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Instructor: Dr. Phan Van Ca Lecture 04 : Signal-Space Approach to Modulation and Gram-Schmidt Procedure

Analog Input Signal Sample Quantize Digital Input Data Source Encoder Encryption Channel Encoder Modulator Channel Digital Output Data Analog Output Signal D/A Converter Source Decoder Decryption Channel Decoder Equalization Demodulator

Modulation Principles

Almost all communication systems transmit digital data using a sinusoidal carrier waveform.

z Electromagnetic signals propagate well z Choice of carrier frequency allows placement of signal in

z Processing digital information at baseband z Pulse shaping and filtering of digital waveform z Baseband signal is mixed with signal from oscillator z RF signal is filtered, amplified and coupled with antenna

We can modify amplitude, phase or frequency. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) or On/Off Keying (OOK):

1 A cos(2 f c t ),0 0

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): 1 A cos(2 f1t ),0 A cos(2 f 0 t ) Phase Shift Keying (PSK):

1 A cos(2 f ct )

0 A cos(2 f ct + ) = A cos(2 f ct )

Bandpass signals (signals with small bandwidth compared to carrier frequency) can be represented in any of three standard formats:

Quadrature Notation

s( t ) = x ( t ) cos(2 f ct ) y ( t ) sin(2 f ct )

where x(t) and y(t) are real-valued baseband signals called the in-phase and quadrature components of s(t)

s( t ) = Re ( x ( t ) + jy ( t ) )e j 2 f ct = Re sl ( t )e j 2 f ct

] [

s( t ) = a ( t ) cos(2 f ct + ( t ))

where a ( t ) = x 2 ( t ) + y 2 ( t ) and

y (t ) ( t ) = tan 1 x (t )

We can represent bandpass signals independent of carrier frequency. The idea of quadrature sets up a coordinate system for looking at common modulation types. The coordinate system is sometimes called a signal constellation diagram.

x ( t ) { 1}, y ( t ) = 0

y( t )

x (t )

x ( t ) { 1}, y ( t ) { 1}

y( t )

X X

x (t )

X X

x ( t ) { 3,1,+1,+3}, y ( t ) { 3,1,+1,+3}

y( t )

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

x(t )

Axis are labeled with x(t) and y(t) Possible signals are plotted as points Signal power is proportional to distance from origin Probability of mistaking one signal for another is related to the distance between signal points Decisions are made on the received signal based on the distance to signal points in constellation

The I/Q representation of modulation is very convenient for some modulation types. We will examine an even more general way of looking at modulation using signal spaces. By choosing an appropriate set of axis for our signal constellation, we will be able to:

z Design modulation types which have desirable properties z Construct optimal receivers for a given type of modulation z Analyze the performance of modulation types using very

general techniques.

Vector Spaces

An n-dimensional vector v = [v1, v2 , , vn ] consists of n scalar components {v1, v2 , , vn } The norm (length) of a vector v is given by:

v =

i =1

vi 2

The inner product of two vectors v1 = [v11, v12 , , v1n ] and v 2 = [v21, v22 , , v2n ] is given by: n v1 v 2 = v1i v2i i =1

Basis Vectors

v = vi ei

i =1 n

where vi = ei v

Think of the basis vectors as a coordinate system (x-y-z... axis) for describing the vector v What makes a good choice of coordinate system?

The set of basis vectors {e1, e2 , , en } should be complete or span the n vector space {vi } . Any vector can be n expressed as v = vi ei for some

i =1

ei e j = 0, i j

ei = 1, i

A set of basis vectors which satisfies these three properties is said to be a complete orthonormal basis.

Signal Spaces

Signals can be treated in much the same way as vectors. The norm of a signal x ( t ), t [a , b] is given by:

b x( t ) = x(t ) 2 dt a

1/ 2

= Ex

b a

x1( t )

and

x2 ( t )

is:

x1( t ), x2 (t ) = x1( t ) x2 ( t ) dt

x ( t ) = xk f k ( t ),

i =1 n

xk = x ( t ), f k ( t )

One of M signals is transmitted: {s1(t ), , s M (t )} The functions { f1( t ), , f K ( t )} ( K M ) form a complete orthonormal basis for the signal set if

si (t ) = si , k f k ( t ), i = 1, , M

k =1 K

b a f i ( t ) f j ( t ) dt = 0, i j b a

Consider the following signal signal set:

s1(t )

+1

s 2 (t )

