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MODERN MISSILE

GUIDANCE

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

MODERN MISSILE
GUIDANCE
Rafael Yanushevsky

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the


Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
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2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Yanushevsky, Rafael.
Modern missile guidance / Rafael Yanushevsky.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-6226-7 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 1-4200-6226-3 (alk. paper)
1. Guided missiles--Guidance systems. 2. Flight control. 3. Guidance
systems (Flight) I. Title.
UG630.Y35 2007
623.4519--dc22
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2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

2007015487

Dedication
To
Daniel and Camilla

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Contents
Preface ..............................................................................................................................................xi
About the Author ......................................................................................................................... xiii
Chapter 1

Basics of Missile Guidance..........................................................................................1

1.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................1


1.2 Guidance Process .....................................................................................................................2
1.3 Missile Guidance......................................................................................................................3
1.4 Representation of Motion.........................................................................................................4
1.5 Line-of-Sight ............................................................................................................................6
References ..........................................................................................................................................8
Chapter 2

Parallel Navigation .......................................................................................................9

2.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................9


2.2 Proportional Navigation. Planar Engagement........................................................................10
2.3 Proportional Navigation. Three-Dimensional Engagement...................................................12
2.4 Augmented Proportional Navigation .....................................................................................13
2.5 Proportional Navigation as a Control Problem .....................................................................14
2.6 Augmented Proportional Navigation as a Control Problem..................................................17
2.7 When Is the PN Law Optimal?..............................................................................................17
References ........................................................................................................................................19
Chapter 3

Analysis of Proportional Navigation Guided Missile Systems


in the Time Domain ...................................................................................................21

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................21


3.2 Inertialess PN Guidance System............................................................................................22
3.3 Method of Adjoints ................................................................................................................23
References ........................................................................................................................................28
Chapter 4

Analysis of Proportional Navigation Guided Missile Systems


in the Frequency Domain...........................................................................................29

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................29


4.2 Adjoint Method. Generalized Model .....................................................................................30
4.3 Frequency Domain Analysis ..................................................................................................33
4.4 Steady-State Miss Analysis ....................................................................................................40
4.5 Weave Maneuver Analysis .....................................................................................................41
4.6 Example ..................................................................................................................................42
4.7 Frequency Analysis and Miss Step Response .......................................................................44
4.8 Bounded InputBounded Output Stability.............................................................................47
4.9 Frequency Response of the Generalized Missile Guidance Model ......................................48
References ........................................................................................................................................51

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 5

Design of Guidance Laws Implementing Parallel Navigation.


Time-Domain Approach .............................................................................................53

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................53


5.2 Guidance Correction Controls................................................................................................54
5.3 Lyapunov Approach to Control Law Design.........................................................................55
5.4 Modified Linear Planar Model of Engagement .....................................................................57
5.5 General Planar Case ...............................................................................................................58
5.6 Three-Dimensional Engagement Model ................................................................................61
5.7 Generalized Guidance Laws...................................................................................................63
5.8 Examples ................................................................................................................................67
References ........................................................................................................................................71
Chapter 6

Design of Guidance Laws Implementing Parallel Navigation.


Frequency-Domain Approach ....................................................................................73

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

Introduction ............................................................................................................................73
Neoclassical Missile Guidance ..............................................................................................74
Pseudoclassical Missile Guidance..........................................................................................78
Example Systems ...................................................................................................................80
6.4.1 Planar Model of Engagement.....................................................................................80
6.4.2 Multidimensional Model of Engagement ..................................................................85
References ........................................................................................................................................86
Chapter 7

Guidance Law Performance Analysis Under Stochastic Inputs................................89

7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................89


7.2 Brief Discussion of Stochastic Processes ..............................................................................89
7.3 Random Target Maneuvers.....................................................................................................94
7.4 Analysis of Influence of Noises on Miss Distance ...............................................................96
7.5 Effect of Random Target Maneuvers on Miss Distance .....................................................100
7.6 Computational Aspects.........................................................................................................101
7.7 Examples ..............................................................................................................................104
7.8 Filtering ................................................................................................................................113
References ......................................................................................................................................114
Chapter 8

