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Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism and describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe the specificity on substrates Metabolism: All chemical processes within an organism. Each reaction is controlled by a specific enzyme. Enzymes are organic catalysts - They speed up the rate of reactions and lower the energy required to start a reaction. Properties include: Required in very small amounts Remain unchanged in a reaction and so can be reused Enzymes are globular proteins, their basic building blocks being amino acids. Makeup of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. Often work with co-enzymes (organic chemicals such as compounds from vitamins) which are needed for some reactions to occur.

Each enzyme will only act on one substrate, binding to the active site and causing a reaction. Lock and Key Model: The active site has a specific geometric shape such that only one substrate can bond to that site, making the enzyme specific to that substrate

Induced Fit Model: Active site changes shape slightly to accommodate the substrate perfectly

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Activity/characteristics of enzymes is affected by: 1. Amount of substrate present Saturation Point: the higher the substrate concentration the greater the rate of enzyme reaction until all active sites are filled. Increasing substrate concentration beyond saturation point will not increase rate of reaction. 2. Temperature Function best at body temp -above 40 degrees rate of reaction decreases and at 60 it stops Heat alters shape of the enzyme as it denatures. Any change in shape affects active site alter functioning of enzyme because it does not match Denaturation is when temperature increases to much and bonds break causing protein to fold and destroy active site and with no active site to bind there is no activity 3. pH levels of alkalinity or acidity outside optimum pH alter shape or slow down/stop functioning e.g. protein-digesting enzymes (pepsin) found in gastric juice in stomach, function best in strong acid Identify the pH as a way of describe the acidity of a substance 0-7 is acid, 7-14 is alkaline pH is a measure of concentration of hydrogen ions per litre of solution Human blood: 7.4 Stomach: 2

Explain why the maintenance of a constant internal environment is important for optimal metabolic efficiency Enzymes are temperature, pH and substrate specific. They can be destroyed/denatured by high temperatures or high alkalinity or acidity. The body, therefore must be able to maintain a constant internal environment. Temperature and pH - Can effect enzyme function and therefore metabolic efficiency. Amount of water and salt in the body affects metabolism (all chemical reactions take place in water) and osmosis. Concentration of salts affect osmotic balance of fluids Amount of glucose affects osmosis and rate of respiration Amount of nitrogenous wastes such as urea and CO2, toxic and can cause pH changes which affect enzymes

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Describe homeostasis as the process by which an organism maintains a relatively stable internal environment Homeostasis: Maintenance of a constant internal environment despite change in external environment. Organisms must maintain a stable internal environment so cells and enzymes can function. To do this they must be able to detect change and adjust physiological processes to reach an equilibrium. E.g. Insulin is produced to control blood sugar level. Explain the two stages of homeostasis i. Detecting changes from the stable state - A receptor detects a change in a specific variable from the desired set value, and transmits this information to the control centre (nervous system) along neurons. ii. Counteracting changes from the stable state - An effector receives the message from the control centre that an undesirable change must be counteracted, and causes a response to counteract the change and maintain a stable state (negative feedback). The response pathway: Stimulus - Information that provokes a response. For example increase in temperature. Receptor - Detects change in internal environment. For example thermoreceptors. Control Centre - Communication system for sensory information/response. Messages sent to the brain. Effectors - Muscles or glands that receive messages. Response - Effectors action to counteract stimulus. For example muscles cause shivering to produce heat

This is negative feedback as it counteracts a stimulus. Positive feedback system Monitoring will re-enforce and amplify the situation causing more of same situation to take place e.g. child birth, oxytocins released to cause contractions of uterine muscles when babys head goes through uterine the sensors near the cervix stimulate even more contractions so that it keeps dilating until baby comes out Not as common as negative feedback and does not maintain homeostasis but sometimes homeostasis is established at a new level

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Receptors include: Mechanoreceptors detect sound, touch, pressure, gravity Chemoreceptors detect oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, pH, ions, nitrogenous wastes, glucose Thermoreceptors detect temperature change Photoreceptors convert light stimuli into electrical signals

Outline the role of the nervous system in detecting and responding to environmental changes Hypothalamus: Situated in the brain and contains the body's central receptors. Important to many aspects of homeostasis. Main receptor for detecting changes in blood and also acts as the control centre for other receptors. Central nervous system: Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: Cranial and spinal nerves. Connects central nervous system to receptors and effectors. The function of the nervous system is coordination seen in the response pathway. It: Coordinates sensory information with the body's response. When receptors pick up stimulus, a response is caused in effectors. Transmits detected information through neurons in the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. Information is processed and the control centre sends a message through the CNS, stimulating effectors.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Identify the wide range of temperatures over which life is found compared to the narrow limits for individual species Temperature range is dictated by heat tolerance of enzymes and other proteins as well as the need for water. At temperatures below zero, the cytoplasmic fluid freezes which stops metabolic activity. At high temperatures, most proteins (including enzymes) de-nature.

