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Social Media for Social Change: Interaction Between ICT4D Non-Profit Organizations and Public on Social Media

Shastri H. Gayatri ANR 218301 Master's Thesis Communication and Information Sciences Specialization Business Communication and Digital Media Faculty of Humanities Tilburg University, Tilburg

Supervisor Second Reader

: Dr. A. Alishahi : Dr. S. Milan

August 2013

*Cover page photo copyrights of IICD 2011, www.iicd.org

Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

PREFACE
This Master thesis was submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Communication and Information Sciences. In my thesis I focused on the subjects that deals with changes constantly. First, ICT for development, which is centred on how to positively change the life of people through the use of technology. The second is social media. After the Arab Spring, it is clear that social media have changed world in such ways that are almost unimaginable. As British philosopher Allan Wats put it the only way to make sense out of change is to plunge into it, move with it, and join the dance. So this thesis is one of my academic efforts in diving into these constantly changing fields, move with it, and of course join the dance. This thesis was made available through hard works, countless caffeine, and much loves. In this opportunity, I would like to express my gratitude to those people who either knowingly or unknowingly have given me the supports during the overall thesis process. First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis supervisor dr. Afra Alishahi for her patience in guiding me and for the encouragement when I was almost lost at times. Secondly, I would like to thank dr. Stefania Milan, for her thorough review on my thesis and for providing the valuable ICT4D field-based knowledge. I would also like to thank the three nonprofits organizations that are involved in this research, especially for the persons who have helped me disseminate the survey: Mr Pehr Martens, Mr Klaus Stoll, and Mr Eduardo Landin. This research would literally not be possible without your supports. Likewise, I would like to thank all the nonprofits organizations that I have approached during the research and everyone who has approached me either through my research proposal or my survey. I have received lots of valuable feedbacks that have enriched this thesis one way or the other. Last but not least, I am very much thankful for my personal 'support system', that is my family and my boyfriend. Even though I'm miles away from my family, I constantly receive the much needed loves and moral boost in stressful situations. So my gratitude goes to Danthe, Micky, Gita, Rino, Galuh, Putra & Ausi. I dedicate my thesis to those who still believe that they can change the world. Sasha Gayatri August, 2013

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the research is to investigate how non-profit organizations (NPOs) in the field of ICT for Development (ICT4D) interact with their public on social media. Using content analysis of NPOs social media messages (N=531) and audience survey (N=48), the study examines the influence of interactive features of social media messages and users motivations on online relationship between NPOs and public. The findings suggest that there is a significant association between types of interactive features used in social media messages and the response rate of the messages. The social media messages with interactive feature that highlights the unique value from the NPOs (the generation of return visits feature) received the most responses compared to the messages that use the other three features. Apart from that, motivation of the audience was found to be a significant predictor to the perceived online relationship. When the public are more motivated to follow NPOs on social media, they would perceive the online relationship more positively.

Keywords: International development, ICT4D, non-profit organizations, social media, online public relation

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

Table of Content

PREFACE .............................................................................................................. 2 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. 3 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 6


1.1. Background Information..................................................................................................... 6 1.2. Research Questions ............................................................................................................ 7 1.3. Research Plan ..................................................................................................................... 8 1.4. Thesis Overview .................................................................................................................. 8

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ............................................................................. 9


2.1 Non-Profit Organizations ..................................................................................................... 9 2.1.1. Defining Non-Profit Organization ................................................................................ 9 2.1.2. NPOs in the Field of ICT for Development (ICT4D) .................................................... 10 2.1.3. Multistakeholders Model As A New Way of Partnering ........................................... 10 2.2. Social Media ..................................................................................................................... 12 2.2.1. Defining Web 2.0, User Generated Content, and Social Media ................................ 12 2.2.2. Non Profit Organizations 2.0 ..................................................................................... 13 2.3. Elements of Social Media Engagement ............................................................................ 14 2.3.1. The Medium: Ubiquitous Social Networking Sites .................................................... 14 2.3.2. The Message: Conveying Dialogic Communication on the Internet ......................... 15 2.3.3. The Mass: Motivations of Followers ......................................................................... 17 2.3.4. The Impact: Organization - Public Relationship on the Internet ............................... 17 2.4. Hypotheses ....................................................................................................................... 18

3. METHODOLOGY ...............................................................................................20
3.1. Research Target NPOs and Survey Participants ............................................................... 20 3.1.1. Selection of NPOs ...................................................................................................... 20 3.1.2. The Audience of NPOs Social Media ........................................................................ 22 3.2. Research Method: Data Collection and Methods ............................................................ 22 3.2.1. Selection of social media sites................................................................................ 22 3.2.2. Content Analysis ..................................................................................................... 22 3.2.3. Audience Survey ..................................................................................................... 23 3.3. Materials ........................................................................................................................... 24 3.4. Measures .......................................................................................................................... 24 3.4.1. Dialogic features ........................................................................................................ 24 3.4.2. Reciprocity ................................................................................................................. 25 3.4.3. Motivations of Followers ........................................................................................... 25 3.4.4. Online Relationship ................................................................................................... 25

4. RESULTS ...........................................................................................................26
4.1. Content Analysis: Dialogic Features ................................................................................. 26 4.2. Survey: Motivations of Followers ..................................................................................... 29

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

4.3. Survey: Online Public Relation.......................................................................................... 30

5. DISCUSSIONS ...................................................................................................31
5.1. Discussions........................................................................................................................ 31 5.2. Implications ...................................................................................................................... 32 5.3. Limitations ........................................................................................................................ 33 5.4. Future Research............................................................................................................... .34

6. CONCLUSION....................................................................................................35 REFERENCE LIST ...................................................................................................36 Appendix A ..........................................................................................................40 Appendix B ..........................................................................................................41

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Information
1.1.1. The Emergence of ICT for Development (ICT4D) as a new field
The rise of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed the way people get things done, including how they communicate with each other. At the moment there are many media available that accelerates the pace of information exchange between people. With smartphones and mobile devices, email can be sent and received just within seconds. Parallel to this growth, the Internet has also provided what seem to be endless possibilities in getting access to information and building interaction with others. This has made ICTs and Internet very pervasive in todays world. Unfortunately there is still disparity between the digital have and have-nots. On the one hand, the constantly evolving technology has the potentials to bring much more benefits to those who can access and know how to use it. But on the other hand, the gap between those who can access and use technology and those who cannot is increasingly widening. In order to address this problem, a collective action labelled ICT for development (ICT4D) was established. ICT4D concentrates on international development and focus mostly in developing countries based on the ground that these countries are home to most of the digital have-nots. ICT4D should be seen as a combination between two elements: the ICT part implies meaningful use of ICT for daily live and the D part which stands for development, implies international effort in improving lives of less fortunate people in various sectors, such as health, education, and economic development (Toyama, 2010). In practice, there is an informal specification of ICT4D based on the sectors, which lead to other use of abbreviations such as ICT for Education (ICT4Edu) or ICT for Agriculture (ICT4Ag). The first official introduction of ICT4D as a new interdisciplinary field was initiated by the United Nations in early 21st century. Right at the start, the field of ICT4D has always been internationally focused, interdisciplinary, and multi-sector (Toyama, 2010).

1.1.2. Communicating ICT4D in times of Social Media


The field of communication and media has been closely related to technology. As technology rapidly advanced in the beginning of 21st century, new methods of reporting and communicating have been adopted by many enterprises and organizations. One outlet that has become a particular interest is the Internet. The Internet gave space to the creation of World Wide Web (WWW), which a long the line allowed the boom of social media. Over the years social media has continually sparked great impact on society, be it on international, national, and even personal level. As good as the social media are, it also

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

brings new challenges in how business should communicate and reach out to public. For a start, currently it has become a prerequisite for organizations to have a website to be perceived as credible. Furthermore, with overwhelming numbers of active users (more than 1 billion for Facebook, 200 million for Twitter), social media have become prominent channels for communication. Organizations that did not explore these possibilities often fail to amplify their impact to the wider public. With regards to the field of ICT4D, the online presence and social media engagement does exists. However, the current numbers are not convincing. According to Google trends, which is the largest web based search engine, the web search for ICT4D or ICT for Development has declined since 2005 (see Figure 1). This is quite problematic in terms of communicating ICT4D field in the times of social media. How could ICT4D key players organizations create an impact on social media when the online interest for ICT4D has declined over the years.