Testing Guidance Laws Performance ......................................................................115

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9

Introduction ..........................................................................................................................115
Forces Acting on Missiles ....................................................................................................116
Missile Dynamics .................................................................................................................118
Autopilot and Actuator Models............................................................................................122
Reference Systems and Transformations .............................................................................124
Seeker Model........................................................................................................................125
Filtering and Estimation.......................................................................................................128
Kappa Guidance ...................................................................................................................133
Simulation Models ...............................................................................................................134
8.9.1 6-DOF Simulation Model ........................................................................................135
8.9.2 3-DOF Simulation Model ........................................................................................139
References ......................................................................................................................................143

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 9

Integrated Missile Design ........................................................................................145

9.1
9.2
9.3

Introduction ..........................................................................................................................145
Integrated Missile Guidance and Control Model ................................................................147
Synthesis of Control Laws ...................................................................................................156
9.3.1 Minimization of Standard Functionals ....................................................................156
9.3.2 Minimization of Special Functionals .......................................................................159
9.4 Integration and Decomposition ............................................................................................163
References ......................................................................................................................................166

Chapter 10 Missile Guidance Software ......................................................................................167


10.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................167
10.2 Software for Frequency-Domain Approach.........................................................................168
10.3 Software for Time-Domain Methods ...................................................................................179
References ......................................................................................................................................196
Glossary .........................................................................................................................................197
Appendix A ...................................................................................................................................201
A.1 Lyapunov Method.................................................................................................................201
A.2 BellmanLyapunov Approach ..............................................................................................202
References ......................................................................................................................................205
Appendix B ...................................................................................................................................207
B.1 Laplace Transform................................................................................................................207
B.2 Proof of Theorem .................................................................................................................207
References ......................................................................................................................................209
Appendix C ...................................................................................................................................211
C.1 Aerodynamic Regression Models ........................................................................................211
References ......................................................................................................................................211
Appendix D ...................................................................................................................................213
D.1 RungeKutta Method ...........................................................................................................213

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preface
At the dawn of control theory development the aerospace industry was the most important supplier
of problems and ideas. The most important results in the theory of nonlinear systems and stability
analysis were stimulated by the aerospace industry needs.
Control experts were closely involved in the solution of many aerospace problems and aerospace
system design. Optimal control theory was also raised mostly by aerospace problems. This was in
the last century.
Nowadays aerospace specialists have more solid mathematical backgrounds. They are familiar
with the newest results in control theory and are able not only to formulate control problems but
also solve them without attracting the attention of control experts. Moreover, they try to apply new
results in control theory to specific aerospace problems. As a result, control theory is losing its
biggest supplier and, to a certain degree, this slows down its progress. However, the aerospace
disciplines also suffer from this separation.
The application of new control methods can easily be found in aerospace journals. But what
about the old ones? It seems strange that the proportional navigation (PN) method, the analog of
a proportional controller, still remains the most widespread guidance law for homing guidance.
The author of this book has worked in the control area for more than 30 years. Starting working
in the aerospace area he was surprised to find the gap between the high level of sophisticated control
systems used in the aerospace industry and the rather simple guidance laws used in modern
interceptors.
The author hopes that the material of this book will help to fill this gap in the future.
Guidance law design is considered from the point of view of control theory (i.e., as the design
of controls guiding missiles to hit targets).
Two books dedicated to missile guidance deserve to be mentioned. Different in style and content,
they are written by high-level experts who have in-depth understanding of guidance problems. The
book by N. Shneydor, Missile Guidance and Pursuit, contains a concise description of various
types of guidance laws with a short characterization of the main known results. The book by
P. Zarchan, Tactical and Strategic Missile Guidance, summarizes the extensive experience of its
author in guidance systems analysis and design and contains a detailed description of the PN
guidance law.
This book is different from the above-mentioned ones. Guidance law design is considered as
the design of controls. The design procedure is presented in the time domain and in the frequency
domain. The different approaches, in the time and frequency domains, generate different guidance
laws that supplement each other. Basic facts about missile guidance are given in Chapter 1. Parallel
navigation and a description of PN guidance law are presented in Chapter 2. Proportional navigation
is also considered as a control problem. The analysis of the PN guided systems in the time domain
based on the method of adjoints is given in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains analysis of the PN guided
systems in the frequency domain. The obtained analytical expressions for the miss distance can be
used for missile system design. They enable the analysis of the influence of the guidance system
parameters on its performance. The generalized missile guidance system model that also includes
the target model is considered. The relationship between the frequency response and the miss step
response is discussed. The procedure of determination of the optimal frequency for which the
amplitude of the miss distance has a maximum is presented. Chapter 5 contains a detailed description
of a class of guidance laws obtained based on the Lyapunov approach. It is shown that this class
of guidance laws improves the effectiveness of the PN law for maneuvering and nonmaneuvering