+1

t

-1 1 2 -1 1 2

s 3 (t )

+1

s 4 (t )

+1

t

-1 1 2 -1

We can express each of the signals in terms of the following basis functions:

f 1(t )

+1

f 2(t )

+1

t

2 1 -1 s1( t ) = 1 f1( t ) + 1 f 2 ( t ) s3 ( t ) = 1 f1 ( t ) + 1 f 2 ( t )

t

2 1 -1 s2 ( t ) = 1 f1 ( t ) 1 f 2 ( t ) s4 ( t ) = 1 f1 ( t ) 1 f 2 ( t )

f1( t ) f 2 ( t ) dt = 0

2 f1(t ) dt = f 2 ( t ) dt = 1 2

f2 (t )

X s (t ) 3 X s (t ) 1

f1(t )

X s (t ) 4 X

s2 (t )

Another Example

s( t ) = x ( t ) cos(2 f ct ) y ( t ) sin(2 f ct ) 0

T T

2 2 f1 ( t ) = cos(2 f ct ) , f 2 ( t ) = sin(2 f ct ) T T 0 0

Proof

All I/Q signals can be represented by the linear combination of these basis functions. These basis functions are orthogonal:

T T 2 2 cos(2 f ct ) sin(2 f ct )dt f1(t ) f 2 ( t ) dt = T 0 0 T 2 T1 = [sin(0) + sin(4 f ct )]dt T 02 1 T cos(4 f ct )] 0, for f cT >> 1 = [ 0 4 f cT

Proof (Contd)

T

cos(2 f ct ) dt f1(t ) dt = f 2 ( t ) dt = 0 0 0 T

2 2

T 2

2 2 x ( t ) , y ( t ) T T

f2 (t )

X X

f1(t )

X X

Two entirely different signal sets can have the same geometric representation. The underlying geometry will determine the performance and the receiver structure for a signal set. In both of these cases we were fortunate enough to guess the correct basis functions. Is there a general method to find a complete orthonormal basis for an arbitrary signal set?

z Gram-Schmidt Procedure

Gram-Schmidt Procedure

Suppose we are given a signal set: {s1( t ), , s M ( t )} Find a complete orthonormal basis { f1( t ), , f K ( t )} K M for this signal set.

E1 = s1( t ) 2 dt

E1

cik = sk ( t ) f i ( t ) dt , i = 1,..., k 1

f k ( t ) = sk ( t ) cik f i ( t )

i =1

2

k 1

E k = f k ( t ) dt

f k (t ) f k (t ) = Ek

1st basis function is normalized version of 1st signal. Successive basis functions are found by removing portions of signals which are correlated to previous basis functions, and normalizing the result. This procedure is repeated until all basis functions are exhausted. If f k (t ) = 0 , then no new basis function is added. The order in which signals are considered is arbitrary.

s1(t )

+1

s 2 (t )

+1

t

-1 1 2 -1 1 2

s 3 (t )

+1

s 4 (t )

+1

t

-1 1 2 -1

Step 1

E1 = s1( t ) 2 dt = 2

s (t ) s (t ) f1( t ) = 1 = 1 E1 2

1 2 1 2

f 1(t )

t

1 2

Step 2

c12 = f1( t ) s2 ( t )dt = 0

f 2 ( t ) = s2 ( t ) c12 f1( t ) = s2 ( t )

E 2 = s2 ( t ) 2 dt = 2

1 2 1 2

f 2(t )

t

1 2

s (t ) s (t ) f 2 (t ) = 2 = 2 E2 2

Step 3

c13 = f1( t ) s3( t )dt = 0 c23 = f 2 ( t ) s3 ( t )dt = 2

Step 4

c14 = f1( t ) s4 ( t )dt = 2 c24 = f 2 ( t ) s4 ( t )dt = 0

s2 (t ) f2 (t ) 2 X s4 (t )

2 2 X

X

s1(t )

X

f1(t )

s3 (t )

T M-ary PSK : si ( t ) = cos 2f ct + i , i = 0,,7 4 0

T 2 2 sin(2 f ct ) cos(2 f ct ) , f 2 ( t ) = f 1( t ) = T T 0 0

i c = sin i c = cos , 1i 1i 4 4

8-ary PSK

A signal set may have many different sets of basis functions. A change of basis functions is equivalent to rotating coordinates. The order in which signals are used in the Gram-Schmidt procedure will affect the resulting basis functions. The choice of basis functions does not effect performance.

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