Figure 1: ICT4D online interest based on web search. The information is based on Google websearch over the years, from 2004 - 2013. It shows the interest is declining over the years. Source: Google Trends (2013).

In order to address this issue, it is important to first of all understand how the organizations that are involved in the ICT4D field use social media to reach out to public. Therefore current study will explore the social media use of ICT4D organizations. Particular focus will be put on NPOs since these organizations are the ones that best captured the interdisciplinary and multi-sector approach of ICT4D. Apart from that, seeing how social media is used by NPOs to reach public in general would contribute to existing research and studies done within the academic field of communication and public relation. Therefore, the study also aims to offer more knowledge and possibly new research approach or method that could be explored further in the communication sciences.

1.2. Research Questions


The main research question for this study is How do non-profit organizations (NPOs) in field of ICT4D use social media channels to interact with their public? A set of sub-questions was formulated to answer the main research question. These questions are:
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1. What are the social media messages posted by the NPOs and how interactive are these messages? 2. What motivates people to follow NPOs on social media? 3. What is the influence of (1) the interactivity of social media messages and (2) the motivations of social media followers on the perceived online relationship between NPOs and public?

1.3. Research Plan


This study aims to investigate the online relationship between NPOs and their public by analysing the social media outreach by NPOs and the motivations of NPOs social media followers. The study employs the quantitative approach by using a combination of content analysis and surveys.

1.4. Thesis Overview


The overview of the chapters will be explained in this section. This chapter serves as an introduction to the thesis. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical framework of this study and concludes with a set of hypotheses. Chapter 3 provides description of the methodology used in current research. Furthermore, Chapter 4 reports the result of the research and the main findings related to the hypotheses. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the findings and implications of this research and Chapter 6 provides conclusion of the overall investigation and directions for future research.

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1. Non-Profit Organizations
2.1.1. Defining Non-Profit Organization
Non-Profit Organization (NPO) is broadly defined by Business Dictionary as associations, charities, cooperatives and other voluntary organizations formed to further cultural, educational, religious, professional, or public service objectives (Business Dictionary, n.d, para.1). NPOs, as the term implies, do not have the profit-making activities as the business core. Instead, the profit or the net earnings must be allocated to finance the production of services that the organizations provide (Hansmann, 1980). NPOs history can be traced back to the medieval times where the charitable activities were mostly performed by churches and congregation. In pre-modern times, the philantrophic activities were in hand of churches and wealthy individuals. In the 20th century, there was a pillarization, i.e. a vertical segmentation of people in terms of education and social class, which resulted in close ties between non-profit and collective sector, including the government. The funding for NPO was also received from these sectors by means of collective funding. This is the base of institutionalized NPOs these days (Burger & Veldheer, 2001). NPOs can further be classified between governmental NPO, such as school, hospital, and private NPO, such as foundation or charities organization. The later is also called NonGovernmental Organizations (NGO). In the field of NPOs in the Netherlands, the term NGO is associated for non-profits working in the field of international cooperation and development aid (Burger & Dekker, 2001, p. 4). Moreover, NPOs can be distinguished from the profit-making business based on the following characteristics: (1) (2) (3) (4) The organization is formally constituted NPOs are non-governmental in basic structure NPOs are usually self-governance The surplus revenue is not distributed as profit, rather it is used for various operational cost, (5) The work is voluntary (Salamon & Helmut, 1992) The competitive advantages of NPOs are the creation of value among the community and the drive to social change. Throughout the years, there are several key events that have caused NPO to struggle to keep their openness to the public, which are: rise of professional staff, some numbers of foundation grew to hire more professionals, and success definition was focused on budget and numbers of staff growth. As a result, the non-profit sector was hindered and the organizations were not convinced to reach beyond their borders and solving social problem anymore (Kanter & Fine, 2010).

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Masters Thesis / S.H. GAYATRI | SOCIAL MEDIA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

2.1.2. NPOs in the Field of ICT for Development (ICT4D)


In 2000, the United Nations (UN) set up the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of eight development goals to be completed by 2015, ranging from eradicating poverty, eliminating HIV/AIDS, to creating a global partnership of development (see Table 1). In line with this development, the Internet has came to existence and its potentials to help further the development efforts have been seen by many, including the technology pioneers as well as the so-called world leaders. However, there was, and still is, a gap between people in the developed countries and the target beneficiaries of MDGs in the developing countries with regards to accessing this new technology. On this ground, the UN established a Digital Task Force to advance the use of ICT and the Internet to achieve the MDGs. In order to come out with concrete plan of action for the task force, UN organized a world summit labelled the World Summit of Information Society (WSIS) in the year 2003 in Switzerland and 2005 in Tunisia. The summit has brought together government agencies, private enterprises, and civil society organizations to discuss about what could be done to achieve the information society where everyone has equal access to technology. During the summit, the efforts toward utilizing the then new ICT tools to achieve the information society were summarized in a new collective global initiative labelled ICT for Development, abbreviated as ICT4D or ICTD (Uimonen, 2012).

Millennium Development Goals to be completed by 2015 1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieving universal primary education 3. Promoting gender equality and empowering women 4. Reducing child mortality rates 5. Improving maternal health 6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7. Ensuring environmental sustainability 8. Developing a global partnership for development
Table 1: Millennium Development Goals by the United Nations (2000)

ICT4D is defined as a collective initiative to bridge the digital divide, i.e. the disparity between the technological have and have-not, geographic locations, and demographic groups, and to aid economic development by ensuring access to the latest ICT tools (Rouse, 2011, para. 1). The ICT4D was driven by the uneven distribution of the digital media from global perspective (Uimonen, 2012). The main reason why access to Internet and ICTs is so pervasive in the development world is because this new technological tool have the potentials to open doors to knowledge and information that could be used to enhance individuals live (Heeks, 2008).
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ICT4D should be seen as a combination between two elements: the ICT part implies meaningful use of ICT for daily live and the D part which stands for development and implies international effort in improving lives of less fortunate people in various sectors, such as health, education, and economic development (Toyama & Dias, 2008). On conceptual level, ICT4D is an interdisciplinary subject and stands on crossroads between the technology and development studies (Toyama, 2010). On more practical level, the ICT4D includes professionals from policy makers, government agents, telecomm and infrastructure experts, IT experts, development experts and practitioners. Ever since, numerous ICT4D-related projects were implemented and integrated in various social development efforts, including many institutions from various sectors, government (e.g. e-government initiatives), private companies (e.g. Microsoft for Africa), and nongovernmental organizations (e.g. International Institute for Communication and Development based in The Hague). There is also ICT4D Collective, which is dedicated to advance the research and development of the field.