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

targets. Moreover, the approach offered can also be considered as another justification of the widely
used PN law. The analytical expressions of the guidance law are given for the generalized planar
and three-dimensional engagement models for missiles with and without axial controlled acceleration. The modification of the PN guidance law using the results of classic control theory is
considered in Chapter 6. The approach is based on using feedforward/feedback control signals to
make the real missile acceleration close to the commanded acceleration generated by the PN
guidance law. The effectiveness of these guidance laws against highly maneuvering targets is
demonstrated. The analysis of the missile guidance systems performance under various types of
noises is considered in Chapter 7. Analytical expressions for analysis of the PN guided systems
are obtained. The computational algorithms are presented. Chapter 8 deals with the simulation
models that can be used effectively for analysis of the guidance laws performance and the comparative analysis of various guidance laws. In Chapter 9 an attempt is made to discuss the problem
of the integrated design of guidance and control laws. This problem is considered because of an
increasing interest in integrated design of the flight vehicle systems. Finally, in Chapter 10 some
computational programs that can be used to test missile guidance laws are considered.
The attractiveness of the guidance laws considered in this book is in their simplicity. They are
as simple as the PN guidance law, which is widely used in practice mostly because of its simplicity.
The material in this book can serve as a basis for several graduate courses in aerospace departments.
It can be used by researchers and engineers in their everyday practice. The author hopes that this
book will supply aerospace scientists and engineers with new ideas that, being crystallized, will
bring significant improvement to missile systems performance.

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

About the Author


Rafael Yanushevsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine. He received a
B.S. in mathematics and M.S. degree (with honors) in electromechanical engineering from Kiev University and Kiev Polytechnic
Institute, respectively, and a PhD degree in the optimization of
multivariable systems in 1968 from the Institute of Control Sciences of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
From 1968 he worked at the Institute of Control Sciences. His
research interests were in optimal control theory and its applications (especially in aerospace), optimal control of differentialdifference systems, signal processing, game theory, and operations
research. He published over 40 papers in these areas and two
books, Theory of Linear Optimal Multivariable Control Systems
and Control Systems with Time-lag. He was an editor of 14 books
published by Nauka. In 1971, the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences gave him the rank
of senior scientist in automatic control.
After immigration to the United States in December 1987, he taught at the University of
Maryland, first in the department of electrical engineering, then in the department of mechanical
engineering, and at the University of the District of Columbia, in the department of mathematics.
Since 1999 he has been involved in projects related to the aerospace industry. He participated in
the development of an engagement model as part of the Battlespace Engineering Assessment Tool,
weapon control system software, new guidance laws, and wrote sections of the Modeling and
Simulation Handbook related to the weapon control system and fire control system of SM-3 missiles.
In 2002 he received a letter of appreciation from the Department of the Navy, Navy Area Theater
Ballistic Missile Program.
Dr. Yanushevskys research interests include guidance and control, signal processing and control, tracking of maneuvering targets, and integrated missile guidance and control systems design.
His company, Research and Technology Consulting (www.randtc.com), provides consulting services
in these areas. He has published over 80 papers, was the chair of the Lyapunov Session of the
Second and Fourth World Congresses on Nonlinear Analysis, and was a member of the Organizing
Committee of the Fourth Congress. He is included in Whos Who in America, Whos Who in Science
and Engineering, and Whos Who in American Education.

2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC