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A broad overview of the industry to help newcomers better understand the world of industrial valves
AN EDUCATION PROGRAM SPONSORED BY:
The Friends of the Crawford Library, Inc.
The Valve Manufacturers Association
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS
• • • • • Definition and functions Major valve types Market segments Special service valves Timeline of major valve events
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
• • • •
Manufacturing changes Standards organizations Pressure and class ratings Testing requirements
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS • • • • • • • • Body materials Valve trim materials Seals, gaskets and packings Valve actuation Review of topics discussed Glossary of terms Additional resources from VMA Separate attachment (PDF)
SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS In this section. you will learn about: • The functions valves perform in a piping system • The major market segments the valve industry serves An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 4 .
by opening. closing or obstructing a port or passageway An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 5 . such as a pipe. liquids or loose materials through an aperture.SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS What is a valve? A device that regulates the flow of gases.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS How do valves regulate flow? • Isolates flow: on/off functions • Controls flow: volume functions • Checks flow: directional functions An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 6 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Isolating valves • Isolating valves also called “block valves” • Possible valve choices for isolating service – – – – Gate Ball Butterfly Plug An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 7 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Control and regulating valves • Control valves are prime examples • Possible valve choices for control and regulating – – – – Globe Butterfly Ball Plug An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 8 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Check • Swing check most common • Many globe valves can be made “stop check” or non-return types An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 9 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Safety and pressure relief valves • Special on/off valves • Designed to: – Open and relieve excess pressure – Re-close after normal conditions are restored – Function when normal operating controls fail • Not designed to control normal operating pressure • Most critical valve in pressurized systems • Referred to as PRVs An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 10 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Basic valve types • Gate • Globe • Ball • Check • Butterfly • Plug An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 11 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Gate valves • Mature design • Simple construction with few moving parts • Not recommended for throttling service • Relatively easy and inexpensive to manufacture • Easy to repair • Heavy design compared to butterfly and ball valves An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 12 .
much fluid friction • Generally not made in very large sizes • Usually a unidirectional installation • May be made in stop-check configuration • Low repair cost An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 13 .SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Globe valves • Primarily a regulating or throttling valve • Basic design over 150 years old • Called a globe due to round body shape • Poor flow path.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Check valves • • • • Also called non-return Allow flow in one direction only Types: swing. especially swing type • Require careful sizing. installation and placement • Low repair cost An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 14 . ball. piston. double-disc and “silent” Metal-seated checks leak.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Ball valves • • • • • Relatively new valve style (since 1950) May be resilient or metal seated Can be used for blocking or regulating flow Two main designs: floating and trunnion Resilient seated typically – Use Teflon for seat material – Have lower maximum temperature about 450o F rating of • Compact design • Moderate repair cost An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 15 .
developed 2000 years ago! • Available either lubricated or lined • Can be used for blocking or regulating flow • Lubricated types used for hydrocarbon service • Lined types popular in chemical industry • In some cases replaced by ball and butterfly designs • Moderately expensive to repair An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 16 .SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Plug valves • Oldest valve design.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Butterfly valves • Center-hinged swinging disc • Low pressure and low temperature designs are resilient seated. usually rubber lined • Can be used for blocking or regulating • High performance types are metal seated • Often double and triple “offset” to reduce closure torque • Relatively expensive to repair An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 17 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS What do valves regulate? • Media – Gases – Liquids – Loose materials An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 18 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Where do valves regulate flow? …Just about everywhere! An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 19 .
gas and refining An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 20 .SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Market segments • • • • • • • Municipal water and wastewater Home plumbing systems Heating. ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) Fire protection General industry Power Oil.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Municipal water and wastewater • Fresh water and sewerage media • Materials: cast and ductile iron • Valve sizes: 6" to 84" • Operating conditions: ambient. low pressure An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 21 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Home plumbing • Material: brass • Primarily installed in: – – – – Sinks and faucets Hose bibs Furnaces Hot water heating systems An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 22 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Heating. ventilating and air conditioning • Commercial buildings • Materials: iron. steel and bronze • Valve sizes: ½" to 24" • Operating conditions: low ambient to environments 200° F An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 23 .
including high rise • Materials: iron and steel • Valve sizes: 2" to 16" • Operating conditions: ambient. low pressure environments An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 24 .SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Fire protection • Commercial buildings.
except for hydraulics An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 25 . low pressure environments.SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS General industry • Examples – Automated assembly lines – Hydraulic equipment – Compressed air • Valve sizes: ¼" to 2" • Operating conditions: ambient.
high pressure An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 26 .SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Power – fossil fuel plants • Steam generating plants • Materials: carbon steel to low alloy • Valve sizes: 2" to 16" • Operating conditions: high temperatures.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Power – nuclear plants • Extreme quality assurance requirements – Total traceability of materials and processes – Extremely high integrity castings • ASME “N Stamp” required for manufacture of nuclear valves • Stainless steels commonly used • Cobalt-based hard-facings (Stellite) cannot be used An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 27 .
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Oil. low to high pressures • Media: water to hydrofluoric acid An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 28 . gas and refining • • • • • Largest variety of materials and types Materials: steel through super alloy Valve types: all Valve sizes: ½" through 48" Operating conditions: cryogenic to 1000° F.
SECTION 1: VALVE BASICS Special service/special valves • • • • • Cryogenic (below -150° F): extended bonnets Slurry: knife gates popular Hydrogen: high integrity castings Strong acid: corrosion-resistant alloys Sour service. hydrogen sulfide (H2S): limits on material hardness • Oxygen: all oil and grease must be removed • Hazardous media: extra QA (quality assurance) and NDE (non-destructive examination) An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 29 .
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE In this section. you will learn about: • Events that brought about major changes in valve design and manufacturing during the last two centuries • The advances made in valve technology between 1900 and the 21st century An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 30 .
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Valve history timeline • Roman Empire (first valves) – 25 AD • James Watt (steam engine) – 1775 • World War II – 1939 • Jack Kilby (integrated circuit) – 1959 25 AD 1775 1959 0 1939 2000 An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 31 .
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Roman Empire: 25 AD • Built the first valves • Used valve and piping designs for a variety of water service applications Roman Plug Valve 25 AD An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 32 .
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Steam power: 1775 • Demand for larger and higher pressure valves • Development of large integrated valve plants 120" Valve Circa 1915 An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 33 .
1892 Valve Patent An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 34 . then cast iron • Globe valves were predominate. • “High pressure” in 1890 was 200 psi. • Materials: brass and bronze.SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Valve technology: 1800-1900 • Steam industry drove virtually all valve designs.
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE World War II • Enormous need for additional piping and valves • Demand for 100-octane aviation fuel Integrated Valve Plant Circa 1947 Assembling Valves During WW II An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 35 .
1940-1945 • Teflon enabled the modern floating ball valve • New corrosion-resistant valve materials An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 36 . 1900-1910 • Pressure-seal bonnets.SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Valve technology: 1900-1950 • Valve design requirements driven by: – Steam until WWII – High octane fuel in 1940s • Birth of steel valve.
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Technology revolution: mid-20th century • Advancing digital technology • Emerging nuclear market Pneumatic Positioner Nuclear Power Plant An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 37 .
C12A – Super alloys • Advances in welding technology – Hard facing overlays – Extended-life seating surfaces An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 38 . C12.SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Valve technology: 1950-2000 • Smart valves and fieldbus control • New designs – Triple-offset butterfly valves – Metal-seated ball valves • Improved materials – High Cr/Mo alloys: C5.
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 21st century changes • Technical – Digital control systems – Improved fugitive emissions control • Manufacturing – China and the Far East – Commodity valves become cheaper An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 39 .
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Technical changes • New and improved high-temperature alloys • Advanced computer control and actuation • Bigger valves becoming more common • Sharper focus on fugitive emissions Network-integrated Control System An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 40 State-of-the-Art Butterfly Valve .
United States was world leader in valve manufacturing • Most commodity steel valves now made or cast in China or India Chinese Investment Casting Foundry An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 41 .SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Manufacturing changes • Through the 1970s.
SECTION 2: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Chinese manufacturing Chinese Furnace Casting Cleaning Modern Chinese Valve Plant An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 42 .
you will learn about: • Organizations responsible for establishing standards for valve manufacturing • Differences between American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) class ratings and water. oil and gas (WOG) ratings • Valve testing procedures An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 43 .SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE In this section.
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Valve standards organizations • American Petroleum Institute (API) • Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS) • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • American Waterworks Association (AWWA) • Instrument Society of America (ISA) • NACE International (originally National Association of Corrosion Engineers) An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 44 .
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE API • American Petroleum Institute • Covers refinery. chemical and petrochemical industry An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 45 .
Pipeline Valves API 594. Ball Valves API 609. Gate Valves API 602. Butterfly Valves API RP 591. Fire Testing Requirements API 608. Check Valves API 598. Valve Repair Slide 46 An Introduction to the Valve Industry . Valve Testing & Inspection API 600. Valve Qualification API RP 621. Compact Steel Gate Valves API 607.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE API standards • • • • • • • • • • API 6D.
Guidelines for Manual Operation of Valves An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 47 . standards organization • 78 valve and fitting standards.S. Marking System for Valves – SP-45. including: – SP-25. Bypass & Drain Connections – SP-91.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE MSS • Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry • Oldest U.
5.34.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE ASME • American Society of Mechanical Engineers • Standards include: – – – – B16.10.25. Pipe Flanges B16. Valves. Flanged and Buttwelding An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 48 . Buttweld ends B16. Threaded. Valve end-to-end dimensions B16.
34 • Contains pressure temperature ratings for different materials • Non-destructive testing procedures • NDE acceptance criteria • Many useful tables and important data An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 49 .SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE ASME B16.
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE ISO • International Organization for Standardization • Many valve standards parallel to U. standards • Some joint ISO and API standards – ISO 6364.S. Valve Testing An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 50 . Valves for Cryogenic Service – ISO 5208.
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Pressure relief valve (PRV) standards • ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers – – – – Section I: Power Boilers Section III: Nuclear Section IV: Heating Boilers Section VIII: Pressure Vessels • National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors – Certifies PRV OEMs and repair facilities An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 51 .
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Boiler and pressure vessel safety valves • Regulated by the ASME Fired Pressure Vessels (B&PV) Code • Designated as ASME Section I Safety Valves ASME Section I Safety Valves Symbol An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 52 .
oil and gas) ratings – Valve’s working pressure typically up to 100º F (same definition as cold working pressure [CWP] for class ratings) An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 53 . oil and gas) ratings • ASME Class ratings – Very similar to class ratings for flanges. often the same • WOG (water.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Pressure ratings: methods • Specifications: – Class ratings – WOG (water.
” • The class defines the maximum allowable working pressure at a specific temperature for a specific material.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Class ratings • Example: ASME Class 150 is defined as a “dimensionless number indirectly related to the pressure-retaining ability as the function of temperature of the component.34 An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 54 . • Classes primarily derived from ASME B16.
1500.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Class ratings (continued) • Often shown as spreadsheet table with: – Pressure classes on top – Temperature on side – Single table for each specific material group • Common steel class ratings: 150. 2500 & 4500 (also Class 800 only for small forged valves – for API-602 standard) • Class “number” formerly referred to the rated pressure at 750° F except for Class 150 An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 55 . 600. 300. 900.
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Sample class ratings table An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 56 .
the maximum working pressure of that same valve is only 80 psig. • At ambient temperature. • At 800° F. can be used safely on services up to 800° F.SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Sample ASME pressure standards • Maximum working pressures listed by media in ASME B16.34 • For example. the maximum working pressure of that valve is 285 psig. An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 57 . a Class 150 valve. WCB material.
appearing as a “straight line” rating An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 58 .SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE WOG ratings • Usually defined by only two points – Pressure at 100° F – Pressure at the highest allowable temperature of the materials used (often a PTFE seat or seal) • Often portrayed on graph or chart.
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Sample WOG ratings graph • WOG ratings common for: – Ball valves – Other soft-seated valves An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 59 .
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Testing requirements • All ASME and API standard valves inspected and tested • Vary by: – Product type – Size – Pressure class • Common test media – Water – Air Testing a Linear Actuated Valve An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 60 .
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Testing requirements (continued) • Shell (body integrity) test – 150% of rated maximum cold working pressure (CWP) • Seat (leakage) test – 90 psi (air) or 110% of the rated maximum CWP (water) Testing Class 800 Valves An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 61 .
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Typical valve test requirement • 12" Class 300 WCB gate valve (to API-600) • Test requirement – API-598 • ASME B16.34 300 Class CWP (working pressure @ ambient) = 740 psig Pressure (psi) Shell test Seat test Backseat test HP seat test option An Introduction to the Valve Industry Duration (sec.) 120 120 60 120 Slide 62 1125 90 (air) 825 825 .
An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 63 .SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE Control valve seating and shut-off requirements • Control valves are usually tested to standards that differ from other valve types. • The joint Fluid Control Institute (FCI)/ American National Standard Institute (ANSI) document ANSI/FCI 70-2-1991 is usually applied.
