 123 231 213 321 321 312 231 213 132 123

In linear algebra you have seen the parity and signature of a permutation, so most of the work has been done. An elementary row operation on an m n matrix is scaling, subtracting, or swapping. Here we are only interested in swapping. For any permutation in Sm (one uses small greek letters for permutations) there is a permutation of the rows of A producing a new matrix A : if : i j then the i-th row of A will be the j -th row of A . There is a matrix P representing the permutation in the sense that for any matrix A of height m, P A is the result of the permutation on A. To study permutations, we can restrict ourselves to the standard unit column vectors of height m i.e., the column-vectors appearing in the m m identity matrix. If X is one of these columnvectors then P X is another. (9.1) Lemma For any permutation , let P be the corresponding permutation matrix. The identity matrix can be converted to P by a series of adjacent swaps. Hence is a product of adjacent swaps. 24

Also, det P = 1. Note: this uses the value position interpretation. An adjacent swap is equivalent to swapping two adjacent rows of the matrix. In other words, it is a permutation 1 1, . . . , i 1 i 1, i i + 1, i + 1 i, i + 2 i + 2, . . . , m m (9.2) Denition The signature (or sign) of a permutation is the determinant of the corresponding permutation matrix.3 A permutation is even if its sign is +1. From known properties of the determinant, we have the following facts. (9.3) Lemma A permutation is even/odd iff it can be expressed as a product of an even/odd number of swaps, adjacent or otherwise. ( means ). 1 = 1 (the identity permutation is even).

1

= .

Hence the set of even permutations is a group in its own right. It is written A n and called the alternating group.

10 Generators for Sn

(10.1) Generators of a group. A set of generators for a group G is a set a 1 , . . . , ap of elements of G with the property that every element of G can be expressed as a product of powers (positive or negative) of these elements. (10.2) Cycle notation. A cycle is a permutation which xes some letters and permutes the others in a cyclic order. In other words, there is a subset i1 , . . . , ik of letters such that i1 i2 , i2 i3 , . . . , ik1 ik , ik i1 and the other letters are left xed. (10.3) Denition The above cycle is represented (i1 i2 . . . ik ) its length is k and it is called a k -cycle; k 1; a 1-cycle is just the identity map.

3 This looks like a circular denition, but it can be put in the proper sequence. Alternatively, you already know a lot about the sign of a permutation.

25

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9

Figure 6: disjoint cycle decomposition of a permutation. Thus (153) maps 1 5 3 1. The cycle can begin at any place: (153) = (531) = (315). A 2-cycle is a transposition or swap. (10.4) Lemma Disjoint cycles commute. Proof. When and are cycles, they are disjoint when (i) = i = (i) = i (i) = i = (i) = i So Either (i) = i (i) = i, in which case (i) = (i) = i, or (i) = i. Let j = (i), so j = i. Since i = j and is injective, (i) = (j ), so (j ) = j .

Therefore (i) = i and (j ) = j . (i) = (j ) = j (i) = (i) = j, (i) = i: same as previous case by symmetry. (10.5) Lemma Every permutation can be written as a product of (commuting) disjoint cycles. Sketch proof. Figure 6 illustrates the idea. The permutation is (under position value) 154382967 Begin at 1: (1) Next at 2: (2586) Next at 3: (34) 26 or

And last at 7: (79) Thus we get (79)(34)(2586)(1) Cycles of length 1 are redundant. This is (79)(34)(2586). Even-length cycles have odd parity and odd-length cycles have even parity: hence (10.6) Lemma The parity of a permutation is the parity of the number of even-length cycles. In the example illustrating the previous lemma, there are 3 even-length cycles: the permutation is odd. From the previous section, (10.7) Proposition If n 2 then Sn is generated by its 2-cycles. Moreover, Sn is generated by adjacent transpositions, i.e., 2-cycles of the form (i i + 1). Our main result is (10.8) Theorem If n 2 then (12), (12 . . . n) together generate Sn . Proof. Abbreviation: let = (12 . . . n). From the above proposition, it is enough to show that every adjacent transposition (i i + 1) can be expressed in terms of (12) and . The trick is conjugation, meaning a product of the kind xyx1 . 1 : 3 2 1 n . . . (12) 1 : 4 3 3; 3 2 1; 2 1 2; 1 n n : 4 3 3 4; 3 2 1 2; 2 2 2 3; 1 n n 1

(12) 1

Thus (12) 1 = (23). In the same way, (23) 1 = (34), and so on. (10.9) Proposition For n 3, The 3-cycles generate An . Proof. Let be an even permutation: ignore the case = 1. It can be expressed as a product of an even number of swaps: write this as 1 1 2 2 k k . Each product j j is a product of two 2-cycles; either they are the same and cancel, or they have one letter in common, or they are disjoint. For the second case we are given (pq )(pr ), or without loss of generality (12)(13). But this equals (132), a 3-cycle. The third case is, without loss of generality, (12)(34). This can be written as (12)(13)(13)(34), a product of two 3-cycles. Thus is a product of 3-cycles. 27

(11.1) Denition Let S be a semigroup (or monoid, or group) with operation . A subset T of S is a sub-semigroup if T is closed under the operation, i.e., x, y, T = xy T , a submonoid if it is a subsemigroup and S is a monoid and 1 T , or a subgroup if S is a group and T is a submonoid closed under inverse, i.e., x T = x 1 T. (11.2) Lemma A sub-semigroup, submonoid, or subgroup is itself a semigroup, monoid, or group under the operation/operations given for the semigroup, monoid, or group containing it. (Trivial.) Example. Because of the properties given for , for any , Sn , 1 is even If and are even then so is If is even then so is 1 . Hence the even permutations form a subgroup An of Sn , the alternating group An .

Let G be a group, S a subset of G. It can be proved that there exists a smallest subgroup of G containing S . (Smallest with respect to the set inclusion relation .) This is written S or, if S = {a1 , . . . , ak }, a 1 , . . . , ak .

= {1} (which is a subgroup of G). For the purposes of this course S is always nite and nonempty. (11.3) Lemma Given a1 , . . . , ak G. We call them generators,4 a 1 , . . . , ak is the set (including 1) of all products of the form

1 1 1 a i1 a i2 a i

(11.4)

for lack of a better word. It does not mean that they generate the group. Rather, they generate the subgroup we are looking at.

4

28

Proof. Let T denote the given set of products. We need to show (a) T is closed under products, (b) 1 T , (c) T is closed under inverse, (d) aj T (1 j k ), and (e) for any subgroup H of G, if H contains all the generators ai , then T H . (a) Obvious. (b) Obvious. (c) T is closed under inverse, because

1 1 1 1 (a = i1 a i2 a i ) 1 1 1 a i a i2 a i1 .

(d) Obvious. (e) If H is a subgroup containing the given generators, then it contains all products of the form 11.4, i.e., T H . (There are similar ways of describing sub-semigroups and submonoids, not covered in these notes.) Examples. In S3 , (12) = {1, (12)}. In S3 , (12), (23) = S3 . In Sn , 3-cycles = An . In S3 , (123) = A3 . In Z (under addition), 2 is the subgroup of even integers. Notation for subgroups. If G is a group, then we write H G (def) H is a subgroup of G.

