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UNIT II

INTRODUCTION TO CMOS CIRCUITS

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 2. CMOS FABRICATION 2.1 n-well CMOS process 2.2 p-well CMOS process 2.3 Twin -Tub Process 3. LOGIC GATES CMOS Inverter NAND Gate NOR Gate 4. STICK DIAGRAM AND LAYOUT REPRESENTATION Components in CMOS technology CMOS Joining Rules Inverter stick diagrams NAND gate stick diagrams NOR gate stick diagram 5. LAYOUT DESIGN RULES 6. SCALING OF CMOS CIRCUITS 7. OTHER CMOS LOGIC Pseudo nMOS Logic Clocked Cmos Logic( C2 MOS Logic) Dynamic CMOS Logic

CMOS Domino Logic n-p CMOS LOGIC

1. INTRODUCTION One of the most popular MOSFET technologies available today is the Complementary MOS or CMOS technology. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for microprocessors, memories and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and BIPOLAR technology is the much smaller power dissipation. Unlike NMOS or BIPOLAR circuits, a CMOS circuit has almost no static power dissipation. Power is only dissipated in case the circuit actually switches. This allows to integrate many more CMOS gates on an IC than in NMOS or bipolar technology, resulting in much better performance. In CMOS technology, both N -type and P-type transistors are used to realize logic functions. The same signal which turns on a transistor of one type is used to turn off a transistor of the other type. This allows the design of logic devices using only simple switches, without the need for a pull-up resistor. In CMOS logic gates a collection of n-type MOSFETs is arranged in a pulldown network between the output and the lower voltage power supply rail (Vss or quite often ground). Instead of the load resistor of NMOS logic gates, CMOS logic gates have a collection of p-type MOSFETs in a pull-up network between the output and the highervoltage rail (often named Vdd). Thus, if both a p-type and n-type transistor have their gates connected to the same input, the p-type MOSFET will be on when the n-type MOSFET is off, and vice-versa.

2. CMOS FABRICATION
There are a number of approaches to CMOS fabrication, including the p-well, the n-well, the twin tub and the silicon - on insulator processors.

2.1 n-well CMOS process


Step 1: Si Substrate The n-well CMOS process starts with a moderately doped (with impurity concentration around 2 1021 impurities/m3) p-type silicon substrate.

p substrate

Step 2: Oxidation This step deposits a thin layer of SiO2 over the complete wafer by exposing it to high-purity oxygen and hydrogen at approx. 1000oC

SiO2

p substrate

Step 3: Photoresist Coating Photoresist is a light sensitive polymer evenly applied to a thickness of 1m by spinning the wafer. This photoresist cross link when exposed to light, making the affected regions insoluble
Photoresist SiO2

p substrate

Step 4: Masking The first lithographic mask defining the n-well region is brought in close proximity to the wafer. The mask is opaque in the regions we want to process and transparent in the other regions The combination of mask and wafer is now exposed to Ultraviolet rays. Where the mass is transparent, the photoresist becomes insoluble. Uv rays

n-type mask

Photoresist SiO2

p substrate

Step 5: Removal of Photoresist The soluble photoresist are removed by treating the wafer with acidic or basic solution. Then the wafer is soft baked at low temperature to harden the the remaining photoresist

Photoresist SiO2

p substrate

Step 6: Acid Etching SiO2 is selectively removed from areas of wafer that are not covered by photoresist by using hydrofluoric acid.
Photoresist SiO2

p substrate

Step 7: Removal of Photoresist Strip off the remaining photoresist

SiO2

p substrate

Step 8: Formation of n-well n-well is formed by diffusion or ion implantation. DIFFUSION In diffusion, the wafers are placed in a quartz tube embedded in a heated furnace. A gas containing the dopant is introduced in the tube. The high temperatures of the furnace (900 to 1000oC) cause the dopants to diffuse into the exposed surface both vertically and horizontally ION IMPLANTATION Dopants are introduced as ions into the material. The ion implantation system directs and sweeps a beam of purified ions over the semiconductor surface. The acceleration of ions determines how deep they will penetrate the material, while the beam current and the exposure time determine the dosage.