SECTION 3: VALVE PERFORMANCE
Leakage Class Class I (See 4.2.1) Class II (See 4.2.2) Class III (See 4.2.3) Class IV (See 4.2.4) Class V (See 4.2.5) See Paragraph 4.2.1 Maximum Seat Leakage Test Procedure None
0.5% of rated valve capacity
Type A (See 5.1) Type A (See 5.1) Type A (See 5.1) Type B (See 5.2)
0.1% of rated valve capacity
0.01% of rated valve capacity
5 x 10 ml per minute of water per inch of orifice diameter per psi differential (5 x 10-12 m3 per second of water per mm of orifice diameter per bar differential). Leakage per Paragraph 5.3.4 as expressed in ml per minute versus port diameter
Class VI (See 4.2.6)
Type C (See 5.3)
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS
In this section, you will learn about:
• The types of materials used in valve manufacturing • Materials commonly used to manufacture valve pressure containing parts • Four non-pressure-containing parts used on valves • Two major categories of valve trim material • The difference between gasket seals and packing seals
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS
And you will learn:
• How to identify three types of valve gaskets • About the types of common end connectors that are used on valves • The most common problems with installed valves • What conditions to consider when selecting a valve’s gasket material and packing material
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Bonnet designs • Screwed or threaded • Union bonnet • Bolted bonnet. ring-type joint • Welded • Pressure seal An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 67 . flat gasket • Bolted.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Screwed or threaded • Oldest commercial design • Usually on bronze valves • Used on some hydraulic valves • Not allowed in most refineries and petrochemical plant process service An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 68 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Bolted bonnet. flat gasket • Most popular current design • Utilizes a minimum of four bolts • Adaptable to many gasket types • Not used much for pressure classes above 1500 • Higher pressure classes (above Class 1500) have gone to pressure seal type bonnets An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 69 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Bolted ring joint type • Similar to regular bolted bonnet • Uses a carbon steel ring gasket softer than the body and bonnet material if possible • Useful for higher pressures and temperatures than flat gasket bolted bonnets An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 70 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Pressure seal bonnet • Invented in early 1940s • Much lighter than bolted bonnet • Employs a soft wedge-shaped carbon steel ring. sometimes plated with silver • Newest designs use a stainlesssteel-contained graphite filler • Not for pressure classes below 600 • Require internal pressure to energize seal An Introduction to the Valve Industry Pressure Seal Ring Slide 71 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Welded bonnet • Used in sizes through 24” before pressure seals were invented • Commonly used on API 602 valves ½" through 2" • Used in combination with a bolted bonnet as a “lip seal” • Excellent for fugitive emissions containment An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 72 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Common end connections • Threaded (½" to 2") • Socket weld (½" to 2") • Buttweld (generally above 2") • Flanged (generally above 2") – Raised face – Flat face – Ring-type joint An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 73 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Common end connection – examples Flanged Ends Raised Face Flanged Ends Ring Type Joint Flanged Ends Flat Face Welded Ends Buttweld An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 74 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Other end connections • Raised face tongue and groove • Brazed ends • Mechanical clamping – Grayloc – Victaulic – Sanitary An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 75 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve components and materials • Valve materials – – – – Pressure-containing parts Non-pressure-containing parts Valve trim Seals: gaskets. packing An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 76 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS
• Valve body materials • Require material rating and class rating for pressure • Popular pressure-containing materials
– – – – – – Bronze Cast and ductile iron Carbon steel Low alloy steel (up to 9 Cr) Stainless steels Exotic, high and super alloys
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS
• Oldest valve material • Maximum temperature 500º F • Relatively cheap to manufacture • Low pressure and temperature only • Good corrosion resistance • Typically not repaired
An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 78
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS
Cast and ductile iron
• Developed in 1850s • Brittle and limited to lower pressures • Maximum temperature 450º F • Not suitable for very low or cryogenic temperatures • Not easily welded • Typically not repaired, except largest sizes
An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 79
WCB.SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Carbon steel • Industrial valve workhorse material • WCC. A105 • Temperatures from -20° F to 1000° F • Ductile • Strong • Relatively easy to cast • Moderate cost • Easy to weld An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 80 .
F5. • Forged grades: F11. C9. • Most require PWHT (post-weld heat treatment) when welded An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 81 . F22. F9. C5. WC9.SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Low alloy steel • Up to 9 Cr maximum • Maximum temperature 1200° F • Cast grades: WC6.
“stainless.e. 317.. 347 • Highly resistant to most chemicals • Excellent for cryogenic applications • Easy to machine and weld • Precipitation hardening grades (PH) much stronger (i.SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Stainless steels • Corrosion resistant. 17-4 PH) An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 82 . 316. 321.” with chrome content above 10% • Austenitic: 304.
titanium.SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Exotic – high and super alloys • Highly resistant to volatile chemicals at high temperatures and pressures • Monel. Hastelloy and Inconel • Very expensive • Often difficult to machine and weld An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 83 .
etc.) – Stem An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 84 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Non-pressure-containing parts • Yoke • Mounting pads • Miscellaneous • Trim: components affecting valve closure – Seat – Closure element (disc. ball.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Trim materials – selection considerations • Process fluids – – – – Erosiveness Corrosiveness Solids Other fluid characteristics • Other – – – – Pressure drop Temperature Flow Velocity • Valve action – On-off – Throttling – Emergency An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 85 .
stainless and hard facings – Advantages: high temp and not easily damaged – Disadvantage: harder to get bubble-tight closure An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 86 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve trim materials • Soft seated: elastomeric polymers such as EPDM and plastic polymers such as Teflon – Advantage: tight seating closure – Disadvantages: wide temperature range and easily damaged • Metal seated: bronze.
disc & seat – Trim 12 316 SS stem & disc with Stellite 6 HF seat – Trim 16 316 SS stem with Stellite 6 HF disc & seat An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 87 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Metal-seated valve trims • Defined by API • Examples for gate and globe valves: – Trim 8 13 CR stem & disc with Stellite 6 HF seat – Trim 5 13 CR stem with Stellite 6 HF disc & seat – Trim 10 316 SS stem.
such as stem An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 88 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve seals • Gaskets – Between non-moving valve components – Typically between outer pressure-containing parts • Packings – Between one non-moving component and one moving component – Typically between some part of outer shell and an operating component.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve gasket seals Gasket Locations Globe Valve Ball Valve An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 89 .
gaskets – Typically soft iron or graphite elastomers An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 90 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Types of valve gasket • Crush gaskets – Flat graphite/steel laminate sheet – Oval corrugated soft metal – Flat Teflon (PTFE) or reinforced formulations • Controlled compression gaskets – Spiral wound. or assisted. typically stainless steel with PTFE or graphite • Pressure energized.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Gasket selection considerations • Service conditions – Handles max and/or min temperature of the fluid – Handles the (possibly) corrosive nature of the fluid • Appropriate joint design • Appropriately smooth seating surface • Proper installation • Proper maintenance An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 91 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve packings Packing Locations Compression Packing O-Ring Packing An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 92 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve packing materials • Historically – Braided fiber materials – Asbestos until about 1985 • Graphite or Teflon most common today – Graphite for higher temperature services – Teflon (PTFE) for more corrosive services. requires temperature de-rating of the valve to about 450º F even at low pressure An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 93 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Packing selection considerations • Service conditions – Handles max and/or min temperature of the fluid – Handles the (possibly) corrosive nature of the fluid • Valve design – – – – Smooth stuffing boxes Extremely smooth stem surfaces Straight and concentric stems Operation without undue torque • Proper installation • Proper maintenance An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 94 .
S.SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Fugitive emissions • Increased scrutiny on emissions control today. and international testing standards are not equal An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 95 . especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs) • Requirements vary from a maximum of 50 ppm VOCs to 250 ppm • Valve designs require type testing and qualification • U.
but expensive • Live-loaded packing sometimes helpful • Easier to contain fugitive emissions with quarter-turn valves • Low fugitive emissions success requires: – Proper packing construction and material – Smooth and straight stem – Smooth stuffing box An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 96 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS How to control fugitive emissions • Bellows seal best design.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve actuation • Manual (requires operator) – Lever or gear used • Automated (no operator) – Needs a power source: • Electricity. pneumatic pressure or hydraulic • Which are available? • What is the environment? An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 97 .
plug and butterfly valves An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 98 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Manual valve actuation • Manual gears – Help reduce opening and closing operating torques to easily manageable amounts. usually a maximum of 70-100 ft/lbs. • Bevel gears – Used for rising stem valves such as gates and globes • Worm gears – Used for quarter-turn valves such as ball.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Automatic valve actuation • Uses – – – – – Frequently operated valves Control or regulating operations Valves in hazardous locations Valves in remote locations Difficult to operate valves • Automatic actuator types – Pneumatic powered – Hydraulic powered – Electric powered An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 99 .
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Valve repair • Factored into the total cost of ownership • Fewer valves repaired today due to low cost of new commodity valves • Valves below 12" Class 150 and 6" Class 300 usually scrapped unless alloy material • Some valves expensive to repair – Triple offset butterfly – Metal seated ball An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 100 .
or lack of sealant – Seating damage. due to incorrect trim materials or in-line trash from construction • Operation – Incorrect valve sizing – Component breakage An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 101 .SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS Common valve problems • Leakage – Casting leaks. stem scratched. due to poor casting quality – Leaking gaskets. due to improper joint adjustment – Leaking packing. due to improper compression adjustment.
SECTION 4: VALVE COMPONENTS
Valve selection questions
• What is the fluid? • What is the temperature and pressure? • Will I need to block flow, regulate it, or stop back-flow? • Will the valve be operated often? • How much room do I have to install the valve? • Will I need to service it often?
• What is my budget?
An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 102
SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES
You have learned about…
1. The functions valves perform in a piping system 2. The most common valve types 3. Major market segments served by the valve industry 4. Organizations responsible for establishing standards for valve manufacturing 5. ASME class ratings and WOG ratings 6. Valve test medias: air and water
An Introduction to the Valve Industry
SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES
You have learned about…
7. Three types of valve components: pressurecontaining, non-pressure-containing parts and seals 8. Materials commonly used for valve bodies 9. Non-pressure-containing parts; yoke, mounting pads and trim 10. Soft-seated and metal-seated valve trim 11. Crush gaskets, controlled compression gaskets and pressure energized gaskets
An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 104
ring joint and flat face flanged ends. Valve selection questions An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 105 . and butt-weld connections 13. Leakage and operation problems in installed valves 18. Actuation: manual and automated 17. Selection of valve gasket and packing material 15. Fugitive emissions and how to control them 16.SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES You have learned about… 12. Raised face. The distinct functions of gaskets and packing seals 14.
Cavitation – The result of vapor bubbles collapsing and releasing energy and noise into a flow system. ANSI – American National Standards Institute AOV – Air-operated valve API – American Petroleum Institute ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers Automated valve – A valve that is powered by a source other than a human operator. such as a faucet or valve. or in pressure units. Also. An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 106 . which establishes and maintains valve standards for the waterworks industry. Buttweld – Weld in which adjoining edges are parallel and facing each other. Bleed – To drain or depressurize a valve Block and bleed – A valve configuration in which flow through a valve is blocked while the valve is bled through another small port. to discharge fluid through a safety relief valve by opening the valve. Check valve – A valve that allow media to flow in only one direction. expressed either as a percentage of the set pressure. Cr – Chromium Cock – A device. a-co Blowdown – The difference between the set pressure and the closing pressure of a pressure relief valve. Bonnet – A component sitting on top of the body of a valve that contains valve stems and bushings. provides force or torque. AWWA – American Water Works Association.SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES Glossary of terms Actuator – A device that applies force to operate valve. for regulating the flow of a liquid.
D.SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES Glossary of terms Control valve – A valve that regulates the flow of media. Flange connection – A connection mated by means of bolts inserted through holes in the flange face. flexible elastomer or metal sheet through which forces or pressures are applied Disc – Closure member in a valve Ductile – Capable of being drawn out into wire or thread Eccentric plug – A half plug design used in valves Elastomeric – Characteristics resembling those of rubber ESD – Electrostatic discharge co-id Ferrous – Characteristic of relating to or containing iron. Cryogenic – Characteristic of temperature below -150° F. HPBV – High-performance butterfly valve HVAC – Heating. Gasket – A seal between non-moving valve components. Cv – The flow coefficient. or ID – Inside diameter An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 107 . HART – Hybrid signal containing characteristics of both analog and digital signals. ventilating and air conditioning Hydraulic device – A device that is moved or worked by liquid pressure. gpm – Acronym for gallons per minute. I. the amount of material that can pass through a fixed area at a certain differential pressure DCS – Distributed control system Diaphragm – A thin.
Also.D or OD – Outside diameter is-pi Offset design – A design in which a valve controller is installed off geometric center of the valve. such as a pipe MOV – Motorized valve MSS – Manufacturers Standardization Society NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association NRS – Non-rising stem O. Lift and turn – Hybrid of linear and rotary valve actions LNG – Acronym for liquid nitrogen gas. OS&Y – Outside screw and yoke Overpressure – The pressure increase over the set pressure of a pressure relief valve.SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES Glossary of terms ISA – International Society of Automation ISO – International Organization for Standardization Isolating valve – A valve that turns the flow of media on and off. Operator – A person who applies force to operate a valve. the amount of pressure in a media flow system that is over the set pressure of the pressure relief valve. P1 – Inlet pressure. Media – The gases. expressed in pound-force per square inch P2 – Outlet pressure. An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 108 . expressed in pound-force per square inch Packing – A seal between moving valve components Pig – A cleaning or inspection device used in media flow systems. liquids or loose materials that flow through an aperture.
vibration or corrosion. sg – Specific gravity Slurry – A watery mixture of insoluble matter (as mud. Q – Required media flow. RS – Rising stems. lime or plaster of paris) An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 109 .SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES Glossary of terms Pneumatic device – A device that is moved or worked by air pressure. pn-s Safety relief valve – A pressure relief valve for liquid or vapor/gas service Safety valve – A pressure relief valve for vapor/gas service Seat – The fixed surface on which a valve rests or against which it presses Set pressure – The inlet gauge pressure at which the pressure relief valve is set to open QA – Quality assurance Relief valve – A pressure relief valve for liquid service Relieving pressure – The sum of the set pressure and overpressure pressure relief valve Resilient – Capable of withstanding shock without permanent deformation or rupture. tending to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change. PRV – Pressure relief valve. PTFE – Refers to Teflon PTFE. Severe service – A valve application in which the valve will be exposed to excessive conditions such as temperature. expressed in gallons per minute. short for polytetrafluoroethylene. psig – Pound-force per square inch gauge. psi – Pounds per square inch.
by opening.SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES Glossary of terms Trim – Valve components that make up the actual closure elements of the valve or that control the closure and are surrounded by the media inside the valve. WOG – Water. liquids or loose materials through an aperture. such as a pipe. closing. Trunnion – A pin or pivot on which something can be rotated or tilted TT – Total torque Valve – Device that regulates the flow of gases. t-w Valve seal – General term used to refer to valve gaskets and valve packings Vena contracta – A point in a flow system at which the maximum velocity is obtained. oil. VOC – Volatile organic compounds. gas Worm – A self-locking type of gear An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 110 . or obstructing a port or passageway.
28. 2010: Baton Rouge.SECTION 5: SUMMARY/RESOURCES Additional resources • Next Valve Basics Seminar & Exhibition – Oct.org for details! An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 111 . watch VMA. LA • Back to Basics article compilation • Valve Magazine (print & digital) – Free subscription – Order past issues and articles • Coming later in 2010: Valve Basics in a Box™ – A complete Valves & Actuators 101 program for onsite education.
and The Valve Manufacturers Association An Introduction to the Valve Industry Slide 112 . © 2010 Valve Manufacturers Association AN EDUCATION PROGRAM SPONSORED BY: The Friends of the Crawford Library. VMA would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the entire VMA Education & Training Committee whose efforts made this program possible.org. TX. and President. United Valve.AN INTRODUCTION TO THE VALVE INDUSTRY was developed by Greg Johnson. Houston. please visit VMA. Inc. For additional information on VMA’s Education & Training program and other educational products for sale. Chairman of the VMA Education & Training Committee.
For effective flow regulation the flow rate should be proportional to the amount of closure of the stem. elastomer seating inserts. they should not be counted on for absolute shut-off. They are marked with a flow arrow on the exterior surface to ensure they are installed in the proper orientation. Control and regulating valves regulate the flow in a line. There is no grey area when it comes to block valves. check valves will leak to some degree. Controlling and regulating: Usually control valves. Valves perform three basic functions: Isolating service: These are sometimes called block valves and are used in on/off service. just like most light switches are used to turn lights on or off. no-go decision makers in the valve industry. Gate valves should never be used for throttling or regulating unless the flow velocity is very low. such as a quick opening response. They are designed to be either open or closed. globe. In critical applications these valves are often motor-operated. these can be. butterfly or plug types and used to regulate the amount of flow in a line. Check or non-return valves only allow flow in one direction. 2010 This program serves as an introduction to the industrial valve industry and is designed to inform newcomers to the industry about basic concepts such as valve types and components. Check or non-return: These valves allow free flow in one direction only and block the flow from returning in the opposite direction. materials. Many pieces of process equipment—including pumps. They are designed to operate in the less-than-full-open position. Isolating valves are designed to operate in either the full open or full closed position. The oldest and still most popular regulating valve design is the globe. The most accurate flow control is performed by control or regulating valves operated by a controller and an actuator. unless soft-seated. Slide 9 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 1 . design. Slide 8 The control valve is required in every process plant or facility where the rate of flow has to be controlled.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 1 June 16. turbines and boilers—are protected by check valves. However certain control applications require flow rates that are not proportional with the percentage of closure of the stem. In most cases. Slide 6 Slide 7 Isolating or block valves are the no. ball. especially over the past 25 years or so. Check valves are the one-way street controllers of the valve industry. The most common type of isolating valve is the gate valve. Unless they have soft. rather than by manual operation. High velocity flow in a gate valve used for regulating can quickly destroy the seating surfaces and result in leakage when fully closed. history and standards. but other types have made inroads.
Gate valves can be manufactured in sizes from ½‖ through 144‖. Today sleeved plug valves are used in many harsh chemical applications. Check valves run the gamut from being able to fit in the palm of your hand size to large waterworks valves that you can walk through. Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 2 . compared to non-offset types. The control of distributed natural gas is still handled to a great extent by lubricated plug valves. Cu/Ni (copper-nickel) all-metal plug valves are often used in HF (hydrofluoric) alkylation processes. Today. The globe valve was the principal valve type during the 19th century. globe valve usage began to be reserved only for flow control and regulation applications. such as the metal-seated ball valve. The proper sizing of check valves is critical to optimize their performance. Percentage-wise. Some of the largest gate valves in the world are parallel disc types used in giant dam and waterworks projects. there are more globe-type ―control valves‖ than any other type. because metal-seated check valves usually have high allowable leakage rates. safety valves for vapor service and safety relief valves for liquid or vapor/gas service.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 10 June 16. 2010 Safety & relief valves are the ―silent sentinels‖ of the piping system. Valves can be manufactured of hundreds of different materials and alloys to handle the harshest service conditions. At one time plug valves were a primary choice for refinery service. Check valve sizing and application issues account for a high percentage of in-plant refinery valve problems. even for backflow control. the ball valve exploded on the PVF (piping/valves/fittings) scene in the 1950s and 60s.and triple-offset. Valves are used to regulate fluids from the thinnest gases to heavy slurries full of suspended solids. As other valve types matured over the next 75 years or so. Most gate valves are made from castings. The offset design is popular because of the decreased opening and closing torque required to operate the valve. Virtually unknown before World War II. have threatened its existence. while trunnionmounted types can be built in very large sizes. Basic gate valve design has not changed much over the past 100 years or so. Home faucets and outside water spigots are both usually globe-type valves. Although other valve types. double. Butterfly valves have come a long way from their early days as rubber-lined water service block valves. Check valves are used in tandem with a gate valve in many situations. Relief valves are used for liquid service. The invention of Teflon led to the creation of the floating ball valve. but forged and fabricated valves are also common. metal-seated butterfly valves are used in some of industry’s toughest applications. the venerable gate valve is still produced in vast numbers all over the world. but other valve types have taken over in many of those applications. Floating ball types are usually 12‖ and smaller.
These are usually small valves. The primary valve organization for the waterworks industry is the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Hot water systems and furnaces also contain gate. Heating. these valves are usually manufactured out of cast or ductile iron and occasionally bronze. From the plumbing in our house. Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Automated assembly lines and compressed air systems are just some of the general industry valve applications. But the entire valve industry is very broad shouldered. Every bathroom faucet is a globe valve. This is a 60” resilient-seated butterfly valve on one of the main water intake lines running from Lake Michigan to the Chicago water purification system. © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 3 . The check. The pressures required to pipe water to the upper floors of tall buildings usually dictate that cast steel valves be used instead of cast or ductile iron.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 19 June 16. so they hold very well. gate and globe valves are ductile iron and bronze. globe and regulating valves. with very diverse segments that feature products oftentimes totally different from the segment with which we are most familiar. There are many other globe valves throughout houses all over the country. Municipal water and wastewater service uses millions of basic valves. the common hose bib or faucet is actually a globe valve. Since the temperatures and pressures are relatively low. especially in large buildings. Fire protection sprinkler systems primarily contain ductile iron gate valves. Valve sizes range from ½‖ through 24‖ and virtually all types of valves are found.000 psi for hydraulic systems. from fire hydrants (a form of globe valve) to huge 16’ butterfly valves on giant water delivery aqueducts… and everything in between. they all contain valves. 2010 Valves are used in many industry segments. Shown here is a set of ductile iron valves on a typical automatic sprinkler system. although other valve types are beginning to be used as well. but pressure ratings can be very low for compressed air to nearly 10. to refineries and power plants. ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems use a number of valves. ½‖ to 2‖. Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 In home plumbing applications. Chilled and hot water systems in skyscrapers may contain valves rated up to class 600 to handle the high lift required to reach the top floors and maintain pressure. which establishes and maintains valve standards for the waterworks industry. Most valve professionals are familiar with their own segment or segments of the valve industry. and they are all around us. The seating in these valves is often a resilient rubber.
The early Roman valve and piping designs were used in a variety of water service applications. High-temperature and high-pressure applications now dictate the use of 9 Cr (chromium) materials such as ASTM A216 grades C12 and C12A. which require special valve materials. The primary domain of the pressure seal bonnet is in hightemperature. can be found in these facilities as well.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 26 June 16. valves must be completely free of all oils and greases. so they must be repaired in place. Another interesting fact is that the name of the valve builder was not stamped on the valve or the plumbing components. Valves of virtually every type and material can be found in these plants with their maze of piping. the valves must be perfect in every way. With today’s cycle type generating plants. Oil refining and petrochemical service is the cafeteria of valve selection. For instance. They were primarily used in domestic plumbing systems. Interestingly. and they must be designed to handle the rough operating conditions. Since failure is not an option in this service. the Dark Ages also inhibited the growth of flow control technology and it wasn’t until the birth of the steam-powered Industrial Revolution that valve designs began to change and develop. Steam generation is still an important user of critical valve components. which is more costly than removing them and sending to a repair shop. The 1800s would see huge developments in valve design. in cryogenic service (below -150o F) requires bonnet extensions so the packing will not freeze and render the valve inoperable. Slide 27 The unique environment of nuclear power facilities requires that everything used in their construction meet critical quality assurance standards and specifications. Operating temperatures range from cryogenic to 1000o F. steam power and generation drove nearly all of its product enhancements and improvements. The first valves were manufactured by the Romans over 2000 years ago. A typical power plant has a multitude of valve service conditions and hundreds of valves. the chemical analysis of these ancient valves is extremely close to today’s ASTM B61 and B62 bronzes. If a name was stamped on the valves it was the owner of the house where the piping was installed. Corrosives such as hydrogen sulfide and hydrofluoric acid. And in oxygen service. 2010 For the first 100 years of the valve industry. Like other scientific developments. Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 32 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 4 . from defect-free castings to ultra-reliable control systems. the stress on valves is great. Special service applications require valves that are either specially built or are processed in unique ways. from the smallest forged-steel types to large pressure seal gate valves. Most power plant valves are buttweld end types. These initial basic plug valve designs would not change much in the coming 2000 years. high-pressure steam service.
80. including the valve manufacturers. 2010 After a half century of growth spurred on by the steam industry. The control of higher pressure and temperature steam continued to drive most valve developments through the first decades of the 20th century. played a big part. particularly in the control valve industry with sophisticated control capabilities and fieldbus systems. One of the key drivers of valve technology during this period was the quest for 100 octane fuel for aircraft.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 33 June 16. Virtually all of them were versions of bronze globe valves! During this period there were dozens of valve patents issued each year—some good. And U. As steam pressures and temperatures began to rise. some bad and some ugly. industry. The nuclear industry was a huge driver of both valve technology and valve manufacturing quality systems development. Most of the major valve manufacturers (Crane. tested and shipped the final product. Slide 34 Slide 35 World War II created a huge need for additional piping components. Today the site is a parking lot for semi-trucks and trailers at the nearby BNSF railroad yard. Prior to the late 1930s. During the war.S. including valves. Until the late 1800s valves were predominately low pressure designs of 200 psi or less and primarily made of bronze and cast iron. The Crane plant was so large that it had its own railroad with over five miles of railroad tracks. Slide 36 The age of the steel valve dawned with the birth of the 20th century.to 90-octane was the best that could be obtained through conventional refining processes. The cracking units and affiliated process equipment created the need for valves that had not been invented or perfected yet. a young man-depleted workforce was augmented by women and the retention of older workers. industry began the shift from bronze and iron to carbon steel for these tough applications. Lunkenheimer. meaning it poured its own castings and assembled. The U. The plant was integrated. The perfection of the ―cracking‖ processes helped the United States to leap ahead of the rest of the world in this regard. Slide 37 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 5 . Powell and Jenkins) attained their first valve patents during this period. It took World War II and its industrial growth to fuel new developments in the valve industry. This 160-acre Crane valve plant was located in southwest Chicago in the mid-1940s. valves became a commodity and America’s capability to meet the demands of larger and higher pressure valves was met by the construction of large integrated valve plants throughout the Northeast and Midwest. The digital age was manifested in the valve industry as well. It is said that the 100-octane fuel used to power the RAF during the later stages of the Battle of Britain helped defeat German air power. valve companies met that need and more.S.
have now migrated across the country. This concern has resulted in new fugitive emissions control measures to be instituted for valves to help eliminate them as a possible leak source. Slide 40 The new century created new valve challenges and creative valve solutions. With the dawn of a new century came a growing environmental consciousness that was manifested in the industrial sector by increased concern for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. 2010 Although most valve designs were quite mature during the second half of the 20th century. A large-diameter fabricated butterfly valve made out of 304H stainless steel for use in high temperature flue gas service is shown here. It is hydraulically controlled. The metal-seated high performance butterfly also continued to evolve and take market share away from traditional gate valves. save for some highly engineered products. which started first in California. but increasing scrutiny by valve users and the resulting corrective actions by offshore manufacturers will hopefully correct the problems. The new threshold of containment is now less than 100 parts per million. Welding technology advanced to the point that the Cr/Mo alloys could be effectively welded. There have been concerns over quality from ―low-cost countries‖ such as China and India. © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 6 . Advances in welding technology also helped drive valve manufacturing to new levels. such as C12A. the butterfly and infant ball valve types continued to evolve.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 38 June 16. created seating surfaces that would last much longer than previous hard materials such as 410 stainless steel.and triple-offset butterfly designs were developed during this period. The common use of hard facing overlays. Hightemperature alloys. Slide 39 Digital control systems have had a huge and beneficial impact on the valve industry. The shift of valve manufacturing to the least expensive countries has been nearly complete for all valves. were improved and additional information was published on their fabrication and use. such as Stellite #6. which led to a huge increase in buttweld end valve designs. Fugitive emissions control concerns. Engineers seeking greater plant throughput are designing larger and larger process lines that require the valve designer to counter with new and larger valves. a 9 Cr alloy. Computers and digital communication became common place in control valve applications and on motorized valves (called MOVs). This has required valve manufacturers to concentrate on emissions containment in packing and seals. The double.
25 details the geometry that all buttweld valve ends need to have in order to match up to the appropriate pipe for welding in the field. companies have joint ventures in China and some of the plants are very impressive in size and scope. In the top right photo. until recently they had not been required to produce valve castings to the standards required of the United States and most of Europe. the high cost of very mature U. U. chemical plants and general industry applications. The economic downturn of the 1980s further pruned the number of U. These countries also provide components and castings to many U.S. manufacturing plants. particularly in the area of quality castings.S. Huge worldwide demand for U. B16. Offshore sourcing.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 41 June 16.S. pipeline valves (API 6D).10 is the standard for end-to-end dimensions which keeps valves interchangeable. Where is his protective equipment?! Slide 45 API publishes many valve standards that are the defacto industry standard for particular products such as gate valves (API 600). 2010 The United States was the leader in valve manufacturing through the first six to seven decades of the 20th century. manufacturers that still have a manufacturing presence in the United States. ASME publishes many valve standards that are used in all segments of industry and for all types of valves. castings for the U.S. ASME publications cover pressure temperature ratings for different materials. market are still produced here. The very low cost of manufacturing there.S. but as of 2009. A typical low-tech Chinese electric furnace charged with ASTM A217 grade WCB steel is shown here. combined with China’s own internal growth and appetite for valves has created literally thousands of valve plants within her borders. valve manufacturing facilities. Note the wooden cart on the left. API has been publishing valve standards since 1939. NDE acceptance criteria. The most popular standards are API 598 and API 600. API standards are used in refineries.S. This is hardly a state-of-the-art facility. led to the closure of most domestic integrated manufacturing facilities. as well as many others. In China’s defense. especially for commodity valves. nondestructive testing procedures. manufacturers began to look abroad and this opened the door for imports from Eastern Europe and the Far East. became the norm for most manufacturers as the ’80s rolled into the ’90s. This is a typical interior view of a Chinese investment casting foundry. In this image workers are preparing the wax molds that will be used to produce the final patterns. The low cost of the imports vs. Many U. B16. Slide 42 At this time there are still some quality issues to be overcome. China is the nation of choice for most worldwide valve production today. valves in the 1970s created a shortage of products for internal consumption. many useful tables and other important data. note the worker who is cutting off the risers from some investment castings.S. The very low labor costs in India and China have caused virtually all commodity steel valve production to become centered in these low-cost nations. Slide 48 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 7 .