GL(n, R) is the general linear group . . . n. It is the set of invertible n n real matrices under matrix multiplication with identity I and matrix inverse. It is equivalent to the group of invertible linear maps Rn Rn . GL(n, C) is dened similarly. SL(n, R) is the special linear group . . . n, the matrices of determinant 1. SL(n, R) = {A Rnn : det A = 1} Similarly, SL(n, C).

29

(12.1) Lemma SL(n, R) GL(n, R) O (n) is the orthogonal group . . . n: O (n) = {A Rnn : AT A = I } consisting of all n n orthogonal matrices. O (n) is equivalent to the group of distance-preserving (linear) maps from R n to Rn . SO (n) is the special orthogonal group . . . n, orthogonal matrices of determinant 1. SO (n) = {A SO (n) : det A = 1}. SO (1) = {1}. O (1) = {1, 1}. SO (2) is the group of rotation matrices cos sin sin cos . and SL(n, C) GL(n, C).

where

One could say (loosely) that O (2) can be formed by including one orientation-reversing orthogonal matrix to SO (2). SO (3) is the group of orientation-preserving orthogonal 3 3 matrices, which can be shown to be the set of rotation matrices. O (3) can be formed by including one orientation-reversing orthogonal matrix, such as I (this is orientation-reversing in odd dimensions). Then there is U (n), the unitary group . . . n: the group of n n complex unitary matrices. U (n) = {A Cnn : A A = I }. A is the (complex) adjoint of A, 5 A is the componentwise complex conjugate of the transpose AT of A. U (n) is equivalent to the group of distance-preserving (linear) maps C n Cn . Then there is SU (n), SU (n) = {A U (n) : det(A) = 1}.

5

not to be confused with the other adjoint matrix, the matrix of cofactors.

30

(13.1) Symmetries of plane gures. We are interested in a certain group of bijections from the plane to itself, namely, the rigid transformations: rotations around a point, reections in a line, translations, etcetera. (This group includes O (2), but in O (2) all rotations are around O , all reections are in lines through O , and there are no notrivial translations.) Given a nonempty set T in the plane, The symmetries of T are those rigid transformations of the plane which map T onto T . The symmetries form a group. We are mostly interested in the case where T is a regular n-sided polygon, such as an equilateral triangle, centred at the origin. The group of symmetries of a regular n-gon (n 3) is called the n-th dihedral group D2n . Its order is 2n. To see this, label the corners from 1 to n in anticlockwise order. A symmetry must take the adjacent pair 12 to another adjacent pair i, (i mod n) + 1 or i, ((i 2)mod n) + 1. Different symmetries correspond to different pairs, and each such pair is the image of 12 under a unique symmetry: hence, 2n symmetries.6

123 3 231 2 312 1

1 3 2 213

3 2

2 1

1 132

3 321

If we label the corners of the n-gon as described, then each symmetry corresponds to a unique permutation of the corners. This way, Dn can be viewed as part of Sn . However, notice that the way symmetries are dened, it makes no sense for the permutations to act on values. They should act on positions, as illustrated. Notice that D6 corresponds exactly to S3 , and this helps us to understand S3 better. In general there is the identity map, n 1 rotations, and n reections, one in each of the n axes of symmetry of the regular n-gon. The gure below illustrates the ten symmetries of a regular pentagon:

4 5 1 e 2 3 4 5 R 5 5 3 F2 2 1 1 5 F 4

3

3 2 1 3 4

2 1 R

2

1 2 3 R

3

5 5 4 1 2 R

4

4 3

3 2 1 F 1 5 4

2 3 3 2

4 5 F 4 1

5 4

1 2 F5 3

6 This can be made plausible in the following way. By polygon we mean the edges and corners, not the 2-dimensional interior. The edge joining 1 and 2 is a line-segment of a certain length, and all rigid transformations take it to a linesegment of the same length. The only subsets of the polygon (not its interior) which are line-segments of that length are other edges.

Given a letter 1 j 5, j + 1, j + 2, and so on are taken with wraparound at 5, so j + s should be interpreted as 1 + ((j + s 1)mod 5).

31

Rotation through the angle 72 is denoted R: the other three rotations are R2 , R3 , and R4 . Rs takes the letter at position j to position j + s (with wraparound). The axes of symmetry pass through each corner of the regular n-gon if n is odd, as in this case. (If n is even this only counts half of the axes of symmetry). Thus the reections can be denoted Fi , i being the one corner xed by the reection. As permutations (acting on position) R = (12345), F1 = (25)(34), F2 = (13)(45), F3 = (15)(24), F4 = (12)(35), F5 = (14)(23) Now, F1 R is orientation-reversing, so it should be another reection. The rotation R takes (position labelled) 5 to position 1.

4 5 1 4 5 1 2 3 2 F 1 2 1 5 3 R 4 5 3 4 1 R 3 2 1 3 2 F 1 1 5 4 5 4 2 3

Figure 7: F1 R = F3 and RF1 = F4 . Note the order of composition. Figure 7 shows that F1 R = F3 and RF1 = F4 . This can be extrapolated, using the cyclic nature of R, to Fi R = Fi+2 and RFi = Fi+3 with the wraparound convention that i + s means 1 + (i + s 1 mod 5). We can express each reection as a right- and -left multiple of F1 by a power of R: F3 = F1 R, F5 = F1 R2 , F2 = F1 R3 , F4 = F1 R4 F4 = RF1 , F2 = R2 F1 , F5 = R2 F1 , F3 = R4 F1 This makes the calculation of Fi Fj easy. For example, F2 F3 = R2 F1 F1 R = R3 , and so on. Hence we can calculate the Cayley table for D10 . 1 1 R R2 R3 R4 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 1 1 R R2 R3 R4 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 R R R2 R3 R4 1 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 R2 R2 R3 R4 1 R F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 R3 R3 R4 1 R R2 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 R4 R4 1 R R2 R3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 32 F1 F1 F4 F2 F5 F3 1 R2 R4 R R3 F2 F2 F5 F3 F1 F4 R3 1 R2 R4 R F3 F3 F1 F4 F2 F5 R R3 1 R2 R4 F4 F4 F2 F5 F3 F1 R4 R R3 1 R2 F5 F5 F3 F1 F4 F2 R2 R4 R R3 1

7 (1,1,1)

(1,1,1) (1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

4 (1,1,1) 3

(1,1,1)

Figure 8: Symmetries of the cube. Three of the 13 axes of rotation are shown. Subgroups of D10 . Apart from {e} and D10 themselves, there is also the subgroup {e, R, R 2 , R3 , R4 }, which has the same structure as Z5 (under addition). There are also groups of order 2: {e, F1 }, {e, F2 }, {e, F3 }, {e, F4 }, {e, F5 }. These are all the subgroups, for the following reasons. A subgroup H either is trivial, or it contains a nontrivial power of R, or it contains some F i , or it contains both a nontrivial power of R and some Fi , or it contains some Fi and Fj , i = j . If a subgroup H contains any nontrivial power of R, it contains R, because (R 2 )3 = R6 = R, 3 2 (R ) = R6 = R, and (R4 )4 = R16 = R. Hence it contains all powers of R. Any nontrivial power of R, and any Fi , together generate D10 , because you can generate all powers of R, and every other Fj which can be expressed in the form Fi Rs (refer to the Cayley table). Two Fi , Fj , i = j , together generate D10 , because then Fj can be written as Fi Rs for some nontrivial power Rs of R, so the subgroup contains Fi Fi Rs = Rs , a nontrivial power of R, as well as Fi .