2.1.3. Multistakeholders Model As A New Way of Partnering


Align with the WSIS engagement model of multistakeholder interaction, ICT4D organizations are adopting similar approach. Therefore, it is necessary to have a better understanding of this model. The pressing challenges that have to be faced are beyond control of a single stakeholders or only one level of policy makers. Instead a new kind of partnership, beyond public-private partnership should be put into practice. The multistakeholder model is used as means of engagement for different parties to work on unified objectives. The model is said to enhanced effectiveness and accountability of network between the public private partnerships (Bckstrand, 2006). The multistakeholder partnership, in particular for ICT for development, was arguably emerged during the WSIS process. Throughout the years, it has triggered creation of numbers of organizations that adopts the multi-stakeholder model. The target NPOs in current study employ this approach and working actively in the field of ICT for development. In multistakeholder networks, different players from governmental insititutions, policy makers, to business, private enterprises, and civil society join hand in hand to find a common solution to a problem that affects all of them (Roloff, 2008). Multistakeholder partnership model in ICT for development is alliances between parties drawn from government, business and civil society that strategically aggregate the resources and competencies of each to resolve the key challenges of ICT as an enabler of sustainable development (Overseas Development Institute [ODI] & Foundation for Development Cooperation [FDC], 2003, p.13). The example of organizing body that employs multistakholder model to address worldwide issue is the Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). ICANNs responsibility among many includes coordinating global internet system unique identifiers, such as the Internet Protocol (IP) address unique numbers that allows webpages and
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devices (laptops or mobile device) exchange information and also the new top level domains - overseeing the domain name, such as .com, .gov, and .org (ICANN, n.d.). Recently a new application has been available, which allowed public to register their own domain name, such as .apps and .ngo.

2.2. Social Media


2.2.1. Defining Web 2.0, User Generated Content, and Social Media
Internet has been called the network of networks. This complies with the architecture of Internet, which is constructed by overwhelming numbers of webpages linked to each other. Internet has allowed the creation of web 2.0 platforms, which in turn facilitated the creation of social media and allowing user generated content. This part will provide the definitions of web 2.0, social media, and user generated content. Web 2.0 is comprised of computer network-based platforms upon which social media applications run or function (Weinberg & Pehlivan, 2011). The term is used to describe the new way of using the world wide web (www), that is as an online platform on which not only all people can create and publish content that could be continuously modified by all users in a collaborative manner (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). User Generated Content (UGC) can be seen as the sum of all ways in which people make use of Social Media (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). The examples of websites that allows UGC are blogging platforms, such as Blogger and Wordpress, and Wikipedia. Due to the novelty of social media research, there is not yet formal and uniform definition about social media. Regardless, these definitions have captured the essence of social media use. According to Kietzmann et.al (2011, p. 241), social media are mobile and web-based technologies that enable the creation of highly interactive platforms from which the individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content. More elaborated definition goes as follows Internet-based applications that carry consumer-generated content which encompasses media impressions created by consumers, typically informed by relevant experience, and archived or shared online for easy access by other impressionable consumers (Blackshaw 2006, as cited in Xiang & Gretzel, 2009, p.180). The interaction between web 2.0, social media, and user generation is summarized with the following definition: a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p. 61).

The Downsides of Social Media The explosion of Internet media use has not only brought many benefits for all layers of society, but also it has contributed to some disadvantages and polemic issues being raised. The most fascinating potential of social media lies in the fact that there is not intervention
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from conventional media to the content being produced or shared (Uimonen, 2012). This has led to what seems like unlimited freedom of expressions by the users. However, this is not or would not be the case. Many efforts have been put to regulate online media. For instance, the United States government as well as European Union have urged the better legislation and surveillance on the Internet, expressed through various bills of Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), Protect Intellectual Property Act (PIPA), and Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) (Braskov, 2012). These regulations are not yet put into practice, but if they were, it would restrict, to some extent, the freedom of expression that is promised by social media. Furthermore, the changes brought about by social media could also pose a threat to the organizations, since the creation of message does not rely solemnly on the communication effort exert by the organizations, but also involves the social networking practices from individuals, which are often unexpected and hard to predict (Braskov, 2012). Moreover, the main advantage of the Internet is that it is fast and cheap, but in turn, it also brings the overload of information for users (Qualmann, 2012). There are no governing bodies, nor there will be, that will approve the credibility of all information on the Internet, which in turn will make building trust complicated in social media (ttingsberg, 2012). Social Media for Global Development Similar to the Internet, social media characteristics are decentralized, interactive, and boundary-crossing (Uimonen, 2012, p. 21). This has been the trigger of social media use for various social movements. According to Clark Shirky (2011), social media should be seen as a tool to coordinate the real-world action and not as a replacement. Furthermore, Shirky also argued that social media has benefited the public sphere in several ways. First of all, social media has allowed the easy coordination tools for social movements (Shirky, 2011). The examples of social media as tools for social movement can be seen on the case of Occupy Movement a people-powered movement to depict the over dominating power of Wall Street professionals and authorities, and also projects such as Kony The Invisible Children a project to empower children and fight against violence of Ugandan rebel Joseph Kony, which made famous after the 30 minutes video project went viral. Secondly, social media has escalated the increased awareness by proliferating messages through various social networks (Shirky, 2011). The current biggest social networking site is Facebook, with more than one billion active users creating and sharing countless multimedia contents everyday (King, 2013).

2.2.2. Non Profit Organizations 2.0: NPOs Activities on Social Media


With regards to the development cooperation, social media have also been recognized as powerful tools for positive transformation. Social media has attracted many users, from regular citizens, activists, nongovernmental organizations, telecommunications firms, software providers, and governments (Shirky, 2011). These actors have various reasons in using social media. This section will give insights about the use of social media and the

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underlying difference between the social media use of profit making versus non-profit making businesses. On the conceptual level, social media are mainly utilized by both for-profit and non-profit business to reach out to the wider audience and raise awareness. However, for most private enterprise, the commercial purpose, i.e. to attract people to buy something, is the main interest of social media, although it is not the case that that is their only interest. In the recent years, similar to their counterparts, i.e. the private enterprises, NPOs have increasingly started to integrate the social media use to the public relations effort and ongoing projects (Braskov, 2012). NPOs have also recognized the importance of social media for communication and starting to embrace it. The spread of new media has also significantly increased non-profits ability to communicate with clients as well as regulators, volunteers, the media, and the general public (Lovejoy & Saxton, 2012). Waters (2009) found that non-profit organizations use social media to streamline their management functions, interact with volunteers and donors, and educate others about their programs and services. Through interactions with stakeholders on Facebook and other social media applications, organizations seek to develop relationships with important publics.

2.3. Elements of Social Media Engagement


The research questions of this study imply four elements in mapping the social media interaction: the message, the medium, the mass and the impact. The message element in this study aims to see what are the messages and how interactive are they. Therefore, the theoretical base of building two-ways communication is of importance. For the medium, Facebook and Twitter, which are two of the most ubiquitous social media that will be used in this research will be explained. As for the mass or the people, what motivates people to follow NPOs on social media would be explored. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the measure of user motivations on the online media sphere. Finally, the impact will see how good is the interaction between NPOs and public, therefore the measure of organization and public relation will be explained.

2.3.1. The Medium: Ubiquitous Social Networking Sites


Twitter and Facebook are arguably the two biggest and most ubiquitous social media applications. Based on the number of active users, Facebook is home for more than 1 billion users to date (Olanoff, 2013). On the other hand, Twitter has around 200 million active users (Smith, 2013). These two social networking sites would be explained below. Twitter Twitter is a microblogging site that allows the subscribers to post messages, also known as tweets, with limitation of 140 characters. Each individual who subscribes to Twitter must create a Twitter name and will be addressed with at sign symbol, for example @twittername. Twitter users interact with others either by following other users or being

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followed by them. With this interaction, the users can get a set of messages or tweets. This streamline of tweets from the followed user is called the timeline. Twitter has been used not only by individuals, but also companies and organizations. When one user follows an account, he or she will be able to read the tweets posted from that account. Another feature of Twitter is that every user can react upon the tweets that he or she reads. The options of responding to the tweets are either retweet (sharing it to other users), reply (commenting on the posted tweet), or favorited (starred the tweet). Another feature is the symbol hashtags (#), which allow people to organize the topic and search for it. So for instance, when a user sends a tweet with hashtags ICT (#ICT), then the tweet would be traceable from Twitter search when the input is #ICT. Facebook Facebook is an online social networking site that enables users to create profile and befriend with others who have already created a Facebook profiles. This social networking site offers more features and more sophisticated interaction compared to Twitter. Examples of Facebook features including posting photos, videos, comments, as well as joining a Facebook group and liking Facebook pages (Ellison, Steinfield, Lampe, 2007). On Facebook, there is not limitation of 140 characters like on Twitter. Also, contents being posted are not limited to text-based object like on Twitter. Therefore, on Facebook the users are keener to post multimedia objects, such as videos or photos. Apart from individual profile, Facebook also offers the option to create a Facebook page, which targeted for companies or organizations. This Facebook page can be liked by the users. Like - derived from the real meaning of the word, is a Facebook feature that allows users to show their appreciation towards contents seen on Facebook platform. The measure of how popular a company or an organization is often seen from how many likes of the Facebook page.

2.3.2. The Message: Conveying Dialogic Communication on the Internet


Grunig and Hunt (1984) came out with the four models of public relations, which have been widely used to date. These models were categorized based on the type of communications between the companies and their public, which entails either one-way or two-way communication. The models are as follows: the (1) press agentry model, (2) public information model, (3) one-way assymetrical model, and (4) two-way symmetrical model. The first three models use the one-way communication and the fourth model uses the two way communication model. Grunig and Hunt argued that the two-way symmetrical model is the most desirable model to be used (Taylor & Kent, 1998). Internet has allowed the realization of the above-mentioned two-way symmetrical model. One example is the use of microblogging site, Twitter, to file complaints about products or services through a single tweet (140 characters messages). If the company is well aware of this situation, they can use it to their advantage by reciprocating the complaints using the same media Twitter. This allows the dialogic communication the intended result of the

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two-way symmetrical model. This section will continue to explain about the dialogic communication approach. Dialogic Communication Approach The potential of Internet as the new media or alternative media to present something to the public has been recognized by numerous organizations. Nowadays, having an online presence, such as websites or social media channels, has become a prerequisite for a company to be credible. The above-mentioned dialogic communication has also become the goal and ideal result of online public relation. This section will elaborate the theoretical background about fostering dialogic communication on the Internet environment. Based on two-way communication approach from Grunig and Hunt, Taylor and Kent (1998) formulated a set of principles to create dialogue by strategic use of www, which is known as the dialogic communication approach. This approach consists of five principles, namely (1) the dialogic loop allow public to give feedback or ask question, (2) the usefulness of information provide contents that have value for the public, (3) the generation of return visits create content that are attractive for user, such as frequently asked questions (FAQ), or forums, and give them reason to revisit the website, (4) the ease of interface make the website easy to navigate, (5) the conservation of visitors retain the user on the website by not giving link that does not lead them away, for instance not giving too many advertisement (Taylor & Kent, 1998). Several studies have attempted to apply the theory to various experiments and investigations of different kinds of online media, from websites (e.g, Kang & Norton, 2004; Ingenhoff & Koelling, 2009;) to weblogs (e.g, Seltzer & Mitrook, 2007), and social media (e.g, Briones et. al, 2011). Taylor, Kent, and White (2001) examined the use of websites from a hundred environmental organizations using the principle of dialogic communication. The study argued that even though the technical and design aspects of the websites have met the principle, these organizations have not yet succeeded in really exploiting the interactive and dialogic potential of the websites. Even though the dialogic communication approach was designed to be applied to website interface in general (Kent and Taylor, 1998), this approach has also been used in numerous studies involving social media interfaces. Rybalko and Seltzer (2010) made use of the dialogic communication approach in analysing the use of Twitter by Fortune 500 companies. The principle of ease of interface was neglected due to the uniformity of Twitter web display. The finding suggested that for one principle, i.e. the generation of return visitors generates reversal effect when used in Twitter, since it is closely associated with the idea of one-way communication than the twoway communication intended to be on the social media channels. Furthermore, the dialogic communication principle was also used for investigating the use of Twitter by colleges and universities in the United States (Linvill, McGee, Hicks, 2012). Numerous tweets from the colleges and universities were coded to analyse whether the

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principles of dialogical communication were met. The result indicated that these institutions had not yet fulfilled the dialogic communication principles on their social media outreach. This is parallel to the findings from Taylor, Kent, and White (2001).

2.3.3. The Mass: Motivations of Followers


Users of social media cannot be perceived as a homogenous group as they use social media for various purposes. Many previous studies have looked at the use of social media from organizational-level, or in other words, simply looking at how the types of messages, frequency, responsiveness, etc. Little research has been done on the impact of the dialogic social media messages to the intended social media audience. This study aims to fill the gap by analysing the motivations of the users and their stands on the online relationship with the NPOs. More specifically, current study is interested to find the gratifications that the audience wish to fulfil by following the NPOs social media channels. This section will highlight the approach to analyse user motivation of media use. Uses and Gratifications Approach To analyse the motivations for a particular media, several studies have made use of the uses and gratifications (U&G) theory. Uses and gratifications theory in the media context can be defined as user activities and enjoyment that derives from such activities, particularly in mass media context (Stafford, 2007). In this approach, the audiences are actively seeking particular media to gratify their needs (Lampe et.al, 2010). For instance, when one is lost in the road and wanted to find the correct way using Google Maps, he will not be faced with a map and passively consume the information. Instead, he will go on his mobile device to visit Google maps, enter the information (use it for his needs), and in the end he will get the information that could satisfy his need in finding the right street (gratification of his need). There are several views that attempt to categorize U&G theory in several aspects. Stafford and Gillenson (2004) classify U&G theory in two dimensions, which are the content gratifications, related to the information or message delivered in the medium, and the process gratifications, related to the core activities, such as playing or browsing. Apart from that, Dorothea et al. (2005, as cited in Sangwan, 2005) defined five motivational factor derived from U&G theory for the specific context of online community, which are (1) Purposive value, related to institutional purposes, like giving or receiving information, (2) Self discovery, concerns the social interaction aspect, (3) Maintaining interpersonal connectivity, like keeping contact with others, (4) Social enhancement, relates to the status of the user in the community, (5) Entertainment, which implies having fun and relaxation by using the platform.

2.3.4. The Impact: Organization - Public Relationship on the Internet


A measure for relationship is very hard to determine, as it is different for every individuals and certainly is not quantifiable. Many studies on the public relation field have aimed to create a set of metrics to measure the relationship between the organizations and public.

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Hallahan (2008) developed a set of metrics in measuring organizational-public relationship (OPR) based on the abovementioned dialogic communication approach. The OPR measurement consist of five metrics, which are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Commitment Control Mutuality Communiliaty Trust Satisfaction : Level of committed by organizations to online engagement : Interactivity between organizations and public : Similarity in value, beliefs, interest : Believability, reliability, and consistency from organizations : The fulfilment of expectations and needs of the public

A study of one NPO, American Red Cross, use of social media has implemented this principle to analyse the relationship between the organization and its public (Briones, et.al, 2011). The result suggests that the two-way dialogue has been implemented using Twitter and Facebook. However, there are still some barriers in using them, namely lack of communication staff from the organization (Briones, et.al, 2011).

2.4. Hypotheses
This study aims to investigate the online relationship between NPOs and their public by analysing the social media outreach by NPOs and the motivations of NPOs social media followers. The hypotheses of current study can be found below. The elements of this research are the social media messages, the motivations of followers, and the online relationship between NPOs and public. See Figure 2 for the relationship between these elements. Hypotheses Many studies have attempted to analyse the social media use using dialogic communication approach. The empirical investigations suggested that most NPOs have not used the dialogic features to their full potential and often relying on one-way communication method (see Water, Burnett, Lamm, Lucas, 2009; Linvill, McGee, Hicks, 2012; Lovejoy, Waters, Saxton, 2012). The first hypothesis will assume that the NPOs analysed in this study have not used the potential of dialogic communication. Therefore, the first hypothesis is: H1: NPOs social media messages that convey one-way communication will be found more frequently than social media messages that convey two-way communication This study will analyse two main social networking sites: Facebook and Twitter. The use and gratifications are said to be different, depending on the types of media being used. Therefore, the second hypothesis will investigate: H2: Followers motivations for Facebook are different from Twitter Companies that are interested in building dialogue with their targets are said to have better cultivation of relationship with the public (Taylor & Kent, 1998). Furthermore, the motivations of the social media used have been argued to represent the intended behaviour on social media (Sangwan, 2005). Thus the relation between dialogic communication, user

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motivations and the perceived NPOs public relationship will be analysed, with the third and fourth hypotheses: H3: Dialogic feature implementation in NPOs social media messages will influence the perceived NPOs public relationship H4: User motivations will influence the perceived NPOs public relationship

Dialogic Feature NPOs Social Media Use USER Motivations


Figure 2: Relationship between variables for current study

NPOs - Public Perceived Online Relationship

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3. METHODOLOGY
The main purpose of current study is to investigate how non-profit organizations (NPOs) interact with their social media followers by analysing four elements. The first and second element is the social media contents of the NPOs in two particular social media (Facebook and Twitter), controlling for the interactivity degree for these contents. The second element is the motivations of the public behind following NPOs on social media. The final element is the online relation between NPOs and the public, to determine what the users really think about the relationship exerted by these organizations. This chapter provides more in-depth explanation about the target NPOs, research method, procedure, materials, and measures used within this study.

3.1. Research Target NPOs and Audience


3.1.1. Selection of NPOs
Prior to performing the content analysis and survey, a mapping of different NPOs working in the field of ICT4D was done. It was seen that even though some private enterprises are also partly working in the field of ICT4D, none of them actually claim that they are ICT4D organizations. On the contrary, for NPOs, there are numerous organizations that are working in this field and have all-round objective that supports ICT4D. Based on the findings of the organizations mapping, eight NPOs were selected as the target NPOs. However, these NPOs have very diverse audience characteristics and tone of style in their social media engagement. Apart from that, there is a difference in language for two NPOs, which might harm the accuracy of the contents coding. Therefore, the selection has to be narrowed down to five NPOs. After this process, researcher sent out introductory email to these five NPOs proposing an audience survey for their social media accounts. The first points of contact were the community manager or the communications manager of the relevant NPOs. The approach used to attract these NPOs was not only proposing to do the survey as part of the overall research, but also to provide a tailor-made audience analysis and social media recommendations at the end of the research. After the proposal was submitted, the communication manager from these NPOs were given a week time to ask more questions about the research and react to the proposal. Out of five proposals, five NPOs gave positive responses. However, due to time limitation, two out of five NPOs decided to withdraw their participation. In the end, three relevant NPOs were selected. As has been mentioned before, the selected NPOs are actively working in the field of ICT4D. Even though the core of business of these NPOs varied, the tone of style of their social media channels, in this case Facebook and Twitter, is similar. They want to position

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themselves as expert in their business and they want to reach out to different groups of audience, namely the experts and practitioners of ICT4D. Apart from that, preliminary research on their Twitter and Facebook accounts suggest that the characteristics of the audience are quite similar across these three NPOs. The three NPOs are given the pseudonyms NPO A, NPO B, NPO C. NPO A is a membershipbased foundation that serves to act as a global development marketplace for all of the registered members. NPO B is a non-profit foundation that actively works in the region of Africa and Latin America, with numerous ground field ICT-related development projects in various sectors such as economic development, health, and education. NPO C is resource centre for ICT for development (ICT4D) research and studies (see table 2 for more details). Pseudonym Organization Size NPO A NPO B NPO C 1 10 employees 11 50 employees 11 50 employees HQ Location Spain Type / Operational Focus Development marketplace

The Netherlands Ground field projects Sweden Resource centre

Table 2: Overview about the target NPOs used in this research

Target NPOs on Social Media All of the target organizations have established a social media presence for at least three social networking sites: Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn. Additional social media accounts include Google+, YouTube, and picture sharing website Flickr. Furthermore, the entire target organizations are considered active in social media based on the latest date of postings and frequency of the social media posts. Apart from that, in order to have a good base of analysis of the social media engagement efforts from the NPOs, it is necessary to understand the numbers of staff who are responsible for the social media channels. According to the online information, NPO A has one part time employee who oversees the social media engagement, whereas NPO B and NPO C have one full time staff. Information about numbers of social media posts and followers can be found on Table 3. NPO A Twitter Tweets sent Following Followers Facebook Facebook like 315 528 421 152 NPO B 1,009 562 4,157 1,829 NPO C 906 339 1,049 321

Table 3: Target NPOs on social media

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3.1.2. The Audience of NPOs Social Media


The participants for the second half of the research, i.e. the audience survey, are the Twitter and Facebook followers of each NPO. Combining the social media audience on Twitter and Facebook, NPO A has a total of 573 followers, NPO B 5986 followers, and NPO C 1370 followers. The demographics of these followers are as follows: 27 of the respondents are male, 18 respondents are female, and three respondents did not disclose then information about their gender. Half of the group (50.0%) is in age group 25 34, 22.9% is age 35 44, 12.5% is age 45 54, 10.4% is age 18 24, and 4.2% is age 55 64. Almost the entire group of participants (97.9%) have higher education (University and college) and the rest has vocational training.

3.2. Research Method: Data Collection and Participants


To investigate the main research question the study employed two kinds of research method, which are content analysis and audience survey. The section explains about the overall research method.

3.2.1. Selection of Social Media Sites


The two social media channels to be analysed in this study are Facebook and Twitter. This is based on the fact that these two social networking sites are the most popular, with the most active monthly users, which in turn makes them a prerequisite in establishing social media presence on the Internet. At the moment Facebook has 1,11 billion monthly users (Olanoff, 2013), which makes Facebook the biggest online social networking site. Whereas Twitter has in total 500 million users, among which 200 million are active monthly users (Smith, 2013). Apart from that, these two social networking sites are found most common for majority of NPOs that were included in the organization mapping. This makes the two social networking sites prerequisites for setting up social media presence.

3.2.2. Content Analysis


Analysing the first sub-question about the interactivity of NPOs social media posts was done using a content analysis of NPOs posts on Twitter and Facebook. The method of content analysis in the previous studies that investigated social media messages was done for only one type of social media (such as only Facebook or only Twitter) and for the period of one month (see Waters & Jamel, 2011; Lovejoy & Saxton, 2012). A study using content analysis compiled 20 of the most recent tweets for Fortune 500 organizations (Rybalko & Seltzer, 2010). However, it should be noted that the abovementioned studies targeted usually more than 10 organizations with purpose of generalizing the characteristics of the content. Current research employed a comparative approach for social media use by different NPOs. Therefore, it is important to have more samples of the social media messages by extending the time period and increasing the numbers of collected social media messages. Therefore,

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in order to have representative samples of how these NPOs use social media this study includes both Twitter and Facebook for content analysis. The period of social media messages collection was set to five months period from 1st January to 31st May 2013. Content mining of Twitter was done using a third party free application called Twdocs. Twdocs offers free service to download the overall twitter feed of each NPO in comma separated value (csv) format. For the Facebook posts, since the number of post was quite low, the data collection was done manually. The Facebook data collection started with duplicating the posts into text format and exporting them to csv format. Data on Reciprocity of Social Media Messages In Twitter, users can share a tweet by two means. First of all by hitting the retweet button which would repost the same tweet with the same twitter name. The second method is by editing the tweet and adding RT stands for retweet - before the actual content of the tweet. The former will be referred to as the automatic retweet. In this study, automatic retweet were excluded from the social media collection, as the followers are not directly able to see the organization Twitter handle and would not indicate that it is indeed the tweets from the organizations. Apart from actual social media messages on Twitter and Facebook, the audience responses for each message were also gathered. This variable consists of numbers of retweet, reply, and favourite for Twitter and numbers of like, comments, and how many times the contents were shared for Facebook. After all contents were compiled, each social media post was coded based on Taylor & Kents (1998) dialogic features. The dialogic features characteristics consist of four categories: 1.Dialogic Loop, 2.Usefulness of Information, 3.Generation of Return Visits, and 4.Conservation of Return Visits. It is often the case that each message would have more than one characteristic out of these four categories, in that case, the most dominant characteristics will be chosen.

3.2.3. Audience Survey


An online survey was created on Google Form, an open service by Google. The survey has undergone several processes mainly in refining the questions based on the feedback from all the NPOs involved. Afterwards the survey was disseminated and sent out to each NPOs followers on Twitter and Facebook. The online survey was disseminated to the group of followers for each organization using a tweet and a Facebook posts in the period of two weeks in June 2013. After the time period has finished, the results were compiled and checked. The target respondents of this survey are the followers of at least one of these social media: Twitter and Facebook. Therefore, the answers from respondents who were not fall under this category are considered invalid. Furthermore, the incomplete survey answers were also eliminated and marked invalid.

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The link to online survey of NPO A was clicked 24 times and generated 12 responses, among which only 11 responses are valid. For NPO B, the link to online survey was clicked 32 times and 12 valid responses were received. As for NPO C, the link to online survey was clicked 63 times, 33 responses were received, and 25 responses were considered valid. In the end, 48 valid responses were received from all NPOs.

3.3. Materials
The online questionnaire consists of 14 main questions, which comprise of 13 close questions and one open question in the end. The first part of questionnaire was designed to generate information about the use of Twitter and Facebook as well as whether the respondents are following target NPOs on these sites. If they are not following the NPOs, they are not required to go to the next questions as this indicates that they are not the target group. The survey continued to ask about the user motivations, impression about online relationship, and basic demographics information of the respondents.

3.4. Measures
3.4.1. Dialogic Features
The principle of dialogic features from Taylor & Kent (1998) will be used as a base of criteria. This approach consists of five characteristics, namely dialogic loop, usefulness of information, ease of interface, generation of return visits, and conservation of return visits. Similar as previous studies (Rybalko & Seltzer, 2010; Linvill, McGee, Hicks, 2012) that employed this approach for analysis of social media content, the third sub scale, ease of interface is excluded due to the uniformity of both Facebook and Twitter interfaces. The coding of the social media content was done as follows: each message was manually coded into one of the four dialogic features (dialogic loop, usefulness of information, generation of return visits, and conservation of return visits). The examples of the tweets or Facebook posts that represent each feature can be seen in Table 4. Dialogic Features 1. 2. 3. 4. Dialogic loop Usefulness of information Generation of return visits Conservation of return visits Content Examples @[name] thanks for your interest and hope you can join our discussion with remote participation [NPO] wants you! We seek two Finance Assistants and an Office Assistant. [http://link] #ICT4D #vacature Story out now: how Ugandan teacher [name] keeps his students interested by using multimedia. We are so excited for all the new followers on Twitter. Are you one of them?

Table 4: Examples of messages for coding of dialogic features

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3.4.2. Reciprocity
Another measure for the interactivity of social media message is the reciprocity from the audience, which was measured by number of responses on social media. The minimum number of reciprocity is 0 and the maximum is 22.

3.4.3. Motivations of Followers


User motivations was measured based on the gratifications that they expect to fulfil by following the NPOs social media channels. The set of measured was developed according to the User and Gratifications Theory (Stafford, 2007) for online media. There are four items for this variable, namely information, entertainment, social interaction, and personal identity. Based on the result of reliability analysis, it was decided that sub-scale entertainment was excluded to improve the reliability of the scale to .48. This show a rather low reliability, therefore the results of the statistical testing should be interpreted with caution.

3.4.4 Online Relationship


The online relationship between NPOs and supporters will be measured based on Hallahans (2008) Organization-Public Relations (OPR) measurement, which consist of five subscales: commitment, control mutuality, trust, satisfaction, and community. Apart from that, a set of three sub-scales was added to identify the impression about the social media content. These three sub-scales represent the adjective of the content with the following: inspiring, factual, and self-promoting. The last adjective self-promoting represents negative impression towards the content. The online public relationship was comprised out of eight sub-scales, five from OPR scale and three from content measurement. The reliability analysis of this scale was low ( = .68), therefore the third scale of the content was excluded, which has increased the reliability of the scale to .82.

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4. RESULTS
4.1. Content Analysis: Dialogic Features
The total number of the messages collected is 531, from different social media accounts Twitter (NTwitter = 428, NFacebook = 103), of the three NPOs (NA = 81, NB = 118, NC = 332). H1: NPOs social media messages that convey one-way communication will be found more frequently than social media messages that convey two-way communication Based on the content analysis of the entire social media messages from three NPOs ( N= 531), the most frequent dialogic features found in the social media contents was usefulness of information (61%), followed by generation of return visits (19%), dialogic features (17%), and conservation of return visits (2%). This is replicated on the NPOs level as well (see Table 5). For all NPOs, the messages with usefulness of information feature are ranked highest with 56.8%, 39.8%, and 69.6% for NPO A, NPO B, and NPO C respectively. Among three NPOs, the most frequent dialogic features character found is also usefulness of information (see Figure 3). This means that most of the messages sent serves to address publics interest by sharing essential information that are seen valuable for the audience, such as news related to ICT for development field; latest updates about company and employers, e.g. new annual reports, website modifications; and job openings or vacancies. On the other hand, the dialogic loop and conservation of return visits are the two dialogic features that are ranked lowest.

Dialogic Features (DF) 1. 2. 3. 4. Dialogic Loop Usefulness of information Generation of return visits Conservation of return visits Total message coded

NPO A 19 (23.5%) 46 (56.8%) 15 (18.5%) 1 (1.2%) 81 (100%)

NPO B 27 (22.9%) 47 (39.8%) 40 (33.9%) 4 (3.4%) 118 (100%)

NPO C 46 (13.9%) 231 (69.6%) 47 (14.2%) 8 (2.4%) 332 (100%)

Total DF 92 (17.3%) 324 (61.0%) 102 (19.2%) 13 (2.4%) 531 (100%)

Table 5: Frequency of dialogic features of social media contents

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Figure 3: Interactivity of social media messages. The operational definition of each interactive feature is the following: DL: Asking or answering direct questions, UI: Providing contents with general value from the field, GRV: Sharing the unique value from the organizations itself, CRV: Retaining the visits of audience

Based on this finding, it is suggested that the social media contents posted by these NPOs are mostly fall under the characteristic of one-way communication. The other dialogic features outperformed the two-way communication characteristic from the dialogic features, which is the dialogic loop. Therefore, hypothesis one could be supported. The NPOs are indeed employing more one-way communication compared to the two-way communication. Use of Twitter Hashtag and Live Tweeting at Events The use of hashtags to organize topics on Twitter was widely seen throughout the social media contents of NPOs. One of the topics that is used from the entire target NPOs is ICT for development, with hashtag #ICT4D. The tweets accompanying this hashtag are mostly about industry news, such as updates on how people in developing countries are using ICT for positive change in innovative ways. Apart from that, the NPOs are also using this hashtag to publish information related to their work, such as news articles about their projects from NPO B or new publications from NPO C. This is most probably done to get more audience and targeted followers for relevant topics. Furthermore, based on the contents compiled from the social media messages, it can be seen that apart from daily posting about various updates, Twitter is also used when a certain event is taking place, or also called as live tweeting. One event in which all NPOs participated was World Summit of Information Society (WSIS) Forum, which can be seen from the

