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1.

PROCESS SIDE

1.1 PROCESS SIDE MASS BALANCE


1.1.1 Inlet stream specification
Mol Wt
Molar flow Mass
Component
Mol %
(Lb/lbmol) (Lbmol/hr) (Lb/hr)
N2
2.26
28
159.7
4471.6
H2
1.07
2
75.6
151.2
CH4
20.45
16
1445.1 23121.3
C2H6

0.4362

30

H2O
Ar
CO2
O2

75.31
0.0048
0.469
0
100

18
40
44
32
17.82

30.8

Assuming all hydrocarbons heavier than


C2H6 as C2H6 for the sake of simplicity

924.7

5321.7 95790.7
0.3
13.6
33.1
1458.2
0.0
0.0
7066.4 125931.3

1.1.2 Outlet Stream Specification


Mol Wt
Molar flow Mass
Component
Mol %
(Lb/lbmol) (Lbmol/hr) (Lb/hr)
N2
1.75
28
159.7
4471.6
H2
39.77
2
3629.3
7258.6
CH4
5.69
16
519.3
8308.1
C2H6
0
30
0.0
0.0
H2O
41.386270
18
3776.8 67982.5
Ar
0.00373
40
0.3
13.6
CO2
6.4
44
584.0 25698.1
CO
5
28
456.3 12776.1
O2
0
32
0.0
0.0
100

13.86

Outlet molar flow calculated using


nitrogen as inert

9125.8 126508.6

*There is some problem with the outlet analysis you have provided, sum was not 100%.
*You will notice a difference in inlet and outlet mass flow rate due to assumption mentioned in section 1.1.1 against ethane and also due
to incorrect analysis. In this magnitude these are not going to impact our calculations for efficiency especially for the case you are
referring to.

1.1 PROCESS SIDE HEAT BALANCE


1.1.1 Inlet stream specification
Temperature
900 F
THf
77 F

T2

H n.H

f 77

n CpdT
T1

Component
N2
H2
CH4
C2H6
H2O
Ar
CO2
CO
O2

Enthalpy
979784.33
441325.79
-30927630
-507409.73
-514008790
2080.9579
-5291304.8
0
46184738
-5.03E+08 BTU/hr

900

n.H

f 77

( A BT

CT

DT 3 ) dT

77

n.H

f 77

BT
n AT
2

CT

DT

900

)
77

1.1.1 Outlet stream specification


Temperature
1465 F
THf
77 F
Component
N2
H2
CH4
C2H6
H2O
Ar
CO2
CO
O2

T2

H n.H

Enthalpy
1728892.5
36913062
-5984297.7
0
-341254567
3685.0109
-88668033
-16726344
0
-4.14E+08 BTU/hr

f 77

T1
1465

n.H

f 77

( A BT

CT

DT 3 ) dT

77

n.H

f 77

BT
n AT
2

Net Change in enthalpy across primary reformer (tube side)

2.

n CpdT

CT

DT

8.91E+07

1465

)
77

BTU/hr

FUEL SIDE

2.1 FUEL SIDE MASS BALANCE


2.1.1 Inlet stream specification 1 of 2 (NG)
Mol Wt
Molar flow Mass
Component
Mol %
(Lb/lbmol) (Lbmol/hr) (Lb/hr)
N2
8.230
28
99.3
2779.1
H2
0.000
2
0.0
0.0
CH4
87.971
16
1060.9 16974.9
C2H6

1.775

30

H2O
Ar
CO2
O2

0.000
0.005
2.019
0.000
100

18
40
44
32
17.80

21.4

642.3

Assuming all hydrocarbons heavier than


C2H6 as C2H6 for the sake of simplicity

0.0
0.0 Neglected water coming in with natural gas
0.1
2.3
24.3
1071.4
0.0
0.0
1206 21469.94

2.1.2 Inlet stream specification 2 of 2 (Air)


Mol Wt
Molar flow
Component
Mol %
(Lb/lbmol) (Lbmol/hr)
N2
79.000
28
10582.6
H2
0.000
2
0.0
CH4
0.000
16
0.0
C2H6
0.000
30
0.0
H2O
0.000
18
0.0
Ar
0.000
40
0.0
CO2
0.000
44
0.0
O2
21.000
32
2813.1
100
28.84 13395.6755

Mass
(Lb/hr)
296312.3
0.0 Calculations in section 2.1.2 and 2.1.3 are
0.0 interlinked
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
90018.9 Total O2 Moles calculated
386331.3