The cube is centred at (0, 0, 0) R3 and has corners 1 : (1, 1, 1) etcetera. See Figure 8. The group consists of those A O (3) which permute the corners. There is one obvious orientation-reversing symmetry: I , or as a permutation (15)(26)(37)(48). The orientation-preserving symmetries are rotations around various axes. The identity map is the trivial rotation. There are 4 axes passing through opposite corners, and there are two nontrivial rotations around each. This contributes 8 rotations. There are 6 axes bisecting diagonally opposite edges, with one nontrivial rotation around each. This gives 6 rotations. There are 3 axes passing through opposite faces, with three nontrivial rotations around each. This gives 9 rotations. This gives 24 rotations. Multiplication by I (which commutes with everything) gives another 24 orientation-reversing symmetries. This is everything: there are 48 symmetries of the cube.

33

(14.1) Lemma Let H be a subgroup of a group G. (i) The relation x1 y H is an equivalence relation on G. (ii) The relation is an equivalence relation on G. Proof. Exercise. (14.2) Denition Given x G the set {xh : h H } is called a left coset of H and written xH . Remember the quiz questions about products of subsets of a semigroup: xH = {x}H in that notattion. Similarly there is a right coset Hx. (14.3) Lemma Let H be a subgroup of G, x G. (i) xH is the equivalence class of x modulo the relation x1 y H . (ii) Hx is the equivalence class of x modulo the relation xy 1 H . Proof. (i) xH = {xh : h H } y xH (h H ) (y = xh) y xH (h H ) (x1 y = h) y xH x1 y H (ii) is similar. For a simple example, let G = Z and let H be the even integers. The relation is just y x H , which is just the relation x y mod 2. There are two distinct (left) cosets, [0], the even integers, and [1], the odd integers. Here is a result about nite sets which possibly belongs somewhere else. (14.4) Lemma If f : A B is injective and X A is nite, then |f (X )| = |X |. xy 1 H

34

f 1 (y ) : y f (X ) |X | = |f 1 (y )|

y f (X )

y f (X )

1 = |f (X )|.

(14.5) Lemma For any a G, the maps x ax and x xa are both bijective. (Exercise.)

(14.6) Lemma Suppose H is nite. All left- (and right-) cosets of H in G have the same cardinality, namely, |H |. Proof. We shall only consider left-cosets. The proof for right-cosets is much the same. aH is the image of H under the injective map x ax, so |aH | = |H |. Similarly |Ha| = |H |. Proof. Since G is nite, G is a nite union of disjoint left cosets a1 H . . . a k H

which partition G into sets all of the same size, i.e., |H |. Therefore (14.8) Subgroup generated by x. Given any member x of any group G, the set of all powers of x, is a subgroup of G, called the subgroup generated by x, and denoted x. For example, x = {e} x = e; if G = S3 , (12) = {e, (12)}, and If G = Z under addition then is the subgroup {. . . 30, 20, 10, 0, 10, 20 . . .}. {xn : n Z} |G| = k |H |.

For example, for any positive integer n, the additive group Zn is cyclic. Recall (not yet mentioned in this course) that a prime number p is an integer 2 whose only divisors are 1 and p. (14.10) Corollary Every group of prime order is cyclic.

Proof. If |G| is prime, choose any x = e in G. The subgroup x generated by x is nontrivial, so | x | > 1, and | x | divides |G|, so | x | = |G| and x = G. Q.E.D. 35

15 Additive subgroups of Z

(15.1) Denition For groups, the adjectives abelian and commutative are synonymous, that is, an abelian group is a commutative group. Usually one uses + to denote the group operation in an abelian group, the identity is called 0, and x is the inverse of x. Recall that in a group G, the subgroup generated by the elements a, b, c . . . is denoted a, b, c, . . . . It consists of all elements which can be formed as products of powers (positive and negative) of a, b, c, . . . If the group is abelian then it consists of elements which can be formed as sums of multiples of a, b, c, . . ., i.e., a, b, c, . . . = {ra + sb + tc + . . . : r, s, t, . . . Z}

(15.3) Theorem Every subgroup H of Z is generated by a unique nonnegative integer n; thus the only subgroups of Z are of the form n for some unique nonnegative integer n. Explicitly, n = 0 if H = {0}, otherwise n is the smallest positive integer in H .

Proof. The trivial subgroup {0} contains only 0 and is generated by 0 and no other integer. Let H be any nontrivial subgroup. H contains some nonzero element x; if x < 0 then x H also; so H contains a positive integer. By the least integer principle H contains a smallest positive integer n (as opposed to a smallest nonnegative integer, which would be 0). Let m be any other element of H . H contains all linear combinations rm + sn, and in particular and H contains m r, s Z

n H mod n

so H = n . It remains to show that if k and n are distinct positive integers then k = n . Equivalently, if k and n are positive integers and k = n then k = n. This is easy, because k n n|k, and n k k |n.

which has the form m qn. Since 0 m mod n < n and n is the smallest positive integer in H , m mod n is zero. Therefore H n

But it can be shown that if two positive integers divide each other, then they are equal. Example. A little experimentation will show that 12, 8 = 4 . 36

Recall that when a, b belong to an Abelian group, in particular, a, b Z, a, b = {ra + sb : r, s Z}. (16.1) Denition Given a, b Z, not both zero, the greatest common divisor (or highest common factor) gcd(a, b) is the unique positive generator of the subgroup a, b of Z. (16.2) Lemma When a and b are integers, not both zero, gcd(a, b) is a positive integer and there exist integers r and s such that gcd(a, b) = ra + sb. Proof. Since they are not both zero, a, b is nontrivial, so it is generated by a unique positive integer, i.e., gcd(a, b). By denition, gcd(a, b) = a, b , so gcd(a, b) is of the form ra + sb for some integers r and s. Q.E.D. (16.3) Corollary gcd(a, b) is the largest positive integer which divides both a and b. Proof. Let g = gcd(a, b). If d is a positive integer dividing both a and b, then it divides all expressions ra + sb, r, s Z, so it divides g . But a g and b g , so g divides both a and b: it is the greatest common divisor. Q.E.D.

The denition of gcd gives no way of computing it. There is an efcient way, based on the following lemma which will not be proved. (16.4) Lemma If n = 0 then gcd(m, n) = gcd(n, m mod n).