SiO2 n well

Steps 2 to 8 constitutes the photolithographic process. Step 9: Removal of SiO2 Strip off the remaining oxide using HF and we have bare wafer with n-well

n well p substrate

Step 10: Polysilicon deposition Deposit very thin layer of gate oxide and then using chemical vapor deposition process a layer of polysilicon is deposited. In this process silane gas flows over o the heated wafer coated with SiO2 at a temperature of approx. 650 C.The resulting reaction produces a noncrystaline or amorphous material called polysilicon.

Polysilicon

Thin gate oxide

n well p substrate

Use same lithography process to pattern polysilicon


Polysilicon Thin gate oxide n well p substrate

Step 11: N- diffusion Carry on photolithographic process to diffuse n- type material. N-diffusion forms nMOS source, drain, and n-well contact.

Oxidation

n well p substrate

Uv rays

n+ Diffusion

n well p substrate

Masking

n well p substrate

Etching

n+

n+ n well p substrate

n+

Diffusion or Ion implantation

n+

n+

n+ p substrate

n well

Removal of SiO2 Step 12: P- diffusion

Step 11 repeated with p diffusion mask produces pMOS source ,drain and substrate contact.

p+

n+

n+

p+ p substrate n well

p+

n+

Step 13: Contact cuts Now we need to wire the devices. Cover chip with thick field oxide. Etch oxide where contact cuts are needed

p+

n+

n+ p substrate

p + n well

p+

n+

Step 14: Metallization Aluminum interconnect layers are deployed using a process known as Sputtering. Aluminum is evaporated in vacuum with heat for evaporation delivered by electron-beam or ion-beam bombarding. Other metal interconnects such as copper require different deposition techniques.
n well p substrate

p+
n+

n+

n+

p+

p+

Metal

Thick field oxide

2.2 p-well CMOS process


The fabrication of p-well cmos process is similar to n-well process except that p-wells acts as substrate for the n-devices within the parent n-substrate Advantages of n-well process n-well CMOS are superior to p-well because of lower substrate bias effects on transistor threshold voltage lower parasitic capacitances associated with source and drain region Latch-up problems can be considerably reduced by using a low resistivity epitaxial p-type substrate

However n-well process degrades the performance of poorly performing ptype transistor

2.3 Twin -Tub Process


A combination of p-well and n-well process is the Twin-Tub process. Here we start with a substrate of high resistivity n-type material and then create both n-well and p-well regions. It is possible to preserve the performance of n-type transistors without compromising the p-type transistors In general, the Twin-tub process allows separate optimization of the n and p transistors

3. LOGIC GATES 3.1 CMOS INVERTER


The circuit below is the simplest CMOS logic gate.

Cmos inverter

When a low voltage (0 V) is applied at the input, the top transitor (P-type) is conducting (switch closed) while the bottom transitor behaves like an open circuit.

Therefore, the supply voltage (5 V) appears at the output. Conversely, when a high voltage (5 V) is applied at the input, the bottom transitor (N-type) is conducting (switch closed) while the top transitor behaves like an open circuit. Hence, the ouput voltage is low (0 V). The function of this gate can be summarized by the following table: Outpu t High(1) Low(0) Low(0) High(1) The output is the opposite of the input this gate inverts the input. Notice that always one of the transistor will be an open circuit and no current flows from the supply voltage to ground.

Input

3.2 NAND Gate

NAND Circuit and Standard Symbol

The circuit has two inputs and one output. Whenever at least one of the inputs is low, the corresponding Ptype transistor will be conducting while the N-type transistor will

be closed. Consequently, the ouput voltage will be high. Conversely, if both inputs are high, then both P-type transistors at the top will be open circuits and both N-type transistors will be conducting. Hence, the output voltage is low.

The function of this gate can be summarized by the following table: V1 V2 Output Low Low High Low High High High Low High High High Low If logical 1s are associated with high voltages then the function of this gate is called NAND for negated AND. Again, there is never a conducting path from the supply voltage to ground.