The ASME requirements for pressure relief valves are part of some of the most stringent quality standards in the world. This specification also publishes pressure-temperature tables for virtually every common metal and alloy used for valve construction. There are dozens of material tables like this one in B16.34. 600. Companies that manufacture pressure relief valves are required to have a special ASME certification. Four ASME codes apply for pressure relief valves: Section I – Power Boilers. 300. B16. Class numbers were created in the early 20th century and except for class 150 they refer to the materials pressure rating at 750o F. Section VI – Heating Boilers. For example. It is also called cold working pressure (CWP).34 contains pressure testing requirements and acceptance criteria. For those valves that don’t fall under specific design standards such as API 600 or API 608.34. This data is derived from ASME B16. Class ratings vary depending upon their number: 150. The most important fact to remember about pressure ratings is that the operating pressure DECREASES as the temperature RISES.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 49 June 16. Section VIII – Pressure Vessels. match the pressure class across the top with the operating temperature down the left side and scan across to where they meet for the operating pressure at that temperature. the valve in question is only suitable for 100 psi at 450o F. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 55 Slide 56 Slide 57 Slide 58 Slide 59 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 8 . Nowadays WOG ratings are usually applied to some ball valves. Due to their purpose. the answer is found in ASME B16. manufacture and performance. For some reason class 150 (actually 170 psi) is based upon 500o F. oil and gas and refers to the rating of the valve at ambient temperature. class 300 is rated at 300 psi at 750o F. 1500. These standards are written by ASME. Section III – Nuclear. 2010 ASME B16. You can see by this table that due to the reduced high temperature strength of the elastomer seat material. If an engineer wishes to know what pressure and temperature he can operate a valve at. class 600 is rated at 600 psi at 750o F and so on. WOG stands for water. the ―V‖ stamp. In years past the WOG rating was used for all types of valves including gates and globes. 900. pressure relief valves must adhere to very stringent standards in their design. There are two main methods of indicating the pressure rating of a valve: class rating and WOG rating. To use this table.34 is the parent document from which most industrial valves are designed.34 covering virtually every material valves are made of. 2500 & 4500.
the bolted. This document provides criteria for establishing classes of leakage rates. ASME B16. Tests include a shell or body integrity test. Due to the fact that the bonnet could be loosened from the body if excessive force is used in opening. to test the pressure boundary and a closure test to test the valves ability to stop flow. MSS SP-61.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 60 June 16. Slide 61 Slide 62 Slide 63 Slide 64 Slide 67 Slide 68 Slide 69 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 9 . which is published in ANSI/FCI 70-2-1991. Valve testing specifications and acceptance criteria are very black and white. The circle of eight bolts holds the body to the bonnet. welded and pressure seal are the most common bonnet joints. 2010 All valves require testing at the end of their manufacturing cycle. depending on the testing specification. A typical class 300 carbon steel bolted bonnet globe valve is shown. API 6D. This table. the test durations are relatively short. Although the design is rare in critical service applications. shows some of the possible control valve leakage rates. The shell test is usually performed at 150% of the rated ambient working pressure. From Class 150 through Class 1500. Many designs have been developed to hold these two parts together. Except for small plumbing valves. and it specifies leakage rates from very liberal to virtually zero. there are literally millions in use around the world in mundane commercial applications. ANSI/FCI 70-2-1991. They are relatively easy to manufacture and assemble and easy to disassemble if repairs are needed. Higher pressure classes have gone to pressure seal type bonnets. for the sake of manufacturing efficiency. A screwed or threaded bonnet bronze globe valve built today looks virtually identical to one built a hundred years ago. with a gasket sandwiched in between the two components. are the requirements for a good valve pressure test. However. In the case of most gate and globe valves the two parts are the body & bonnet. The most commonly applied testing standard for a control valve is the American National Standard Institute. bolted bonnets are found everywhere in industry. along with the right equipment and a calibrated test gauge. Threaded bonnet designs are some of the oldest dating from the mid 19th century. Common testing specifications in use today include API 598. An experienced testing technician. this type of valve is banned from most refinery and chemical plant applications. Bolted bonnet valves are the workhorses of today’s valve industry. The seat test is often 110% of the rated ambient working pressure or in some cases 60-100 psi air. The bonnet area sits on top of the body and contains the stem and bushing. from the very stringent Class VI to the liberal class I acceptance criteria.34 and ISO 5208.
An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 70 June 16. Other end connections are sometimes used for ease of assembly and disassembly. Today. eliminates the two primary leak paths in a valve. flanged end types predominate. Pressure seal valves also require more expertise than conventional bolted bonnet valves when they need to be repaired. The joint with the highest integrity is the welded end. Slide 73 Slide 74 Slide 75 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 10 . because there is not enough pressure-induced force to keep the gasket energized. most welded bonnet valves are made in size 2‖ and less. Slide 71 Slide 72 Before the advent of pressure seal bonnets. Flanged cast iron valves are the flat-faced type. the better the pressure seal gasket seals. For low pressure bronze valves the threaded type is most common. the welded bonnet design was used in sizes up to 24‖. Victaulic and sanitary types. or the brittle cast iron flange will break when tightened. Pressure seal valves are available in gate. When connecting a steel-raised-face flanged end valve to a cast pipe flange or valve. the raised face of the steel flange must be machined flat. Higher pressure valves are often weld end or ring-type joints (RTJ). The RTJ flanged end is good for intermediate pressures and is often used in classes 600 to 1500. The welded bonnet is also very popular in bellows seal valves. The pressure seal bonnet was designed to eliminate the huge amount of mass required for high pressure bolted bonnet connections in class 600 and higher valves. which if welded correctly has virtually zero chance of leaking. The Grayloc type is sometimes used for high-pressure applications at 2000 psi and above. Most flanged end steel valves are raised-face type. A typical pressure seal gate valve showing the pressure seal ring (yellow) and the segmented spacer ring (orange) above it. They include the Grayloc. One limitation of pressure seals is they do not work well in low pressure applications. as the combination of a bellows seal on the packing and a welded bonnet. This creates a very tight seal that is usually leakproof. For steel valves through Class 600. They rely on the soft metal ring joint gasket being slightly deformed as it is compressed between matching grooves in the body and bonnet of the valve. Valves come in a number of end connection types. 2010 Ring joint bonnets are excellent for high temperature/high pressure applications. It is unique in that the higher the pressure exerted in the bonnet. Small forged steel valves are usually supplied in either socket weld or threaded ends. globe and check styles and classes 600 through 4500.
030%. Slide 79 Slide 80 Slide 81 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 11 . Ductile iron is a prime choice for valves in water distribution. including control of preheat temperatures and post-weld heat treatment after welding. low alloy steels are specified. Correct body material selection can be made by answering the following questions: • What is the operating pressure? • What is the operating temperature? • Is the fluid corrosive? • Is the fluid erosive? Questions 1 & 2 are answered by referencing American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) document B16. F5 and F9. Cast steel is relatively inexpensive. Due to their air hardenability. the pressure-containing parts are probably the most important.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 77 June 16. F22. Bronze is the oldest material still in use for valve construction. They commonly come in four casting grades: ASTM A216 grade WC6 (1-1/4 Cr). ASTM A217 grade WCB cast steel and A105 forged steel are the most common valve materials in use in petrochemical. chemical and power plants today. WC9 (2-1/4 Cr). these materials almost always require special care when welding. Questions 3 & 4 need to be answered by a design engineer or other parties with information on the fluid to be contained. It has a yield and tensile strength close to cast steel. The equivalent forged-steel grades are ASTM A182 grades F11. It also a ductile material so it has some give to it before it breaks. it can be brazed.34 and checking the material/pressure/temperature charts. with its carbon content at about . The most common bronze valve material specifications are ASTM B61 & B62. These shell components of the valve must be of the correct material to ensure that they will handle the media and pressure they are required to contain. Ductile iron is the Cadillac of irons. refining. is the workhorse material for industrial valves. there are probably more bronze valves sold each year than any other type. Carbon steel. Bronze is also an excellent material for cryogenic valve manufacture. Although bronze cannot be welded. When temperatures exceed the range of plain carbon steel (WCB & A105). C5 (5 Cr) and C12 (9 Cr). relatively easy to cast (compared to Cr/Mo alloys) and easy to weld. Slide 78 When it comes to valve materials. 2010 From a catastrophic failure standpoint. The weldability makes it a good choice for buttwelding or socketwelding of valves to other piping components.