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hashtag #WSIS found in these three timelines. All the tweets with hashtag #WSIS were found during the period of May 13 May 17 when the actual event was taking place. WSIS Forum is an annual gathering or summit for different stakeholders, such as government representatives, policy makers, business, and civil society, to discuss about the implementation and transition towards the new information society (WSIS Forum, n.d.). WSIS Forum is one of the biggest hubs for ICT for Development field and discussions to advance the implementation of this discipline. The social media contents that made use of the hashtag #WSIS were examples of the live tweeting messages, that act as a live-report of what is going on throughout the sessions. Eighty six (16.1%) of social media messages has included the hashtag #ICT4D, whereas 39 (7.3%) made use of #WSIS hashtag. Audience Response and Reciprocity of Social Media Another insightful indicator for the content analysis was the audience reciprocity. This entails how the social media contents were responded to, whether it was shared or liked, etc. Out of 531 social media contents, 326 messages (61.4%) received at least one response, be it Facebook like, Twitter retweet or favourites. The average reciprocity received for each message is 1.85 (SD = 2.734). Thus, generally every message receives at least one audience response. However, controlling the different NPOs, it can be seen that NPO A receives the least reciprocity (M = 0.77, SD = 0.98), NPO C receives more (M = 1.57, SD = 2.43) and NPO B generate the most responses for their message (M = 3.40, SD = 3.61). The type of dialogic features that generate the most responses was the generation of return visits, with 83.3%. Followed by usefulness of information with 61.1%, conservation of return visits 53.8% and finally the dialogic loop 39.1% (see Figure 4). The dialogic loop was ranked least, most likely due to the fact that the messages of this character was mostly a retweet or a reply to other users, which basically mostly target certain individuals and not the general public. This makes the messages less interesting to share to others. Furthermore a 4x2 chi-square analysis was performed to determine the relation between dialogic features with four levels and audience responses with two levels (yes and no). The result suggested that there was a significant association between the type of dialogic features employed in the social media content and whether the post would be responded by the audience 2(3) = 40.28, p < .001. Therefore, it could be said that the different type of dialogic features has a significant effect on whether the message would be responded or not. The comparison between the posts that received reciprocity and the ones that did not could be found on Figure 4.

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Figure 4: The response rate based on the types of interactive features. The operational definition of each interactive feature is the following: DL: Asking or answering direct questions, UI: Providing contents with general value from the field, GRV: Sharing the unique value from the organizations itself, CRV: Retaining the visits of audience

4.2. Survey: Motivations of Followers


Testing the survey second, third, fourth hypotheses were done using a statistical analysis. For the statistical testing, the confidence interval is set to 95%. Therefore if the significance value p is above .05, the result is considered to be statistically insignificant. H2: Followers motivations for Facebook are different from Twitter The average of user motivations based on the target NPOs showed that NPO A has the highest user motivation average (MA = 4.15, SD= 0.74) compared to NPO B (MB = 3.9, SD= 0.39) and NPO C (MC = 3.8, SD= 0.90). Furthermore, based on which social media accounts are followed by the participants, the average of user motivations for following both Twitter and Facebook is highest (MTwitter-Facebook = 3.94, SD = 0.85) compared to Twitter only (MTwitter = 3.88, SD = 0.55) and Facebook only (MFacebook = 3.83, SD = 0.84). To test the second hypothesis, One-way analysis of variance was conducted to compare the means between these three groups: Twitter and Facebook followers, Twitter only followers, Facebook only followers. Numbers of assumptions must be met in order to perform statistical test on the data. For the user motivations data, assumption of normal distribution must not be violated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality suggested that the data is not normally distributed D(48) = 0.14, p = .028, however the value of skewness (-.435, SE = .343) and kurtosis (.391,

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SE = .674) indicated otherwise. Based on this, the data will be considered as normally distributed. Therefore, the assumption of normality is not violated and the data could be used for further analysis. Furthermore, the homogeneity of variance test was conducted, F(2, 45) = 0.934, p = .401, which lead to no violation of the homogeneity of variance assumption. The result of analysis of variance suggested that the difference between these three groups was not significant F(2,45) = 0.078, p = .925, 2 = .05. Based on this finding, the second hypothesis could not be supported.

4.3. Survey: Online Public Relation


Prior to testing the hypotheses, the assumption of normality was checked for variable online public relation. The normality test result suggested that the data was normally distributed D(48)=0.09, p =.200, therefore the assumption of normality was met. Similar to the variable user motivation, the average of variable online public relation was ranked highest for NPO A (MA = 4.10, SD= 0.71), followed by NPO C (MC = 3.82, SD= 0.73) and NPO B (MB = 3.74, SD= 0.43). A similar pattern was found for the variable social media following. Online Public Relation was found highest for both Twitter and Facebook followers (MTwitter-Facebook = 3.98, SD = 0.68) than for Facebook only (MFacebook = 3.90, SD = 0.53) and Twitter only (MTwitter = 3.63, SD = 0.76). H3: Dialogic feature implementation in NPOs social media messages will influence the perceived NPOs public relationship The third hypothesis was tested with linear regression, with dependent variable of online public relation and independent variable of target NPOs. Since the independent variable was a categorical variable, a dummy variable was used in the linear regression. The control group is NPO C, which was used to compare with the other two groups (NPO A and NPO B). The result yield that there is no significant difference between these two groups, Fchange = 0.99, p = .381. Therefore no effect was found on dialogic feature implementation to the perceived online public relation. H4: User motivations will influence the perceived NPOs public relationship Separate linear regression was used to test the fourth hypothesis. The dependent variable is online public relation and the independent variable is user motivations. The test result suggested that user motivation is a significant predictor of perceived online public relation, b = .45, t(46) = 3.40, p = .001. User motivations explained a significant proportion of variance in the online public relation, R2 = .20, F(1.46)=11.59, p =.001. For every increase in user motivations by one, the online public relation rate is at 2.741. This means that as the motivations of users increases, the NPOs-public online relationship would be perceived more positively. Therefore, the fourth hypothesis can be supported.
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5. DISCUSSIONS
5.1. Discussions
The purpose of the research was to map the interaction between NPOs in the field of ICT for Development (ICT4D) and public on social media. The main research question for this study is how do NPO interact with their public on social media. This study approaches this question by investigating the use of social media by non-profit organizations (NPOs), the motivations of public, and the impression about the online relationship. Interactivity of Social Media Messages The first sub-question addressed the type of messages posted on NPOs Facebook and Twitter and how Taylor and Kents (1998) dialogic features approach is implemented in the messages. Based on the findings, it was found that most of the messages posted by NPOs convey a one-way communication, meaning that it did not trigger or ask questions and create a dialogue with them (see Water, Burnett, Lamm, Lucas, 2009; Linvill, McGee, Hicks, 2012; Lovejoy, Waters, Saxton, 2012). Therefore, the first hypothesis was used to analyse whether this is the case in the NPOs being researched. The result showed that this is indeed the case. The interactive feature that implies two-way communication, i.e. the dialogic loop is not found the highest, but either the second highest (for NPO A) or third highest (for NPO B and NPO C). It also should be noted however, that often times these NPOs received only mentions about their works and seldom received urgent questions that needs to be addressed immediately. This might contribute to the low numbers of the frequency of the dialogic loop feature. Furthermore, with regards to dialogic features approach, the most frequent feature found was the usefulness of information. This finding is similar to study by Linvill, McGee, Hicks (2012) about how colleges and universities are using social media to engage with public. The usefulness of information refers to the type of messages that provide updates about company, for example when a server is down or website is updated, and also about job opportunities and basically other information that sparks general interest and provide similar value to the public. In this case, the examples are the social media posts that use hashtag #ICT4D to group the message as part of the ICT4D field news. Possible explanations for this finding will be discussed. First of all, these three NPOs are employing the multi-stakeholder approach for their target groups, which means that they acknowledge that there are various types of people who are following them on social media. Furthermore, based on the social media contents posted, it seems that the main role of these NPOs are as resources for the news within the development field. For instance, NPO C acts as a think-tank for ICT4D field. If the social media channels are used to support the operations of the NPO, then it is only make sense to do the social media outreach parallel to
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the business, as a centre for information. Using social media for the mentioned purpose does not necessarily rely on creating a two-way communication with the audience. Finally, the least frequent feature was the conservation of return visits. Conservation of return visits depict the effort to keep visitors in one page, this is somewhat contrary to the social media principle in which the place to share contents and as one of the first point of contact to website or others webpages. Therefore what is seen throughout the messages is that the NPOs are almost constantly giving out links to other sites and therefore the last interactive features are ranked lowest. Motivations of Followers The third research question concerns the motivations of NPOs social media audience in following them. The motivations of followers based on the medium showed that followers on both Facebook and Twitter have marginally higher motivations compared to only Facebook or only Twitter. This might relate to more use of social media and better understanding of these two channels as a whole. Interestingly, NPO A, with the least number of social media messages and reciprocity to the social media messages, received the highest rate in both user motivations and NPOs-public online relationship. I would argue that this might relate to the core of business of each organization. As NPO A is a membership-based organization, it might be the case that the members have undergone some experiences that are noticeably beneficial for them, hence the higher rate of motivations. Online Public Relation The final research question aims to explore the perceived online public relation between NPOs and the public. Another element was added, that is the social media content impressions from the public. The finding suggested that user motivation is a significant predictor for online public relation. But it is not the case for different NPOs that implement dialogic features differently. NPO A is the least active compared to the other NPOs with regards to posting social media messages. The finding that shows that this NPO received the highest motivations and impressions, which might suggest that having more numbers of social media messages did not necessarily means an increase in the positive impression.