3.3 NOR Gate

NOR Circuit and Standard Symbol

The circuit has two inputs and one output. Whenever at least one of the inputs is high, the corresponding Ntype transistor will be closed while the P-type transistor will be open. Consequently, the ouput voltage will be low. Conversely, if both inputs are low, then both P-type

transistors at the top will be closed circuits and the N-type transistors will be open.

Hence, the output voltage is high. The function of this gate can be summarized by the following table: V1 V2 Output Low Low High Low High Low High Low Low High High Low If logical 1's are associated with high voltages then the function of this gate is called NOR for negated OR. Again, there is never a conducting path from the supply voltage to ground.

4. STICK DIAGRAM AND LAYOUT REPRESENTATION Stick diagrams and layout representation are used to convey layer information through the use of a color code. The Stick diagrams and layout representation for CMOS are a logical extension of the nMOS style. The exception is yellow is used to identify p-type transistors and wires as depletion mode devices are not used.

4.1 Components in CMOS technology

Component Colour metal 1

Use power and signal wires power wires signal wires and transistor gates signal wires, source and drain of transistors signal wires, source

metal 2 polysilicon n-type diffusion p-type

diffusion contact

and drain of transistors signal connection connection between metal layers non e -

via

insulator

Metal
Two types of metal are used to represent the supply rails

metal1 ( Polysilicon

) or metal2 ( Polysilicon (

) ) is used to represent the gate. ) is used to represent the source and drain ntransistors. ) is used to represent the source

n-type diffusion n-type diffusion ( p-type diffusion p-type diffusion ( and drain p-transistors. Contacts Contacts ( Via

) are used to represent electrical connections.

Cuts called vias are used to make contact between two metal layers

4.2 CMOS Joining Rules


n-type diffusi on n-type diffusion p-type diffusion poly metal1 metal2 p-type diffusi on po ly meta l1 meta l2

symbol

key

allowed - connection formed

prohibited transistor formed

contact needed if connection required, otherwise no connection is made

via needed if connection required, otherwise no connection is made

wherever red cross green an n-transistors is formed and p-transistor is formed wherever red cross yellow

When wires of the same type are crossed connection is made even if you don't use contact or via. Diffusions of the opposite types cannot cross and contact

poly (red) cannot contact n-diff (green) and p-diff (yellow).

when you want to connect poly (red) to n-diff (green) or p-diff (yellow), you must first connect poly (red) to metal1 (blue) and then metal1 (blue) to n-diff (green) or pdiff (yellow).

Metal1 (blue) can contact ndiff (green), pdiff (yellow) and poly (red), but remember contact is needed, otherwise no connection is made, even if the layers are crossed

Metal1 (blue) can contact metal2 (purple), but remember, via is needed, otherwise no connection is made even if the layers are crossed.

4.3

Inverter Stick Diagram

Starting from the circuit diagram of inverter, we can design the stick layout step by step.

1. Two horizontal wires are used for connection with VSS and VDD. This is done in metal2, but you can decide to use metal1 instead.

2. Two vertical wires (p-diff and n-diff) are used to represent the p-transistor (yellow) and n-transistor (green).

3. Then the gates of the transistors are joined with a poly-silicon wire, and connected to the input.

4. The drains of two transistors are then connected with metal1 and joined to the output. There cannot be direct connection from n-transistor to p-transistors.

5. The sources of the transistors are next connected to VSS and VDD with metal1. Notice that vias are used, not contacts.