(16.5) Euclids gcd algorithm. To calculate gcd(m, n) (assuming m n > 0), generate a sequence d1 , d2 , d3 , . . . where d1 = m, d2 = n, and if dj = 0, dj +1 = dr1 mod dj . For example, to compute gcd(91, 35): 91, 35, 91 mod 35 = 21, 35 mod 21 = 14, 21 mod 14 = 7, 14 mod 7 = 0 When dr+1 reaches 0, dj is the gcd. This can be extended to compute constants r and s such that 91r + 35s = 7. We develop three other sequences, rj , sj , and qj . r0 = 1, s0 = 0, r1 = 0, s0 = 1 37

Suppose dj +1 is calculated; with qj = dj 1 dj , dj +1 = dj 1 qj dj Suppose dj 1 = 91rj 1 + 35sj 1 and dj = 91rj + 35sj . Then dj +1 = dj 1 qj dj = 91rj 1 + 35sj 1 qj (91rj + 35sj ). Set rj +1 = rj 1 qj rj sj +1 = sj 1 qj sj Then when dj +1 = 0, rj and sj will be the constants wanted. dj = 91, 35, 91 mod 35 = 21, 35 mod 21 = 14, 21 mod 14 = 7, 14 mod 7 = 0 qj = , , 2, 1, 1, 2 rj = 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 5 sj = 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 13 so 7 = 2(91) 5(35). (i.e., 182-175, which is correct). For example, to compute gcd(1625, 299). dj 1 dj dj +1 1625 299 130 299 130 39 130 39 13 39 13 0 dj 1 dj dj +1 qj +1 rj 1 sj 1 rj sj 1625 299 130 5 1 0 0 1 299 130 39 2 0 1 1 5 130 39 13 3 1 5 2 11 39 13 0 3 2 11 7 38 13 0 7 38 Thus 13 = 7(1625) 38(299).

rj +1 sj +1 1 5 2 11 7 38

(17.1) Denition Two integers a, b are relatively prime if gcd(a, b) = 1. Note: gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, a) obviously. (17.2) Lemma If a is relatively prime both to b and to c, then a is relatively prime to the product bc. That is, (gcd(a, b) = 1 gcd(a, c) = 1) 38 gcd(a, bc) = 1.

Proof. Let gcd(a, b) = ra + sb = 1, Multiplying, (ra + sb)(ta + uc) = (rat + sbt + ruc)a + (su)bc = 1. Therefore the gcd of a and b, which divides both, divides 1, and must equal 1. Q.E.D. (17.3) Corollary For any n 2, let Z n be the set of integers in {0, . . . , n 1} which are relatively prime to n. Then Z is a commutative group under multiplication (mod n). n Proof. Since multiplication is associative and commutative, and 1 is a multiplicative identity (modulo n), and 1 is relatively prime to n, Z n is a commutative monoid. If a and b are relatively prime to n then so is ab. Let c = (ab mod n). As we have seen before (Lemma 16.4) gcd(n, ab) = gcd(n, c). Thus c Z n , so Zn is closed under multiplication. Again, for any a Z n choose r, s so ra + sn = 1. Then ra 1(mod n), so ramod n = 1 and r is the multiplicative inverse of a in Z n . Therefore Zn is a group. Q.E.D. For example, Z 9 = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8}. Its Cayley table is 1 2 4 5 7 1 1 2 4 5 7 2 2 4 8 1 5 4 4 8 7 2 1 5 5 1 2 7 8 7 7 5 1 8 4 8 8 7 5 4 2 8 8 7 5 4 2 1 gcd(a, c) = ta + uc = 1.

(17.4) Denition A prime is an integer p > 1 whose only factors are 1 and p. (17.5) Lemma If p is prime then Z p = {1, . . . , p 1}. Proof. In other words, if 1 a p 1, then gcd(a, p) = 1. But gcd(a, p) is a positive integer dividing p, and gcd(a, p) = p, so gcd(a, p) = 1. Q.E.D. (17.6) Corollary (Fermats Little Theorem.) If p is prime and x is an integer not divisible by p, then xp1 1 is divisible by p. Proof. Given x, let y = (x mod p): y = 0, so y Z p . Now the (multiplicative) subgroup y k generated by y is cyclic of order k , say: y = 1. But k = | y | divides |Z p | by Lagranges theorem: p1 p1 i.e., k divides p 1, so y p1 = 1 in Z , i.e., ( y mod p ) = 1 . But x y p1 , so xp1 1. p

p p

(n) = |{r : 1 r < n gcd(r, n) = 1}. Therefore (n) = |Z n |. Fermats little theorem can be generalised effortlessly: gcd(n, x) = 1 = x(n) 1.

n

39

If S1 , S2 are semigroups (with operation symbols implicit) then there is an easy way to make S 1 S2 into a semigroup: (a, b)(c, d) = (ac, bd) If they are monoids, so is the product. If they are groups, so is the product. If additive notation is used (implicitly, they are abelian) then it is used in the product group as well. Example. Here is an addition table for Z2 Z2 . + (0, 0) (0, 1) (1, 0) (1, 1) (0, 0) (0, 0) (0, 0) (1, 0) (1, 1) (0, 1) (0, 1) (0, 1) (1, 1) (1, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0) (0, 0) (0, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) (1, 1) (0, 1) (0, 0)

19 Group isomorphism

Consider Kleins 4-group, which has four elements 1, a, b, c, where a2 = b2 = c2 = 1 (so it is abelian),, and ab = c. The group Z2 Z2 Z4 This leads to denition 40 i 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 C22 C22 {1, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)} S3

{eni/2 : n Z}

(19.1) Denition An isomorphism between two groups7 G, G is a bijective map f such that This corresponds to an invertible linear map between vector spaces. (x, y G) (f (xy ) = f (x)f (y )).

Zd can be dened in three ways (of course, the groups are isomorphic). One can dene the elements of Zd to be congruence classes [x]. There are d different congruence classes. One can dene [x] + [y ] as [x + y ]. We know this is unambiguous. One can dene the elements to be {0, . . . , d 1} with an operation : r s = (r + s) mod d. One can dene the elements to be Z, with the usual operation, but a different equality relation, namely, .

d

The question is: given an equivalence relation on a group G, when can it be used to dene a new group, like Zd was dened from a congruence d on Z? In order to do this, we need the idea of congruence on a group (or semigroup or monoid). (20.1) Denition A congruence on a group G is an equivalence relation such that for all x1 , y1 , x2 , y2 G, (x1 x2 y1 y2 ) = x1 y1 x2 y2 . Proof. (20.2) Lemma If is a congruence on G, write H for [1] . Then H G. 1 1, 1H

Suppose x, y H . Thus x 1 and y 1. Therefore xy 1, so xy H . (20.3) Lemma If is a congruence on G and H = [1] , then the equivalence classes (congruence classes) of are the left cosets of H , and also the right cosets left and right cosets are the same. Proof. x y = x1 y 1 = x1 y H x1 y H = x1 y 1 = x y [x] = xH Similarly, coincides with the relation xy 1 H , whose equivalence classes are the right cosets of H : [x] = Hx

7

so coincides with the relation x1 y H , whose equivalence classes are the left cosets of H :

41

(20.4) Lemma Given groups H G, suppose that left and right cosets of H coincide. Then the relations x1 y H and xy 1 H

Proof. Certainly the relations coincide, since they produce the same partition. Write for the relation. Suppose x1 y1 and x2 y2 . Then y1 Hx1 and y2 x2 H , so y1 y2 (Hx1 )(x2 H ) (refer to the quiz about products of subsets in a semigroup). It follows almost immediately from the associative nature of products of subsets that (Hx1 )(x2 H ) = (Hx1 x2 )H = x1 x2 HH = x1 x2 H. Therefore x1 x2 y1 y2 and is a congruence on G. (20.5) Lemma Suppose H G. Then its left and right cosets coincide if and only if for every x G xHx1 = H Proof. xH = Hx = xHx1 = Hxx1 = H xHx1 = H = xH = xHx1 x = Hx. (20.6) Denition A subgroup H of G is a normal subgroup if (x G) (xHx1 = H ). There is a special notation for normal subgroups: H G.