5.2. Implications
The theoretical implication is the design of this research could be replicated for other social media channels apart from Facebook and Twitter. Furthermore, it gives additional information for the ICT4D context as well, specifically on creating online interaction using social media for the audience within this context. The practical implications will be explained further. The first implication concerns the usefulness of information as the most frequent interactive feature. Preliminary finding showed that ICT4D interest on the Internet is somewhat low. Having the second interactive
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feature of usefulness of information might not do harm to improving the visibility of ICT4D in the online sphere. However, the NPOs have to take care to not overdo it because otherwise the public will see them as being too generic and not having an authentic voice. Secondly is about the connection of interactivity with reciprocity. The result show that the interactivity features of social media contents have significant association with how many responses, such as likes or retweets that the content might get. The most responded being the features that highlight the unique selling point from each NPOs, highly depends on the core business and interest of each one of them. Furthermore, even though each NPOs have unique style or tone of voice in social media, the features of dialogic loop or usefulness of information include a shared value. Or to put it in other words, one organization can share the industry news and the others can easily replicate this, whereas when posing the message based on unique value of the organization, that is when the social media voice is found. Therefore, in order to get the message across and spread widely by getting it more shared and responded, NPOs have to focus on providing the unique value to the audience on their social media engagement. To do this, NPOs have to first formulate a very clear value and provide whats promised from their business not only in real life but also on the online sphere. The third implications concerns the audience motivations and impressions. Coming back to the User and Gratifications theory (Stafford, 2007), with more gratifications one could complete from NPOs social media channels, the more positive impression they will have. With more positive impression, better relationship could be build because they will trust NPOs, and will enjoy the online experience that NPOs are trying to create for them. In social media, the audience cannot be left out from the equation. Therefore, when coming out with social media message, always keep in mind the audience and whether the message would give value to them. Furthermore, the full potentials of social media not only lie in creating a voice and brand but also in listening to what the audience needs.

5.3. Limitations
The limitations of this study were found in several aspects. First of all, with regards to the content analysis, even though the coding of the social media posts was done manually and the categories have been through several process of rechecking, there still might be a human-error within the coding of the messages. Furthermore, in the research it was decided to select the most dominant characteristics of the four features, posing the risk to single out the interactivity feature of the social media posts. Secondly is the possibility of measurement mismatch. The dialogic features was initially used to rate the website interface, whereas in this study, this is translated to the social media contents. Even though there are several sound researches that have utilized this measurement, this measure might not translate perfectly to the different interface and function. For example, the initial measure of the first interactive feature dialogic loop was used for website interface marked by seeing whether the website give chance to ask questions for instance through contact page. However in current research, like other
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previous studies (Waters & Jamal, 2011), it is seen as when NPOs are asking question themselves as a trigger for others to reply or asking questions. Finally, the small sample of audience survey might deviates from real life sample. Apart from that, the nature of free online survey allows respondents to fill out the survey on their own comfort but with no supervision or chance to ask any question to the researcher. This did not give a guarantee of complete response rate. Furthermore, in the user motivations showed a rather low scale of reliability of .48. The alpha value of good reliability scale should be greater than .70. Therefore, the result should be treated with caution.

5.4. Directions for Future Research


The approach of current research aimed to look at the social media mix interaction between the public and organization. What would give more insight to the research is if there is a triangulation of source, thus from the researcher, public or target audience, as well as the NPOs themselves. Current research is mostly focused on the social media posts by NPOs and the audience, but not on what the social media engagement goal from each NPO. This could be achieved by adding another method of research and data collection, namely in-depth interview with the person in charge of social media engagement from the target NPOs. Furthermore, it would also be interesting to explore the use of other popular social media channels, such as LinkedIn and Google Plus. Furthermore, in the areas of using ICT for international development, the main purpose of the effort is to improve lives of people by utilizing ICT tools. With regards to having social media as an ICT tool, future research should further investigate not only the motivations of the users, but also whether the use of these social media has an impact on their lives and can change their behaviour.

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6. CONCLUSION
Current research aims to provide an insight on how non-profit organizations (NPOs) in the field of ICT for Development (ICT4D) are engaging with their public. The approach is to analyse the effect of interactive social media message and motivations of social media followers to the online relationship between NPOs and their public. It was found that the type of interactivity of the social media posts is significantly related to the numbers of positive responses that the message would get. Apart from that, the motivations of social media followers influence the way they perceive the online relationship exerted by NPO. When the followers are more motivated, they would perceive the online relationship more positively. The result of this research has provided some views about the elements that contribute to the online interaction between public and NPOs. These findings can then be used to improve online visibility of ICT4D as a collective initiative and help further in mainstreaming this field. However, to really achieve development goals, another research should be done to analyse how social media - as ICT tools - have impacts or could change behaviours of the beneficiaries. With this in mind, NPOs would be able to create much more targeted online contents which could generate more support and have a better justification to use social media to fulfil their core business purpose.

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Appendix A
Annotations Dialogic Features Coding for Social Media Messages

(1) Dialogic Loop If organizations answer / posing questions* Purpose: to create dialogues, by posing / asking questions, participate in discussions Examples of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Twitter (Retweet, Reply) Thank you notes Answering to question Posing a question Giving out survey Any responsive contents (like comments, reply, etc)

(2) Usefulness of Information If organizations aim to be somewhat transparent provide latest info on company* Purpose: to show essential information about the organizations, sharing general value, addressing publics interest Examples of contents 1. 2. Link to companys website Updates about the company (ex: updates about website, network, server, etc) Annual reports Activities of employers / directors Posts about Job opportunities from the company Industry news (4) Conservation of Return Visits The effort from organizations to keep the visitors* Purpose: to maintain & retain the return visits, by not directing audience away from the sites. Examples of contents 1. 2. 3. Link to other social media sites of the company Link to other features of company besides media + news REGULAR updates + posting (ex: greeting good morning / have a nice day, etc)

3. 4. 5. 6.

(3) Generation of Return Visits The effort from organizations to gather new visitors* Purpose: to create long-lasting relationship, by creating attractive content, give audience reason to come back. Examples of contents 1. 2. 3. 4. News stories from the company Information about upcoming events Any link to referral service that could help audience Publications

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Appendix B
Online Survey

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