On earth however we see arctic animals and lichen in -50 to -80 degree conditions at the poles, and cyanobacteria in extreme 350 degree hot vents, and dessert animals in 70 degree heat. Extremophiles: Organisms that can survive extreme temperatures. Organisms in oceans usually keep body temperature the same as external environment and cannot cope well with temperature changes due to large surface area to volume ratio of oceans. Terrestrial organism need to be able to cope with wider fluctuations. There is a wide variation in temperature on our planet, however we need to keep our bodies in narrow limits. Homeostasis is important to maintain a constant internal environment despite external conditions. Compare responses of an Australian ectotherm and endotherm to changes in ambient temperature and explain how responses assist in regulation. Endotherms: Derive body heat from cell metabolism. E.g. mammals and birds. The kangaroo - Lowers its body temperature 3-4 degrees so it can increase slowly during the hot days. They will lick their forearms so surface blood vessels will lose heat when the saliva evaporates, taking heat from the body. Their metabolic rate is also 30% slower, producing less heat during the hot days. Ectotherms: Derive body heat from surroundings and have limited ability to control body heat. E.g. invertebrates - fish reptiles and amphibians. The alpine grasshopper - Darker colour and basks in the sun to absorb heat. Female surrounds her eggs in a frothy substance which hardens and insulates against low temperatures Endothermic Behavioural Red Kangaroo licks forearms in hot weather Mountain pygmy possum hibernates in winter Spinifex hopping mouse is nocturnal and digs burrows to escape high temperatures Ectothermic Central netted dragon climbs into bushes to seek cooler conditions off the ground, and basks in the sun when it needs to get warmer Magnetic termites pack walls of their mounds with insulating wood pulp Magnetic termites orient the long axis of their mounds north-south

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Physiological Platypus uses a counter-current exchange system in its feet to reduce heat loss Mountain pygmy possum hibernates in winter, body temperature drops and metabolic rate slows Bogong moths avoid ice crystals forming in cells by reducing temperature of body fluids below their usual freezing point Thorny devil is coloured pale when external temperature is hot to reflect suns rays, and can change to a darker colour when it is cool to absorb heat Alpine Grasshoppers dark colour and smaller shape allow them to easily absorb heat


Bilby has claws on front feet to dig burrows to escape the heat Bilby: Large thin ears allow for quick heat loss

Identify some responses of plants to temperature change

Response Transpiration

High or low Description of response temperature High Stomata in plants open, leading to loss of water High High Change in turgor pressure, edges fold down Positioning leaves to hang vertically downwards When fire occurs they release seed pods or have buds protected under the bark ready to sprout. Produce organic compounds which reduces the temp at which the cytoplasm or cell sap freezes. Deciduous trees lose their leaves and are dormant.

How it benefits the plant Water loss decreases internal temp by evaporative cooling Reduces surface area exposed to the sun Less surface area is exposed to the sun so less heat and water is lost. Able to grow with little competition and in the nutrient rich soil/ash. Able to withstand extremely cold temperatures without death. Allowing them to survive water shortages, less sunlight and low temperatures. Produce seeds in environmentally favourable conditions.

Example All plants

Wilting Leaf orientation/ positioning Reseeding and resprouting Organic antifreeze

Roses and hydrangeas Eucalypts

Extremely high


Resprouters bottlebrush Reseeders Banksia Antarctic Hairgrass plant



Deciduous beech



Plants that flower in response to low temps. So they can seed when Spring arrives.

Tulip bulbs.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Identify form in which each of the following is carried in mammalian blood Oxygen - Oxyhaemoglobin. Diffuses into blood and most of it binds reversibly with haemoglobin. A small amount may travel dissolved in plasma. RBC's are biconcave creating a large SA:V ratio for easy diffusion of oxygen. Carbon Dioxide - 70% carried in the plasma (as hydrogen carbonate). 7% dissolved in the plasma. 23% is combined with haemoglobin (Carbaminohaemoglobin). Water and Salts - 90% of blood plasma is water which is the medium of transport for substances in the body. Salts are dissolved in plasma and carried as ions. Lipids - Insoluble in water so need to be packaged into droplets and transported through the lymphatic system and into the bloodstream. Nitrogenous wastes - Harmful substances produced by the body and are usually in the form of ammonia or urea. Must be transported in a diluted form. Other products of digestion - Sugars transported as glucose. Explain the adaptive advantage of haemoglobin Haemoglobin is a protein made up of four polypeptide chains found in red blood cells. Contains an iron atom that attracts oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin. Adaptive advantages: Increases oxygen carrying capacity of blood means more oxygen can be delivered to tissues and organisms can have a greater metabolic rate and activity. Ability to bind oxygen increases as the first molecule binds, there is a slight shape change. Capacity to release oxygen increases where there is more carbon dioxide.