4.4 NAND Gate Stick Diagram

4.5 NOR Gate Stick Diagram

5. LAYOUT DESIGN RULES


The physical mask layout of any circuit to be manufactured using a particular process must conform to a set of geometric constraints or rules, which are generally called layout design rules. These rules usually specify the minimum allowable line widths for physical objects on-chip such as metal and polysilicon interconnects or diffusion areas, minimum feature dimensions, and minimum allowable separations between two such features. If a metal line width is made too small, for example, it is possible for the line to break during the fabrication process or afterwards, resulting in an open circuit. If two lines are placed too close to each other in the layout, they may form an unwanted short circuit by merging during or after the fabrication process. The main objective of design rules is to achieve a high overall yield and reliability while using the smallest possible silicon area, for any circuit to be manufactured with a particular process. Note that there is usually a trade-off between higher yield which is obtained through conservative geometries, and better area efficiency, which is obtained through aggressive, high- density placement of various features on the chip. The layout design rules which are specified for a particular fabrication process normally represent a reasonable optimum point in terms of yield and density. It must be emphasized, however, that the design rules do not represent strict boundaries which separate "correct" designs from "incorrect" ones. A layout which violates some of the specified design rules may still result in an operational circuit with reasonable yield, whereas another layout observing all specified design rules may result in a circuit which is not functional and/or has very low yield. To summarize, we can say, in general, that observing the layout design rules significantly increases the probability of fabricating a successful product with high yield. The design rules are usually described in two ways : Micron rules, in which the layout constraints such as minimum feature sizes and minimum allowable feature separations, are stated in terms of absolute dimensions in micrometers.

Lambda rules, which specify the layout constraints in terms of a single parameter () and, thus, allow linear, proportional scaling of all geometrical constraints.

Lambda-based layout design rules were originally devised to simplify the industry- standard micron-based design rules and to allow scaling capability for various processes. It must be emphasized, however, that most of the submicron CMOS process design rules do not lend themselves to straightforward linear scaling. The use of lambdabased design rules must therefore be handled with caution in sub-micron geometries. In the following, we present a sample set of the lambda-based layout design rules devised for the MOSIS CMOS process and illustrate the implications of these rules on a section a simple layout which includes two transistors MOSIS portable cmos design ru
LRule 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 spacing to poly edge spacing to metal edge spacing to active edge 2 2 1 1 3 L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L

Rule number R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20

Description Minimum active area width Minimum active area spacing Minimum poly width Minimum poly spacing Minimum gate extension of poly over active Minimum poly-active edge spacing (poly outside active area) Minimum poly-active edge spacing (poly inside active area) Minimum metal width Minimum metal spacing Poly contact Minimum poly Minimum poly Minimum poly Minimum poly spacing size contact contact contact contact

Active contact size 2 Minimum active contact spacing 2 (on the same active region) Minimum active contact to active edge spacing 1 L Minimum active contact to metal edge spacing 1 Minimum active contact to poly edge spacing 3 Minimum active contact spacing 6 (on different active regions)

L L L

SCALING
The size of the circuits in ICs continues to increase. Proper scaling allows to shrink a design. Technology scaling rate is approximately 13% / year, halving every 5 years. Besides increasing the number of devices, scaling has had a profound impact on both

speed and power.

Full Scaling (Constant Electrical Field Scaling)

In the ideal model, all the dimensions of the MOS devices, e.g., the voltage supply level and depletion widths are scaled by the same factor S. Keeping the electric field patterns constant avoids breakdown and other secondary effects. This leads to greater device density, higher speed and reduced power consumption. Ron remains constant -- performance is improved because of the reduced capacitance. Circuit speed increases linearly while the power scales down quadratically! Both clearly indicate the benefits of scaling. Dimensions are scaled by S while voltages are scaled by U.

Fixed Voltage Scaling Full scaling is not a feasible option. For example, to keep new chips compatible with existing chips, voltages

cannot be scaled arbitrarily. Providing multiple voltage supplies is expensive. 5V was used up through the early 90s. Voltages of 3.3 and 2.5 used since the introduction of 0.5 m. The change from a fixed-voltage scaling model to the general scaling model used today can be justified by reviewing the rightmost column. In velocity saturated device, keeping the voltage constant while scaling the device dimensions: Does not provide a performance advantage over full scaling model (1/S vs. 1/S) But has a major power penalty associated with it (1/S2 vs 1). Note the gain of increased current level is offset by the higher voltage swing, which only hurts power dissipation. Also note that this is very different from the situation when transistors were operating in the long-channel mode.

Here, current was a quadratic function of the voltage. In this scenario, keeping voltage constant gave a performance advantage (net reduction in "on resistance" Other reasons for scaling the supply voltage include hot-carrier effect and oxide breakdown. These latter reasons played a significant role in the trend we see today. Bear in mind that this is a first order analysis -- in reality, there is a (small) performance benefit with fixed voltage due to, e.g., channel length modulation. Supply voltage is now being scaled, but at a slower rate than feature size. For example, from 0.5 m to 0.1 m, supply voltage reduced from 5 V to 1.5V. Then why not stick with full scaling model if there is no benefit to keeping the supply voltage higher. Some device voltages, e.g., silicon bandgap and built-in junction potential, are material parameters and cannot be scaled. VT scaling is limited since making it too low makes it difficult to turn off the devices completely. This is aggravated by large process variations. A more general scaling model is needed, where dimensions and voltages are scaled independently using S and U respectively. Under fixed voltage scaling, U = 1 as shown in the last column of the table. General Scaling Under general scaling model, performance scenario is identical (1/S) to other models but power dissipation lies between the two models, S > U > 1. Recent CMOS technologies and projections of the future.

OTHER CMOS LOGIC


Pseudo nMOS Logic Using a PMOS transistor simply as a pull-up device for an n-block is called pseudo-NMOS logic. In this type of logic the transistor widths must be chosen properly, i.e., The pull-up transistor must be chosen wide enough to conduct a multiple of the n-block's leakage and narrow enough so that the n-block can still pull down the output safely.

The advantage of pseudo-NMOS logic are its high speed (especially, in large-fan-in NOR gates) and low transistor count. On the negative side is the static power consumption of the pull-up transistor as well as the reduced output voltage swing and gain, which makes the gate more susceptible to noise. Furthermore, when the gate of the pull-up transistor is connected to a appropriate control signal it can be turned off, i.e., pseudo-NMOS supports a power-down mode at no extra cost. Clocked Cmos Logic( C2 MOS Logic)

The logic is implemented in both n - and p- transistors in the form of a pull up p- block and a complementary n-block pull down structure. However the logic in this case is evaluated only during the on period of the clock Dynamic CMOS Logic

The basic structure of dynamic CMOS logic is shown below

When the clock is low, the NMOS device is cutoff while the PMOS is turned ON. This has the effect of disconnecting the output node from ground while simultaneously connecting the node to VDD. Since the input to the next stage is charged up through the PMOS transistor when the clock is low, this phase of the clock is known as the precharge phase. When the clock is high however, the PMOS is cutoff and the bottom NMOS is turned ON, thereby disconnecting the output node from VDD and providing a possible pull-down path to ground through the bottom NMOS transistor. This part of the clock cycle is known as the evaluation phase, and so the bottom NMOS is called the evaluation NMOS. When the clock is in the evaluation phase, the output node will either be maintained at its previous logic level or discharged to GND. In other words, the output node may be selectively discharged through the NMOS logic structure depending upon whether or not a path to GND is formed due to inputs of the NMOS logic block. If a path to ground is not formed during the evaluation phase, the output node will maintain its previous voltage level since no path exists from the output to VDD or GND for the charge to flow away. There are many advantages to using dynamic CMOS logic over static CMOS logic or Pseudo NMOS logic. The elimination of the complimentary PMOS transistors significantly reduces the surface area needed to implement the various logic functions not only because the physical number of transistors is nearly cut in half, but because the physical size of the PMOS transistors tend to be much larger than the size of an NMOS transistor. The switching speeds are also increased using the dynamic logic configuration since the speed bottleneck caused by the lengthier time the PMOS requires to pull-up the output node is eliminated. Since this node is already precharged high through the PMOS during the precharge phase, the output node needs only to be selectively discharged during the evaluation phase. Discharging the

output node

through the NMOS devices is significantly faster than the time needed to charge up the output node through the PMOS device. There are several potential problems with the implimentation of this design that need to be considered. Since the basic dynamic CMOS logic configuration causes the output node to be disconnected from VDD during the evaluation phase, even if the output is also disconnected from GND, the charge of the output node will begin to diminish due to the non-ideal effects of the system. Parasitic capacitances, for example, may leak the charge away from the output node and eventually cause a logic error. Since there is, however, a finite time needed for the charge to erroneously escape, the use of faster the clock speeds will eliminate this kind of error. This implies however, that there is a minimum clock speed at which dynamic CMOS logic structures may be operated. It also eliminates the possibility to idle the basic dynamic CMOS logic circuit.

CMOS Domino Logic CMOS domino gates are formed by cascading dynamic gates. This kind of design is referred to as Domino Logic since the pull-down of one stage can conditionally cause the pull-down of succeeding stages and so on like falling dominoes. The number of Domino Logic stages that may be cascaded is limited only by the sum of the total pull -down times in all cascaded logic blocks which must be contained within the evaluation clock phase.

The dynamic gate works or operates in two phases: Precharge phase and evaluation. During the precharge phase, the clock input is low, turning off the NMOS device and switching on the PMOS device, this pulls the output high, as there is no path from the output to the ground.

During evaluation the clock input is high, turning the PMOS transistor off and switching on the NMOS transistor. In this case the output of the device depends on the inputs. According to the precharge rule there should be no active path from the output to the ground during the precharge cycle, otherwise there will be a dissension between the PMOS precharge transistor and the NMOS transistors pulling to ground, consuming excess power and leaving the output at indeterminate value. Drawbacks to this design are The addition of two additional components to each dynamic block. Extra design consideration must also be observed when using dynamic CMOS logic blocks in conjunction with static CMOS logic blocks. Only non inverting logic functions can be realized n-p CMOS LOGIC An alternative to Domino Logic is n-p cmos logic or Domino-Zipper Logic. n-p logic is characterized by alternating the MOSFETs in the logic block from PMOS to NMOS logic gates and so on.

The function of the clocked n- and p- fets in the PMOS logic stage are reversed compared to the NMOS logic stage. Although this structure eliminates the cascading problem, the excess use of PMOS in forming the logic gates reduces the maximum clocking speed and increases the surface area of the system. Another significant drawback to this configuration is the use of the twophase clock The signals of both clock phases must be delivered at nearly the same instant for the circuit to operate correctly.

What is meant by Moores law? The population of transistors used per square inch in the ICs will double every 18 months since the invention of IC technology in 1958 according to the prediction of Moore.

Will Moores law Sustain? The Pace of the Moores Prediction is expected to be slowed down after 2013. The transistor count will double only after 3 years and not 18 months as it is now. This is primarily due to the non reduction of gate length less than 22nm and hence the transistor size is not altered. Another major hurdle is troubleshooting the error in the circuit if any one tiny transistor fails. Future Scope Recently researches are performed from INTEL to reduce transistor gate length less than 22nm using a modified 3D structure called FINFET which is basically a multi gate transistor structure. This invention indicates that Moores law road doesnt end. As long as the thirst for innovation is present Moores Law trend will continue .. Y chart :

VLSI Design Cycle:VLSI design cycle start with a formal specification of a VLSI chip, follows a series of steps, and eventually produces a packaged chip.

A simple VLSI design cycle: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. System Specification Functional design Logic design Circuit design Physical design Fabrication Packaging, Testing and Debugging VLSI Design Cycle

System Specification 1. First step of design process is to lay down the specification of the system. 2. High level representation of the system. 3. Factors considered: a) Performance b) Functionality c) Physical dimension d) Design technique e) Fabrication technology 4. It is a compromise between market requirements, technological and economical viability. The end results are specifications of 1. Size 2. Speed 3. Power and 4. Functionality of the VLSI system 5. Basic architecture of the system are also specified, such as a) Floating point unit b) RISC versus CISC system c) Number of ALUs d) Number and structure of the pipelines e) Size of the cache, etc. Functional Design 1. 2. 3. 4. Main functional units of the system are identified Identifies the interconnect requirements between the units The area, power and other parameters of each unit are estimated The behavioral aspects of the system are considered not implementation