(20.7) Lemma If G is abelian, then every subgroup is a normal subgroup. (Trivial.) (20.8) Lemma An Sn .

Proof. Given an even permutation and any permutation , 1 is even by the parity theorem. Q.E.D. Sn /An is (isomorphic to) what? Z/ d is isomorphic to Zd .

42

(21.1) Denition A homomorphism of groups G, G (the group operations are left implicit) is a map h : G G such that for all x, y G, h(xy ) = h(x)h(y ). Thus an isomorphism is a bijective homomorphism. (21.2) Lemma If h : G G is a homomorphism then h(G) G . Proof. (i) h(1) = h(12 ) = (h(1))2 , and it follows that h(1) is the identity in G . (ii) h(x)h(y ) = h(xy ) h(G), so h(G) is closed under product. (iii) h(x)(h(x))1 = h(1), so h(G) is closed under inverse. (21.3) Examples of homomorphisms. Z Zn ; x x mod n. Sn {1, 1}; 1 if is an even permutation, 1 if is odd. Let G be a group, x an element of G. Then the map Z G; k xk is a homomorphism. If H G, then h : G G/H ; x [x] (i.e., x xH ), is a homomorphism. From Z2 (under addition mod 2) to {1, 1} (under multiplication): 0 1, 1 1. (21.4) Denition Let h : G G be a group homomorphism. The kernel of h is the set of elements of G mapped to the identity e of G : kernel(h) = h1 (e ) = {x G : h(x) = e }

Proof. Let K = ker(h). (i) h(1) = 1, so 1 K . (ii) If h(x) = h(y ) = 1 then h(xy ), so K is closed under product. (iii) If h(x) = 1, then (h(x))1 = h(x1 ) = 1, so K is closed under inverse. (iv) Given x G, y K , h(xyx1 ) = h(x)1h(x))1 = 1, and y K is arbitrary, so xKx1 K , for all x G. Since x1 Kx K , xx1 Kxx1 xKx1 . Thus xKx1 = K for all x G: K G. 43

(21.6) Denition

G =G

means that G and G are isomorphic, i.e., there exists a bijective homomorphism from G to G . (This is an equivalence relation). (21.7) Corollary (First Isomorphism Theorem for groups). If h : G G is a homomorphism, then h(G) = G/kernel(h). Proof. Let K = kernel(h). For x G, let [x] represent the set in G/K to which x belongs, i.e., [x] = xK = Kx. Dene a map : G/K h(G) as follows [x] = [h(x)] is well-dened, because

1 1 [x1 ] = [x2 ] = x h(x h(x1 ) = h(x2 ) 1 x2 K = 1 )h(x2 ) = 1 =

is injective, because

1 [x1 ] = [x2 ] = h(x1 ) = h(x2 ) = x [x1 ] = x1 K = x2 K = [x2 ] 1 x2 K =

(G/K ) = h(G), i.e., is surjective, because (G/K ) = { [x] : x G} = {h(x) : x G} = h(G) is a homomorphism, because ([x1 ][x2 ]) = [x1 x2 ] = h(x1 x2 ) = h(x1 )h(x2 ) = [x1 ] [x2 ] Summarising: is a bijective homomorphism from G/K to h(G): G/K = h(G). Application. One simple example of the First Isomorphism Theorem is where the homomorphism h is the identity map G G. The range of h is G and its kernel is {1}, so (21.8) Lemma G = G/{1}. Application. Order of a group element. Let x be an element of a group G. We dene the order of x to be the order of the cyclic group x . Notation |x| is the order of x; thus |x| = | x |. It was mentioned (in connection with Fermats Little Theorem) that if x has (nite) order k then k x = 1. Here is a clean proof. The map h : Z G; i xi is a homomorphism mapping Z (under addition) surjectively onto x . Let K = ker h. It is a subgroup of Z and therefore K = k for a unique nonnegative integer k , By the rst isomorphism theorem, x = Z/ k If k = 0 then h is an isomorphism and x has innite order. If k > 0 then Z/ k = Zk , so x = Zk 44

In this case k = |Zk | = | x | = |x|. First, xk = h(k ) = h(0) = 1, so xk = 1. Second, if xn = 1, then n ker h, so n k , so k |n. Therefore the order of x is the smallest positive integer k such that xk = 1. Application. Chinese Remainder Theorem. Recall gcd(a, b) = 1 gcd(a, c) = 1 = gcd(a, bc) = 1 Again Proof. Let n = ax = by . Choose r, s so that gcd(a, b) = 1 a|n b|n = ab|n ra + sb = 1 Then rax + sbx = x = rby + sbx so b divides x and ab divides ax = n. (21.9) Corollary Let k > 0 and n1 > 1, . . . , nk > 1,8 be pairwise prime integers, and let N = n1 n2 . . . nk . Then for any integer n, ni |n(1 i k ) = N |n Proof. Obvious if k = 1. Otherwise let a = n1 and b = n2 n3 nk . By an inductive argument, since gcd(a, nj ) = 1, 1 j k , gcd(a, b) = 1. Then ni |n(2 i k ) = b|n so ni |n(1 i k ) = (a|n b|n) = ab = N |n. (21.10) Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem). If n1 > 1, . . . , nk > 1 are pairwise prime integers, then for any vector i1 , . . . , ik where 0 ij nj 1, 1 j k , there exists an integer n, 0 n < N , such that n Proof. Let P = Z n1 . . . Z nk h:ZP n (n mod n1 , . . . , n mod nk ) The map h is a homomorphism, and its kernel is N , so there is an isomorphism : Z N h(Z). But |ZN | = N = |Zn1 | |Znk | = |P |, so h(Z) = P and ZN = P .

8

mod nj = ij ,

1jk

45

(1,1,1)

(1,1,1) (1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

(1,1,1)

4 (1,1,1) 3

(1,1,1)

There are 8 vertices on the cube; a vertex must go to another and the 3 edges incident must go to edges incident to the other. That gives a bound of 8 6 = 48 on the number of symmetries. There are 4 axes passing through diagonally opposite pairs of vertices; each accounts for 2 proper rotations, or 8. There are 6 axes passing through the centres of diagonally opposite pairs of edges: each gives 1 more proper rotation, or 6. There are 3 axes passing through the centres of opposite faces, each giving 3 proper rotations, or 9. Together with the identity we get 24 rotations. Reection in the centre, I , is orientation-reversing and commutes with everything: it gives another 24 symmetries. Therefore the group has order 48. Let K denote the group of symmetries of the cube, so K is a subgroup of O (3), and can be identied with a group of matrices. There is a map K SO (3) : S (det S ) S R = K SO (3) the subgroup of 24 rotations; we have a homomorphism K R. Also, a homomorphism K R {1} : S ((det, S )S, det, S ) The kernel consists of all S such that (det S )S = I and det S = 1. That is, S = I and det S = 1: S = I . The kernel is trivial, which implies (by the isomorphism theorem) that the range of the map is isomorphic to K . But the codomain, like K itself, has order 48, so K is isomorphic to R {1}. Whenever v goes to v under a symmetry, the vertex diagonally opposite v goes to that opposite v . That is, every symmetry S induces a bijective map from the set {1, 5}, {2, 6}, {3, 7}, {4, 8}. 46

to itself. If we label these diagonal pairs as 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively, every symmetry S induces a permutation S in S4 . S (i) is the unique a such that S (i) {a, a + 4}. (22.1) Lemma This is a homomorphism from K to S4 . Proof. Suppose S (i) = j and T (j ) = k . S (i) {j, j + 4} and T (j ) {k, k + 4}. We need to show T S (i) = k. It is easiest to break into cases. Case: S (i) = j and T (j ) = k . Then T S (i) = k and T S (i) = k . Case: S (i) = j and T (j ) = k + 4. Then T S (i) = k + 4 and T S (i) = k . Case: S (i) = j + 4 and T (j ) = k , so T (j + 4) = k + 4. Then T S (i) = k + 4, so T S (i) = k Case: S (i) = j + 4 and T (j ) = k + 4, so T (j + 4) = k . Then T S (i) = k , so T S (i) = k . Since R K , we also get a homomorphism from R into S4 . Its kernel consists of rotations S which x the four diagonal axes: only I does that. Thus we have an injective homomorphism from R whose range has the same order, 24: R = S4 . Obviously, {1} (under multiplication) is isomorphic to Z2 (under addition). Therefore K = S4 Z 2 .

In this section we show that conjugation by unit quaternions on real vectors has the effect of rotating them through twice the angle.

O (3) is the group of distance-preserving (linear) maps on R3 . SO (3), its special subgroup consists of those elements with determinant 1. Equivalently, O (3) is the group of orthogonal 3 3 matrices and SO (3) is the subgroup with determinant 1. (23.1) Lemma SO (2) consists of all rotations of R2 around O . Proof. A matrix a c b d

47

is in SO (2) if and only if a2 + b 2 = c 2 + d 2 = 1 ac + bd = 0 ad bc = 1 Since a2 + b2 = 1, a = cos and b = sin for a unique angle . Likewise, c = sin and d = cos for a unique . Since ac + bd = 0, sin( + ) = 0 so = or = , i.e., c = sin and d = cos , or c = sin and d = cos . Since ad bc = 1, the rst and not the second case applies and the matrix is cos sin sin cos a rotation matrix. (23.2) Lemma SO (3) consists of all rotations of R3 (where the axis of rotation passes through O ). Proof. Fix A SO (3). Since the dimension is odd, there exists a real eigenvalue, so we can write the eigenvalues as 1 , 2 , 3 where 3 is real and the others are either real or complex conjugate. Since A is distance-preserving, all eigenvalues have absolute value 1. If 1 is complex, then |2 |2 3 = 1, so 3 = 1. Suppose they are all real: then they are all 1, and the product is 1, so 1 or 3 equal 1. In any case, A has an eigenvector with eigenvalue 1: without loss of generality, 3 = 1. Choose a unit eigenvector X3 with eigenvalue 1. A preserves distances, and also preserves scalar products: (AX )T (AY ) = X T Y . Therefore A maps the plane {X : X T X3 = 0} to itself. The restriction to this plane gives a length-preserving map with determinant 1 2 = 1,9 so it is a rotation within the plane through angle , say, and A is a rotation of R 3 through the angle around the axis OX3 .

U (2) is the group of distance-preserving (linear) maps on C2 , and SU (2) is the subgroup of maps with determinant 1. Distance in C2 is (z1 , z2 ) = |z1 |2 + |z2 |2 .

It is associated with a scalar product, but the scalar product is linear in one variable and conjugate linear in the other.

9 This can be justied, and there are better ways to show that the determinant of the restricted map is 1. We shall leave this as a gap in the proof.

48

(23.3) Denition Let A be a complex matrix. Its complex adjoint A is the complex conjugate of its transpose. That is, if A = [aij ], then the (i, j ) entry in A is aji . The scalar product of two column vectors X and Y (with complex coefcients) is X Y A square matrix A is unitary if A1 = A (i.e., AA = I ). This corresponds to orthogonal real matrices. The upshot is that the matrix of such that A1 = A where A is the complex adjoint of A, meaning the complex conjugate of A T . Recall that quaternions are formal linear combinations a + bi + cj + dk where i2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = 1. They can be encoded as complex matrices under the mapping 1 1 0 0 1 , i i 0 0 i , j 0 1 1 0 , k 0 i i 0 i.e., (X )Y

(i has been used ambiguously to denote a quaternion and an imaginary number). Then a + bi + cj + dk a + ib c + id c + id a ib (23.3)

(23.4) Lemma Unit quaternions (under this encoding) coincide with SU (2). Partial proof. (Proof omits some cases). The matrix (23.3) has determinant a2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 so for unit quaternions, the determinant is 1. Inverting the matrix in the usual way (the adjoint formula; the determinant is 1): A= a + ib c + id c + id a ib , A1 = a ib c id c id a + ib .

But this last is the (complex) adjoint A of A, so the matrix is in SO (2). We need to prove the converse: a matrix in SU (2) represents a unit quaternion. Such a matrix is z1 z2 z3 z4 49

(the notation has been chosen to t in with the quaternion encoding). The matrix is unitary, meaning z1 z2 z3 z4 and the determinant is 1: z1 z4 + z2 z3 = 1. Suppose z1 = 0 and z2 = 0 (there are a few other cases). Taking the (1, 2) entry in the product, z1 z3 + z2 z4 = 0 z3 + z2 z4 /z1 = 0 Substitute z2 z4 /z1 for z3 in z1 z4 + z 2 z3 = 1 z1 z4 + z2 z2 z4 /z1 = 1 Now, the (1, 1) entry in the product gives |z1 |2 + |z2 |2 = 1 so we reach the conclusion below |z1 |2 z4 + |z2 |2 z4 = z1 z4 = z 1 z4 = z 1 . Again so z2 z3 is real, which means that z3 is a real multiple of z2 , say z3 = tz2 . Then z1 z2 tz2 z1 has determinant |z1 |2 + t|z2 |2 = 1. We have assumed z2 = 0, and |z1 |2 + |z2 |2 = 1, so t = 1, and the matrix has the form z1 z2 z2 z1 with |z1 |2 + |z2 |2 = 1. This encodes a unit quaternion. |z1 |2 + z2 z3 = 1 z1 z3 z2 z4 = 1 0 0 1 ,

50

Let v be a unit vector in R3 , and let be an angle (of rotation). The angle and the axis Ov fully specify the rotation. The unit vector v can be specied by Euler angles , , so the rotation can be specied by the three angles , , . Cross products give a fairly simple formula for the rotation. Given a point x, Let w be (x v )v , the projection of x onto the axis of rotation. Let y = x w : it is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Let z = v y , the cross product (incidentally, it is the same as v x). The rotated point is w + cos y + sin z

Since x = w + y and w is a multiple of v , z = v x. Consider the triple v, y, z = v y . Claim zv =y Since z is perpendicular to v , Let w = z v . First, z v is perpendicular to z and v , as is y , so w is a multiple of y . w = z . Since y is perpendicular to v , z = y . Therefore w = y , so w = y. Since z = v y , the triple v, y, z forms a right-handed system, and so does z, v, y . Also, z, v, w is a right-handed system. Therefore w = z v = y. Now we have z =vx and y =zv

(23.5) Theorem , The rotation map through anticlockwise angle around the positive axis Ov maps x (v x) v + cos ((v x) v ) + sin (v x).