2.1.3 Outlet stream specification (Flue gas)


Mol Wt
Molar flow
Component
Mol %
(Lb/lbmol) (Lbmol/hr)
N2
73.101
28
10681.8
H2
0.000
2
0.0
CH4
0.000
16
0.0
C2H6
0.000
30
0.0
H2O
14.961
18
2186.1
Ar
0.000
40
0.1
CO2
7.720
44
1128.1
O2
4.218
32
616.3
100.000
27.91
14612.4

Mass
CH 4 2 O 2 CO 2 2 H 2 O
(Lb/hr)
7
299091.4
C 2 H 6 O 2 2 CO 2 3 H 2 O
0.0
2
0.0
0.0
39349.6
2.3
49636.3 Total CO2 & O2 moles calculated
19721.6 O2 (D.B)
4.6 %
407801.2 CO2 (D.B)
8.42 %
Assuming flue gas analysis provided is dry basis

2.2 FUEL SIDE HEAT BALANCE


2.2.1 Outlet stream specification (Flue gas leaving radiant section)
Temperature
1750 F
THf
77 F
Component
N2
H2
CH4
C2H6
H2O
Ar
CO2
CO
O2

Enthalpy
141354911
0
0
0
-190201665
766.04359
-166606558
-21103624
204715968
-3.18E+07 BTU/hr

T2

H n. H

n CpdT

f 77

T1
1750

n. H

f 77

( A BT

CT

DT 3 ) dT

77

n. H

f 77

BT
n AT
2

CT

DT

1750

)
77

2.2.2 Inlet stream specification 1 of 2 (N.G)


Temperature
100 F
Assumed fuel gas temperature to be 100F before primary reformer
THf
77 F
Component
N2
H2
CH4
C2H6
H2O
Ar
CO2
CO
O2

Enthalpy
15952.015
0
-33966367
-773311.19
0
9.3037269
-4120545
0
199398.34
-3.86E+07 BTU/hr

T2

H n.H

f 77

n CpdT
T1

100

n.H

f 77

( A BT

CT

DT 3 ) dT

77

n.H

f 77

BT
n AT
2

CT

DT

100

)
77

2.2.3 Inlet stream specification 2 of 2 (Air)


Temperature
95 F
Assumed Ambient air temperature to be 95F
THf
77 F
Component
N2
H2
CH4
C2H6
H2O
Ar
CO2
CO
O2

Enthalpy
1330721.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
-133519864
1731824.5
-1.30E+08 BTU/hr

T2

H n.H

f 77

n CpdT
T1
95

n.H

f 77

n ( A BT CT

DT 3 ) dT

77

n.H

f 77

BT
n AT
2

CT

DT

95

)
77

Total Enthalpy of two inlet streams =


-1.69E+08 BTU/hr
Net Enthalpy change across reformer (Fuel side) =
1.37E+08 BTU/hr
3.

EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS

Efficiency

64.94 %

process

fuel

The efficiency number is low, I dont know if there is a problem with any flow meter or temperature meter or
analysis etc.
You cannot introduce heat of reaction into your calculation while working with heat of formations
as the heat of reaction is automatically covered in heat of formation.
This is not intended to calculate exactly the efficiency of your reformer but to explain as an example so that you
can identify your fault.
Once you have understood these calculations use HYSYS instead as its physical property data bank
is much better than of what you were using (David.M. Himmelblau)
ERRORS AND OMISSIONS ARE EXPECTED AS THIS HAS NOT BEEN CROSS CHECKED AT ALL

From David.M. Himmelblau

Heat Capacity Data (Cp = A+BT+CT2+DT3) BTU/Lbmol-F

Component
N2
H2
CH4
C2H6
H2O (g)
Ar
CO2
CO
O2

Heat of formation
@ 77 Deg.F
BTU/Lbmol
0
0
-32226.104
-36457.6102
-104130.2756
0
-169445.406
-47589.912
0

A
6.931
6.89276
8.20009
11.79943
7.99694
6.931
8.63029
6.91905
6.9549

B
0.000525561
1.82835E-05
0.01068091
0.0332688
0.00164432
0.000525561
0.01011687
0.00098229
0.00276762

C
1.3678E-06
7.85832E-07
8.74979E-07
-1.39002E-05
1.81736E-06
1.3678E-06
-6.89993E-06
8.47972E-07
-1.45001E-06

D
-6.86169E-10
-2.07882E-10
-2.629E-09
1.73992E-09
-8.58727E-10
-6.86169E-10
1.7839E-09
-5.3058E-10
3.13329E-10