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Lag Compensation

Lag Compensation
Chapter V Control Systems Design by Root-Locus Method
The transfer function for this circuit
1 Eo (s ) R2 R4 R1C1s + 1 R4C1 R1C1 = = Ei (s ) R1 R3 R2C2 s + 1 R3C2 s + 1 R2C2 s+

Eq.1

Lag Compensation
or
1 s+ E o (s ) Ts + 1 T =K = Kc c 1 Ei (s ) Ts + 1 s+ T

Pole Zero configuration of lag compensation


From eq.1and 2 ,for lag network if R1C1 < R2C2
Eq.2

where

T = R1C1 ,

T = R2C2 , =

R2C2 = R4C1 > 1; K c R3C2 R1C1

Lag compensation technique based on the root-locus approach

Design procedure for lag compensation by the root-locus method


Evaluate

Draw the root-locus plot for the uncompensated system whose open-loop transfer function is G(s). Based on the transient-response specifications, locate the dominant closed-loop poles on the root locus. Assume the transfer function of the lag compensator to be
1 T =K (s + zc ) Gc (s ) = K c c 1 (s + p c ) s+ T s+

the particular static error constant specified in the problem. Determine the amount of increase in the static error constant necessary to satisfy the specifications.

Then the open-loop transfer function of the compensated system becomes GcG(s).

Design procedure for lag compensation by the root-locus method

Lag compensation technique based on the root-locus approach

Determine the pole and zero of the lag compensator that produce the necessary increase in the particular static error constant without appreciably altering the original root loci. (Note that the ratio of the value of gain required in the specifications and the gain found in the uncompensated system is the required ratio between the distance o the zero from the origin and that of the pole from the origin.)
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Draw a new root-locus plot for the compensated system. Locate the desired dominant closed-loop poles on the root locus. (If the angle contribution of the lag network is very small, that is. a few degrees, then the original and new root loci are almost identical. Otherwise, there will be a slight discrepancy between them. Then locate, on the new root locus, the desired dominant closed-loop poles based on the transient-response specifications.)
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Lag compensation technique based on the root-locus approach


Adjust

Example 2; Lag Compensator


C (s ) 1.06 = R(s ) s (s + 1)(s + 2 ) + 1.06

gain Kc of the compensator from the magnitude condition so that the dominant closed-loop poles lie at the desired location. (Kc will be approximately 1.)

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Example 2; Lag Compensator


The dominant closed-loop poles are

Example 2; Lag Compensator

s1, 2 = 0.3307 j 0.5864


The damping ratio

= 0.49
ess = 1 1 = = 1.886 K v 0.53

The undamped natural frequency

n = 0.673 rad sec


The static velocity error constant is 0.53 sec-1

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Example 2; Lag Compensator


It is desired to increase the static velocity error constant Kv to about 5 sec-1 without appreciably changing the location of the dominant closed-loop poles.

Example 2; Lag Compensator


The transfer function of the lag compensator becomes

K vcomp

K vuncomp

5 10 0.53

s + 0.05 Gc (s ) = K c s + 0.005
The angle contribution of this lag network near a dominant closed-loop pole is about 40 Because this angle contribution is not very small, there is a small change in the new root locus near the desired dominant closed-loop poles.

We might set zc=0.05 and then

pc =

zc

0.05 = 0.005 10
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Example 2; Lag Compensator


The open-loop transfer function of the compensated system then becomes

Example 2; Lag Compensator

1.06 s + 0.05 Gc (s )G (s ) = K c s + 0.005 (s + 1)(s + 2 )s

Gc (s )G (s ) = K

s + 0.05 (s + 0.005)(s + 1)(s + 2)s

where

K = 1.06 K c
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Example 2; Lag Compensator


If the damping ratio of the new dominant closed-loop poles is kept the same, then the poles are obtained from the new root-locus plot as follows:

Example 2; Lag Compensator


Then the lag compensator gain

s1, 2 = 0.31 j 0.55


The open-loop gain K is

= K = 1.0235 = 0.9656 K c 1.06 1.06


Thus the transfer function of lag compensator designed is

KB1 =1 A1 A2 A3 A4

AA A A K= 1 2 3 1 B1

K = 1.0235
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Gc (s ) = 0.9656

s + 0.05 s + 0.005
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Example 2; Lag Compensator

Example 2; Lag Compensator

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Example: Lag compensator


R(s) C(s)

Example: Lag compensator


The steady-state error of the system for a unit-ramp input is
ess = lim sE (s ) = lim
s 0

s 1 1 2 = lim s 0 1 + G (s ) s s 0 sG (s )

5 G (s ) = s (s + 2 )
The closed-loop transfer function

The steady-state error for this system

ess = lim s
s 0

s (s + 2 ) 1 = 0 .4 s 2 + 2s + 5 s 2

Gc G (s ) C (s ) 5 = = 2 ; = 0.447; n = 2.236 R(s ) 1 + Gc G (s ) s + 2 s + 5


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The static velocity error constant, Kv is define by


K v = lim sG (s ) = lim s
s 0 s 0

5 = 2.5 sec -1 s (s + 2 )

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Example: Lag compensator

Example: Lag compensator


1+ K 1 =0 s (s + 2 )

At K=5

T ( s) =

5 s 2 + 2s + 5 ess = 0.4, K v = 2.5


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p1, 2 = 1 j 2

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Example: Lag compensator


The desired system velocity constant Kv =20 Thus, the steady-state error of the system for a unit-ramp input is

Example: Lag compensator


We might set zc=0.1 and then

ess =

1 1 = = 0.05 K v 20

pc =

zc

0.1 = 0.0125 8

Thus, the compensated system transfer function is Thus, the required ratio of the zero to the pole of compensator is

K vcomp K vuncomp

20 =8 2.5
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Gc (s )G (s ) =

5(s + 0.1) (s + 0.0125)(s + 2)s

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Example2: Lag compensator

Example: Lag compensator

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