51

Quaternions are composed of a 1-dimensional real part and a 3-dimensional imaginary or spatial part. Hence a+x is a natural way to write it. For multiplication, (a + x)(b + y ) = ab x y + ay + bx + x y The (quaternionic) conjugate of a + x is Multiply a quaternion by its conjugate: a x.

(a + x)(a x) = a2 ( x 2 ) + xa ax + x x = a2 + x 2 . In particular, if a + x is a unit quaternion, i.e, a + x = 1, then its conjugate is its (multiplicative) inverse. A unit quaternion can be represented as cos + v sin where v is a unit vector in R3 . Let x be a vector in R3 , treated as a quaternion with zero real part. Finally we will show that conjugation of real vectors by a unit quaternion cos + v sin is rotation around Ov through an angle 2. To reduce clutter we write c for cos and s for sin . First, (c + sv )x = sv x + cx + sv x Then multiply by c sv . (sv x + cx + sv x)(c sv ) = scv x + csx v s2 (v x) v +s2 (v x)v + c2 x + cs(v x) cs(x v ) s2 (v x) v The real part vanishes because (v x) v = 0. Referring to the calculations leading to Theorem 23.5, x=w+y 52

where w = v x)v , y is perpendicular to v , z = v y , and and y = z v . We can rewrite the above expansion s2 w + c2 x + csz + csz s2 y. Substituting w + y for x (s2 + c2 )w + c2 y + csz + csz s2 y = w + (c2 s2 )y + 2csz = w + cos y + sin z. But this is just the formula 23.3 preceding Theorem 23.5. Therefore (23.6) Theorem Conjugation of a real vector x by a unit quaternion cos + sin v is the same as rotating x through the angle = 2 around the axis Ov . (23.7) Corollary There is a homomorphism h from SO (2) onto SO (3) where h(U )X is dened as follows. Interpeting X as a quaternion with zero real part, convert X to a complex matrix M X under the encoding of quaternions. Compute U MX U . This is MY for a real vector Y . Y = h(U )X , an image of X under a rotation h(U ). The homomorphism is surjective, and its kernel is {I }.

24 Group actions

(24.1) Denition Given a set S , Aut(S ) denotes the group of bijections from S onto S . (24.2) Denition A left action of a group G on a set S is an injective homomorphism of G into Aut(S ), the group of bijective maps from S to S . Variant: there is a map m: GS S We use gx as an abbreviation for m(g, x) such that gx = gy x = y (g1 g2 )x = g1 (g2 x) 53

1x = x ((x S ) gx = x) = g = 1. {g G : gx = x}. (24.4) Lemma Gx G. Proof. 1 Gx g1 , g2 Gx = g2 x = x, so g1 g2 x = g2 x = x, so g1 g2 Gx . g Gx = gx = x = g 1 gx = g 1 x = x = g 1 x, i.e., g 1 Gx . (24.5) Denition The Orbit Ox of any x S is {gx : g G} Examples. The map (, i) (i) is a left action of Sn on {1, . . . , n}. The orbit of any i is all of {1, . . . , n}. (One says in this case the Sn acts transitively on {1, . . . , n}). For any i, the group xing i is trivial. For any Sn , the same map as above is a left action of Sn on {1, . . . , n}. The orbits match the disjoint cycle decomposition of . For any i, let k be the size of the orbit O i . Then the group xing i is { r : k |r }. (24.6) Denition S 2 is the unit sphere in R3 . S 3 corresponds to the unit quaternions. O (3) and SO (3) act on S 2 since every distance-preserving linear map sends S 2 bijectively onto itself. The orbit of any point is all of S 2 : the actions are transitive. The xing subgroups are trivial. Let S 1 (parametrised by angle) act on S 2 so that m(, X ) rotates X through angle anticlockwise around the z -axis. Orbits are lines of longitude. The xing subgroups are trivial except for the north and south poles where they coincide with S 1 . (24.7) Lemma Let G be a group acting (on the left) on a set S and let x S . Then there is a bijection between Ox and the left cosets of Gx . Proof. There is a map The relation f (g ) = f (g ) is an equivalence relation on G. Note f (g ) = f (g ) gx = g x g g x = x g 1 g Gx g gGx

1

f : G Ox ; g gx.

54

|G| |Gx |

Let G be a nite group, k a positive integer, k |G|. Conventionally, G(k) is the family of all k -element subsets of G. G acts on G(k) as follows: gS = {gx : x S }. (24.9) Lemma Suppose G is nite. Under this action, for any S G (k) , |GS | k .

1 Proof. Let S = {a1 , . . . , ak }. If g GS then ga1 = ai for some i aand g = a 1 ai . Thus |GS | k .

25 A Sylow theorem

This section is about the existence of p-subgroups of a nite group G. It will be shown that if p k is the highest power of p dividing the group order |G|, then G has a subgroup of order p k . In order to prove the Sylow Theorem below, we consider a set S consisting of all p k -element subsets of G: S = {P G : |P | = pk } g (P ) = {gx : x P }.

First,

(25.1) Lemma If n is an integer and p is prime and pk is the highest power of p dividing n, then n pk is not divisible by p. Proof. Write n = mpk where gcd(p, m) = 1. Use induction on k . In the case k = 0, m 1 is not divisible by p. Assume the result for k . mpk+1 pk+1 = mpk+1 (mpk+1 1)( )((m 1)pk+1 + 1) pk+1 (pk+1 1)( )(2)(1) 55 =m

We are only interested in those terms which are divisible by p, so we separate the terms mpk+1 (mpk+1 p)( )((m 1)pk+1 + p) pk+1 (pk+1 p)( )(p) mpk (mpk 1)( )((m 1)pk + 1) pk (pk 1)( )(2)(1) mpk pk

This is

and, by induction, is not divisible by p. (25.2) Theorem (a Sylow theorem). Let G be a nite group, let p be prime dividing |G|, p k the highest power of p dividing |G|. Then G has a subgroup of order p k . Proof. We consider the set S and left action g introduced above. The cardinality of S is |S | = n pk and by the above lemma, |S | is not divisible by p. The orbits form a partition of S , so there exists a P such that |orbit(P )| is not divisible by p. This implies that p does not divide |G|/|GP |, so |GP | is divisible by pk . But according to Lemma 24.9, |GP | pk . Therefore |GP | = pk , and GP is the required subgroup. Q.E.D. Application. Show that there are just two groups of order 6. Solution. Let G be a group of order 6. We must show that G is isomorphic to Z 3 Z2 or to S3 . By the Sylow theorem, G contains subgroups of prime orders 3 and 2: these are cyclic, hence there are elements a and b of orders 3 and 2 respectively. since a and a2 both have order 3 and b has order 2. Therefore a b = a and a ab a b = {1}

G = {1, a, a2 , b, ab, ab } a2 a2 1 a b b ab a2 b 1 a a2 ab ab a2 b b a2 b a2 b b ab

56

Exercise. For any nite group F and any subgroup H of F , if |F | = 2|H | then H Therefore a G, so left and right cosets are the same. {b, ab, a2 b} = {b, ba, ba2 } ab = ba in which case G is commutative and isomorphic to Z3 Z2 , or ab = ba2 . In this case, a2 b = aba2 = ba4 = ba, 1 1 a a2 b bab = a2 b2 = a2 , a a a2 1 a2 b a2 a2 1 a ab b b ab a2 b 1 a a2 ab ab a2 b b a2 ba2 b = ab2 = a, a2 b a2 b b ab a

F.