© 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 12 . socketweld. when highpressure steam is being controlled. Inconel and others. The common cast grades are ASTM A351 grades CF8 (304ss). ASTM A494 grade M35 is not weldable. Elastomer-seated valves are required to hold bubble tight (zero leakage) when tested. One document that details metallic trim materials is American Petroleum Institute standard 600. although occasionally multi-turned valves will be soft-seated by the installation of elastomer seals in either the disc or seats. 2010 Stainless steel is the corrosion-resistant commodity material of today. CF3M (316L) and CF8C (347ss). as well as the stem and backseat. Steel Gate Valves. On a gate valve. In addition. These alloys have unique high-temperature and corrosion-resistant properties that make them useful to extremely harsh service environments. Hastelloy C. It is highly erosion and corrosion resistant. They include Monel. They usually need only to be able to handle the direct stresses that they see. Trim 8 (also called ½ Stellite) is the most often used trim for commodity valves. soft-seated valves are usually limited to Class 600 and lower. while some such as cast Monel. An additional factor in trim material selection is the added high velocity that occurs when a valve is slightly open. There are 18 different trim choices in these documents. CF8M (316ss). with trim 5 (also called full Stellite) running second in popularity. there is a host of high alloy materials that are available. the seating trim material of choice is usually Stellite #6. flanged and buttweld end. When stainless steels and carbon steels are not good enough. These materials must have enough corrosion resistance to withstand the effects of the fluid and additional stresses induced by the closure function of the disc or wedge against the seat or seats. The biggest disadvantage of soft-seated trim materials is their high temperature limit of between 400-500o F. Non-pressure-retaining parts can vary a bit from the alloys that contain pressure and contact the media. a hardfacing material. Slide 87 These are some of the trims listed in API 600 and API 602. the trim is considered the seating areas of the disc and seats. Metallic trim is the standard for gate. The equivalent forged grades are ASTM A182 grades F304. Slide 83 Slide 84 Slide 85 Slide 86 Soft-seated trim materials are found primarily in quarter-turn valves. globe and most check valves. Some are relatively easy to weld.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 82 June 16. F316L and F347. A valve’s trim is defined as the components that make up the actual closure elements of the valve or that control the closure and are surrounded by the media inside the valve. For example. Austenitic stainless steels are easy to weld and generally do not require any special requirements such as post-weld heat treatment. Stainless-steel valves are made in all types of end configurations including threaded. The trim materials vary in accordance with the fluid being handled. F316.
use elastomer O-rings for packing. 2010 Seals such as packings and gaskets are usually non-ferrous although some gaskets utilize a mixture of ferrous and resilient components. The pressure seal gasket is normally limited to Class 600 and above due to its inability to seal well at lower pressures. The mating surfaces in contact with the gasket must be of proper surface finish to match to gasket. The most common packing materials in use today include graphite and Teflon. In the case of compression packings.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 88 June 16. However. more manufacturers are now shifting to graphite and stainless-steel composites for these applications. Slide 91 It is not good enough to just have the correct gasket. The controlled-compression. Even the solid metal pressure seal ring gasket is constructed of soft steel so that it will conform to the geometry of the pressure seal valve body and bonnet connection. used for multi-turn and quarter-turn O-ring packing individually contained rings. Teflon can be provided in a rope-style or molded into rings. Many quarter-turn and some ambient temperature valves. Gasket materials usually match stem materials but often contain other materials such as stainless steel to give them added strength. such as pipeline valves. generally used for quarter-turn Slide 92 Slide 93 Today the primary packings are graphite or Teflon. Compression packing: multiple stacked rings. for most gaskets to work properly. Graphite packings use compounds of graphite and carbon and occasionally a corrosion inhibitor. It is the gasket of choice for Class 300 and some Class 600 valve applications. The crush-type gaskets are found on many valve types. the material selected must meet the corrosion resistance criteria and be able to handle the pressure and stresses exerted on the packing. Packing must be resilient yet it must also be stout enough to contain pressure inside the valve. however. Valve seals—packing and gaskets—are where the rubber meets the road or actually where the inside meets the outside on a valve. packings rely on deformation to seal. Like gasket seals. Packing is the seal between the shaft or stem and the bonnet or body of the valve. Slide 90 There must be deformation or compression. however slight. the 150 class valves with their oval bonnets use this design exclusively. © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 13 . Teflon is the prime choice in corrosive service where temperatures are low. Also. spiral-wound type of gasket is normally provided in only circular configurations. Soft iron or silver-plated soft steel gaskets have been used for many years as pressure seal gasket material. the bolts that compress the gasket between valve components must be torqued correctly.
globe. Designing these valves from the start to be more repairable will result in a lower ―total -cost-ofownership‖ for the valve owner. Another helpful measure sometimes used to reduce fugitive emissions from packings is live loading the packing set by installing carefully sized Belleville washer assemblies on to the packing gland bolting. Actuation of valves can be anything that aids the operator in opening and closing a valve. Slide 99 Automatic valve actuation is a huge industry in itself. Many times packing leakage will be blamed on the packing itself. There is still a disparity in results between tests performed with the two popular testing media. methane and helium. ball. 2010 Fugitive emissions testing is still partially art and partially science. Automatic or powered actuators are usually powered by electric motor or hydraulic or air cylinders. usually called a ―fail-to-open‖ or ―failto-close‖ design. As governments around the world impose tighter fugitive emissions standards. Sometimes piston-powered actuators on pipeline valves use the internal gas pressure of the pipeline to operate their pistons. The most basic actuator is a manual gear assembly that multiplies the operator’s applied torque. while the bevel gear aids in operating rising stem or multi-turn valves. gate. The EPA is developing fugitive emissions testing requirements for valves to be used in domestic plants. Most expensive valves will be repaired many times during their lifetime.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 95 June 16. There are many applications today where automatic or remote power aided actuation is required. The worm gear is used to aid in the operation of quarter-turn valves. The valve types that are actuated include. Sophisticated automated actuators range from simple air cylinder devices to highly exotic. spur gearing can be added to the basic gear actuator to further lower the required operational effort. plug and butterfly types. thus saving external energy or eliminating long utility lines. Other factors are just as important. As of 2010. fail-safe electrically controlled units. because their replacement cost is lower than the potential repair cost. Unfortunately today many good valves are scrapped rather than replaced. If a valve is very difficult to operate and manual actuation is still desired. Slide 100 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 14 . Slide 96 Slide 97 Slide 98 The two most common types of manual actuators are worm and bevel gears. newer and better testing protocols will have to be developed. Oftentimes the cylinder actuators will have an internal spring assembly that returns the valve to a preferred orientation if the power fails. Buying premium packing is no guarantee that a valve will not leak at the packing area. when actually poor machining or not adhering to tolerances are the fault.
Gasket leakage comes second. 2010 Unwanted leakage is among the most common valve problems.S. Usually it is in the form of excess leakage when valves are in the closed position. Casting leaks are also encountered. Price 2. or in-line vibration. Delivery You can only choose two! Slide 102 © 2010 Valve Manufacturers of America 15 . The most common cause for this leakage is debris in the pipeline that has fouled or scored the seating surfaces. Some casting leaks can be repaired in line. and these minute leak paths are usually undetectable during the standard OEM test program. either in transit from the manufacturer overseas to the U. Usually it is the result of vibration. In most cases a re-torquing is all that is required to correct the problem.. Quality 3. After all of the technical questions have been answered in valve selection it usually comes down to a choice of three items: 1.An Introduction to the Valve Industry: Supplemental Notes Slide 101 June 16. while others require the removal of the valve and a trip to the valve shop. or improper bolting torque.
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