specification - multiplication needed but does not specify its hardware 1. The key idea is to specify behavior, in terms of a) Input b) Output c) Timing of each unit Without specifying the internal structure. The outcome of functional design is usually a timing diagram or other relationships between units. This information leads to improvement of the overall design process and reduction of complexity of the subsequent phases. Functional design provides a quick emulation of the system and allows fast debugging of the full system. Logic Design Design the logic, that is, 1. Boolean expressions, 2. control flow, 3. word width, 4. register allocation, etc. The outcome is called an RTL (Register Transfer Level) description. RTL is expressed in a HDL (Hardware Description Language), such as VHDL and Verilog. This description can be used in simulation and verification. As this description consists of Boolean expressions, so they can be minimized to achieve the smallest logic design. Circuit Design 1. The purpose of the circuit design is to develop a circuit representation based on the logic design. 2. The Boolean expression can be converted into a circuit representation by taking into consideration the speed and power requirements of the original design. 3. Design the circuit including gates, transistors, interconnections, etc. The outcome is called a netlist. 4. Circuit simulation is used to verify the correctness and timing of component. Fabrication 1. Fabrication: Process includes lithography, polishing, deposition, diffusion, etc., to produce a chip. 2. Fabrication process consists of several steps and requires various masks. 3. Before the chip is mass produced, a prototype is made and tested.

Packaging, Testing and Debugging 1. Packaging Put together the chips on a PCB (Printed Circuit Board) or an MCM (Multi-Chip Module) 2. Each chip is then packaged and tested to ensure that it meets all the design specifications and that it functions properly.

Circuit Partitioning A chip may contain several million transistors. So layout of the entire circuit can not be handled due to the limitation of memory space and computation power available. Partition a large circuit into sub-circuits (called blocks). Factors like #blocks, block sizes, interconnection between blocks, etc., are considered. The output of partitioning is a set of blocks and the interconnections between them. Partitioning may be hierarchical. Floor planning This step is concerned with selecting good layout for each block as well as the entire chip. The area of each block can be estimated after partitioning based approximately on the number and type of components of that block. Interconnect area between blocks is also considered. Done by design engineer rather than CAD tools: human is better in visualization. Certain components are often required to be located at a specific position on the chip. Placement The blocks are exactly positioned on the chip. The goal is to minimize the area arrangement for the blocks that allows completion of interconnections between the blocks while meeting the performance constraints. For example: routable blocks but fails timing goals.

1. Two phases: initial placement is created in the first phase. In second phase, initial placement is evaluated and iterative improvements are made until the layout has minimum area. 2. Quality of placement will not be evident until the routing phase has been completed. Placement may lead to an un routable design: More space may be needed. 3. Good routing and circuit performance heavily depends on a good placement algorithm. 4. This is due to the fact that after the position of the block has been fixed, routing can do nothing. Routing o Objectives is to complete the interconnections between modules. o Routing space is partitioned into channels and switchboxes.

o Two phases : global routing and detailed routing. Global routing (GR) In global routing, connections are completed between proper blocks of the circuit disregarding exact geometric details of each wire and pin. For each wire GR finds a lists of channels which are to be used as a passageways for that wire. In other words, GR specifies different regions in the routing space through which a wire should be routed. Detailed routing (DR) DR completes point-to-point connections between pins on the blocks. GR is converted into exact routing by specifying geometric information such as location and spacing of wires and their layer assignments. It includes channel and switchbox routing. Compaction & Verification Compaction Compress the layout from all directions to minimize the total chip area. Advantages: Making chip smaller, wire lengths are reduced. Reduces signal delays. More chip on a small area, so manufacturing cost reduced. But should ensure design rules. Verification Check the correctness of the layout. Include DRC (Design Rule Checking), circuit extraction (generate a circuit from the layout to compare with the original netlist), performance verification, reliability verification. Review Physical Design The final physical layout of a complicated circuit on a small piece of silicon is generated in a set of steps using CAD tools