Therefore either

1 a a2 b ab a2 b

Now the fth and sixth rows are easily completed by multiplying the fourth row on the left by a and a2 . 1 a a2 b ab a2 b 1 1 a a2 b ab a2 b a a a2 1 a2 b b ab a2 a2 1 a ab a2 b b b b ab a2 b 1 a a2 ab ab a2 b b a2 1 a a2 b a2 b b ab a a2 1

This is the Cayley table for S3 . (Put another way, the map a (123) and b (12) extends to an isomorphism with S3 ).

ek 1 (26.1) Theorem Let n = pe 1 pk where pj are distinct primes and ej are positive integers. Then every abelian group of order n is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups of the form Z pr , and j the product is unique (up to re-ordering).

By Sylows Theorem, for 1 j k , A has a subgroup of order p j j : call it Aj . There is a map A1 A 2 . . . A k A (x1 , x2 , . . . , xk ) x1 + x2 + . . . + xk which (since A is abelian) is easily seen to be a homomorphism (exercise). (26.2) Lemma If Z is an abelian group and X, Y are nite subgroups and gcd(|X |, |Y |) = 1, then the map X Y Z ; (x, y ) x + y is an injective homomorphism. Proof. That it is a homomorphism has been said already. We need only show that its kernel is trivial. Suppose (x, y ) 0

e

That is, x + y = 0 or x = y belongs to X Y . By Lagranges Theorem, its order divides |X | and |Y |, so its order is 1 and x = y = 0.

(26.3) Denition A p-group is a group where p is a prime and every element has order p j for some j. A nite group is a p-group if and only if its order is a prime power pk (by Lagranges Theorem). (26.4) Corollary A is a direct product of its maximal p-groups. Proof. We have homomorphisms (1 r k ) hr : A1 . . . Ar A; For 2 r k , (x1 , . . . , xr ) x1 + . . . + xr

and it follows from the previous lemma, using induction on r , that each of these homomorphisms h r is injective. Thus there is an injective homomorphism A1 A k A and since both sides have the same cardinality, it is an isomorphism.

58

Suppose P is a nite abelian p-group, so |P | = pk for some k (and p is prime). (26.5) Lemma P is isomorphic to a direct product Z pr 1 Z pr 2 Z pr Proof. When |P | = 1 this is a matter of interpretation. Assume P is nontrivial. We use induction on |P |. More precisely, we claim that there exist elements x1 , . . . , x of P , of orders ps1 , . . . , ps , say, such that the map Z ps 1 Z ps 2 Z ps (i1 , i2 , . . . , i ) i1 x1 + . . . + i x (26.5)

is an isomorphism. Choose an element x1 of maximal order, ps1 , say, in P . Let Q = x1 . If Q = P then P is isomorphic to a cyclic p-group. Otherwise P/Q is a smaller nontrivial abelian p-group. Write its elements as [x] (conjugacy classes: formally, [x] = x + Q). By induction, there exist elements x2 , . . . , x and integers s2 , . . . , s such that the map Z ps 2 Z ps (i1 , i2 , . . . , i ) i2 [x2 ] + . . . + i [x ] is an isomorphism. Since psj [xj ] = 0, psj xj Q,

psj xj = ix1 = apb x1 , meaning that xj is a multiple ix1 and i = apb where a is not divisible by p. Claim sj b. The order of apb x1 ps1 b so p s j xj has order ps1 b and xj has order ps2 +s1 b

If b < s2 then this is bigger than s1 , contradicting choice of x1 . We can replace xj by xj = xj apbsj x1 , which is in the same coset mod Q. But xj has order psj in P . 59

Suppose i 1 x1 + i 2 x2 + . . . + i x = 0 Therefore, in P/Q, i2 [x2 ] + . . . + i [x ] = [0] By induction, [ij xj ] = [0] for 2 j . Then since xj has the same order as [xj ], ij xj = 0. Hence i1 x1 = 0 also, as required.

26.3 Uniqueness

Uniqueness amounts to showing the following. Suppose that we have two factorisations of p k . Looking at sums of exponents, this is equivalent to having two different lists k = r 1 + r2 + . . . + r = s1 + s2 + . . . + s m and we wish to show that and are not isomorphic. (26.6) Lemma Let We write sP for Then, for r = 1, 2, . . ., Z ps P = Z ps 1 {sx : x P }. pr1 P/pr P = (Zp )s Z pr 1 Z pr 2 . . . Z pr Z ps 1 Z ps 2 . . . Z ps m

where s is the number of occurrences of Zpt , t r , in the above direct product. No proof just an example. Z2 Z2 Z8 Z8 Z16 0 0 Z 4 Z4 Z8 0 0 Z 2 Z2 Z4 0 0 0 0 Z2 00000 Z5 2 Z3 2 Z3 2 Z1 2

60

A copy of the May nal exam is on the net. The supplementary exam will have 4 questions of which you should attempt 3. Two questions will be proofs from the notes and two will be based on the quizzes. Your mark will probably be based solely on the supplemental exam, not on coursework. Sets and maps. Composition is associative. Injective, surjective, left and right inverses. Equivalence relations and partitions are interchangeable. Semigroups, monoids, and groups. Quotient and remainder. Integers modulo n. Pigeonhole principle. Sn , disjoint cycle decomposition, parity, generators. Subgroups. Matrix groups GL(n), SL(n), O (n), SO (n), U (n), SU (n). Dihedral groups D2n . Cosets and Lagranges Theorem Additive subgroups of Z and GCD calculations. Fermats Little Theorem. (Know the result; the proof as given in the notes will not be asked). Direct products. Isomorphism Congruences, normal subgroups, and quotient groups. Homomorphism. First isomorphism theorem. Quaternions: the calculations where quaternions (or related matrices in SU (2)) are used to describe rotations, are difcult and will not be asked. 61

You may be asked to recognise groups isomorphic to Q8 . Group actions: orbits and xing subgroups, and relation between orbits and left cosets. Apply Sylows Theorem (to groups of order 6). Finite abelian groups: know the classication theorem; be able to enumerate abelian groups of small orders. (The pr1 A/pr A stuff will not be asked.)

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