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# Bending

Bending resisting elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 Beam Slab (analyze a strip as beam) Folded plate Cylindrical shell Frame Vierendeel girder (named after the inventor, 19th century Belgian engineer)
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Bending

Beams 1 2 3 4 5 6
Bending

Simple beam Cantilever beam Beam with overhang Beam with two overhangs Beam with fixed end support Continuous beam / girder
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Slab/joist/beam/girder
1 2 3 4 Slab Joists Beams 2-layer system: Joists supported by beams 3-layer system: Joists supported by beams, beams supported by girders

Bending

## Steel joist / girder

IIT building, Chicago Architect: Mies Van der Rohe

## Girders, subject to bending

Bending

Bending
1 Simple beam

Bending stress: Top shortens in compression Neutral Axis = 0 stress Bottom elongates in tension
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Bending

Beam shear
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Bending

Beam with uniform load Vertical shear effect Horizontal shear effect Shear diagram (max at supports) Beam with square markings Square markings deformed Shear effect on square marking Tensile/compressive effect of shear
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Equilibrium Method
Assume: L = 10 P=2k V Shear diagram M Bending moment diagram Deflection diagram Reactions ( Vb = 0) R P = 0, R 2 = 0 R=2k M 10 P = 0, M = 10 x 2 M = 20 k Shear V ( V = 0) Val = 0 Val = 0 Var = 0 2k Var = -2 k Vbl = -2 k Vbl = -2k +- 0 Vbr = -2k + R = -2k + 2k Vbr = 0 Bending ( M = 0) @ a: M = 0 P M=0 @ 5: M = 5 P M = -10 k @ b: M = 10 P M = -20 k Note: Point load = linear bending moment
Bending Copyright Prof Schierle 2011 8

## Simple beam with uniform load

1 2 3 4 Beam diagram: L = 20, w = 100 plf Free-body diagram of partial beam Shear diagram Bending diagram R = 1000 # Vx = Rw x V0 = 1000 # V5 = 500 # V10 = 0 # V15 = -500 # V20 = -1000 #

Reactions R = w L /2 = 100 x 20 / 2 Shear forces @ distance x from a Vx = 0; R wx-Vx = 0 V0 = 0+1000 V5 = 1000 5 x 100 V10 = 500 5 x 100 V15 = 0 5 x 100 V20 = 500 -5 x 100 Note: linear shear distribution Bending moments @ x Mx = 0; Rx wx (x/2) Mx = 0 M0 = 1000 x 0 M5 = 1000x5-100x52/2 M10 = 1000x10-100x102/2 M15 = 1000x15-100x152/2 M20 = 1000x20-100x202/2 Note: parabolic bending distribution

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## Simple beam formulas

Reactions
Shear force Max. shear at supports Max. V = R - 0

R = w L /2
Vx = R w x

Max. shear

V=R

Bending moment Mx = Rx-wx2/2 Max. M at x = L/2 Max. M = (wL/2) L/2 - (wL/2)L/4 Max. M = 2wL2/8 - wL2/8

Max. bending

M = wL2/8

Note: Formulas for simple beams & uniform load only ! Verify last example (L= 20, w = 100plf) M = 5000#, ok M = wL2/8 = 100 x 202/8

Bending