Haemoglobin is also involved in the conversion of carbon dioxide to hydrogen carbonate. Carbon monoxide in smokers binds to haemoglobin, reducing space for oxygen

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Analyse information from secondary sources to identify current technologies that allow measurement of oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood and conditions under which they would be used Oxygen Saturation in Blood - The Pulse Oximeter How it works: A probe device like a peg is attached to the finger or ear lobe and measures the transmission of light through the tissues. The probe sends out light at two wavelengths (650nm and 805nm) which passes through the blood. Different amounts of light are absorbed depending on how oxygenated the haemoglobin is. A processor calculates this absorption as a percentage of oxygenated haemoglobin. Medical use: Since it is non-invasive it is a good tool for use on newborns to assess how well their body is supplying oxygen. Used to monitor any patient undergoing a procedure requiring anaesthetic to alert staff if there is an unexpected fall in oxygen saturation. Used to monitor a person on a ventilator or one being taken off a ventilator. Provide information on conditions such as hypoxia (a lowered blood oxygen) if patients present symptoms such as cyanosis (Bluish skin due to lack of oxygen reaching tissues).

Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Blood - Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Machine How it works: An arterial blood sample is taken and put into the ABG machine. This machine monitors the rate of diffusion of carbon dioxide across an artificial, permeable membrane. It produces carbonic acid and changes the pH which is measured to calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Medical use: Monitoring a patient during therapy Diagnosis of a respiratory disease or those involving poor gaseous exchange To investigate function of respirator organs of carbon dioxide i.e. the lungs Intensive care units: baby care units and labour wards

Comatose patients are often checked using this method as they do not feel pain and it is quite an invasive procedure.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Analyse information from secondary sources to identify products extracted from donated blood and their use Red Blood Cells Action when in use: Red blood cells transport oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide back out after cellular respiration and use. It contains haemoglobin, a protein containing iron which readily combines with oxygen and carbon dioxide and so can easily transport it. Medical use: Treatment of anaemia (low number of red blood cells), Bleeding after trauma/severe injury or bleeding after surgery. This increases their body's ability to transport and supply oxygen where needed. White Blood Cells Action when in use: Phagocytes ingest bacteria and other foreign material and Lymphocytes make antibodies to combat infection. White blood cells do the most work in immune response when a person is sick. Medical use: For patients who have a low white blood cell count or serious bacterial infection where more white blood cells are needed. Plasma Action when in use: Medium for blood cells to travel through, contains inorganic ions important for homeostasis, stable pH, osmotic pressure and cell function. Helps with transportation of hormones, nutrients and waste and blood cells. Also contains a clotting factor. Medical use: Frozen and used to treat people with haemophilia as it contains a clotting factor. Used when bleeding problems occur after trauma or transplant surgery (especially the liver). Often given to burn victims as it sooths burns. Platelets Action when in use: Essential for coagulation of blood. When damage in done to parts of the body carrying blood, platelets clump together and they initiate a series of reactions that results in clotting. Medical use: After severe haemorrhaging. Used for those who have blood loss or a lowered number of platelets due to diseases such as cancer, especially leukaemia.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Analyse information from secondary sources to report on progress of production of artificial blood Research into artificial blood products is important because: It will reduce the risk of blood-borne pathogens from donated blood such as HIV and hepatitis C Blood supply is voluntarily donated so varies Donated blood had short shelf life (e.g. platelets 5 days), artificial blood lasts up to 1 year

Volume expanders: Fluid solutions that are inert and used to increase blood volume. Important for emergency situations, used by paramedics to stop a patient dying of blood loss. They can be either crystalloid solutions containing salts and sugars (e.g. saline solution) or colloidal solutions which contain proteins, starch or gelatine (e.g. albumin) Oxygen Carriers: There are two types of oxygen carriers Perflurocarbons: Easily dissolve oxygen and carbon dioxide to transport gasses to tissues or lungs. Combined with other materials such as lipids and injected for use in surgery, trauma and chemotherapy. Advantages include Ability to carry large amounts of oxygen Can be stored at room temperature and easily transported Long shelf life Do not need cross matching Can be sterilised

Problems include Maximum amount used is only 20% because of viscosity of PFC emulsion at high concentrations . Because of this smaller amount used, and also because oxygen is dissolved in PFCs rather than bound to it, sufficient oxygen carriage can only take place when patients are breathing >70% oxygen PFCs are rapidly removed from circulation

Haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: Based on haemoglobin from people or animals and combine with oxygen. Advantages include Long shelf life Can be used at room temperature Universally compatible despite blood type

Problems include Vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) Gastrointestinal side effects Renal damage

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Compare the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries in relation to their structure

Arteries: Thick, muscular walls that expand with heartbeat. This is required due to the high pressure of the blood in them. -Carry blood away from the heart, usually oxygenated (except pulmonary). Also have an endothelium (inner layer), and outer non-elastic connective tissue layer that anchors arteries in place in the body. Veins: Thin walls with valves to prevent backflow. This is required due to the low pressure of blood in them. Movement is assisted by muscle contractions. -Carry blood back to the heart, usually deoxygenated (except pulmonary). Capillaries: Very thin walls, only one cell thick. Red blood cells move through single file. -Capillaries connect veins and arteries and being very thin and numerous, provide a large surface area for easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Note: Inside the endothelium is the 'lumen' which is more narrow in arteries.

Describe the main changes in chemical composition of the blood as it moves around the body Lungs - Carbon dioxide is deposited and oxygen is picked up Tissues - Oxygen is deposited and carbon dioxide is picked up Small intestine - Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids are picked up during digestion. Oxygen deposited. Liver - Glucose is deposited and stored. Nitrogenous wastes in the form of urea picked up. Endocrine glands - Hormones picked up Large intestine - Water and vitamins picked up Kidney - Urea, salts and water deposited

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Outline the need for oxygen in living cells and explain why removal of carbon dioxide is essential Oxygen is needed for respiration to take place so energy can be used from sugars. Carbon dioxide is a waste product and if not removed, it will produce carbonic acid. This will lower the pH of blood, making it more acidic and upsetting the internal equilibrium or homeostasis.

If carbon dioxide accumulated within cells, pH would fall, enzymes would be denatured and so metabolic activities would be impaired/cease, and cells would die. Also, low pH reduces haemoglobin oxygen saturation, depriving cells of oxygen.

Describe current theories about movement of materials in xylem and phloem

Materials transported Cells living Direction of movement Cell type Transport speed

Xylem Water and mineral ions Non-Living Up Tracheids with lignin thickening Faster

Phloem Sugars, amino acids, hormones Living Up and down Sieve and companion cells Slower

Xylem: 'Transpiration stream' transports water and mineral ions from the roots to leaves. Water lost through stomata of leaves creates a concentration gradient and water in nearby cells is pulled up. Cohesion - Sticking together of water molecules Adhesion - Sticking of water molecules to xylem Root pressure also plays a minor role, pushing water into the stream

The result is as each molecule is pulled up, another moves up to take its place and a stream is formed. This is passive transport. Capillarity - the ability of a narrow tube to draw liquids upward against gravity.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Phloem: 'Source to sink' or 'pressure flow mechanism' transports sugars, amino acids and hormones from leaves to other parts. A high concentration of sugars at the source causes water to come across from the xylem by osmosis. Along with sugars leaving the sink, this causes high pressure and materials move along the pressure gradient to the sink.

There are two theories of how sugars are loaded into the phloem. Symplastic loading - Suggests sugars move through cytoplasm though fine tubes called plasmodesmata into sieve cells. Apoplastic loading - Suggests sugars follow a route across cell walls to sieve cells.

Explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function If water loss from an organism is not balanced by water intake, then dehydration occurs. Why do cells need water? The medium for metabolic reactions Many molecules/ions important for metabolism are carried in aqueous solution and diffuse through the water in the cell. Loss of water from cells reduces their ability to retain compounds in solution, which inhibits metabolic processes. Needed by excretory systems for getting rid of wastes so they do not accumulate in tissues Used for body temperature maintenance Water is necessary to maintain blood pressure and circulation Living cells work best in isotonic environment: solute concentration is same inside and outside the cell Cells lose/gain large amounts of water if concentration in internal environment changes too much, causing cell death

Example: The Spinifex hopping mouse lives in very hot climates with little water and so produces very concentrated urine.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Explain why the removal of wastes in essential for continued metabolic activity Waste products such as nitrogenous wastes and carbon dioxide are toxic to cells and so must be removed. If they are not removed they can alter internal conditions and homeostasis. This will inhibit enzyme function and prevent cells from proper functioning. Build-up of nitrogenous wastes (e.g. ammonia) will increase pH. Build-up of carbon dioxide will lower pH, causing enzymes to denature and stopping metabolic processes. A build-up of wastes in cells will cause osmosis to continually occur and cells to burst.

Identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals The excretory system's function is to remove metabolic wastes. The kidneys are the main excretory organs, responsible for removing nitrogenous wastes from the bodies of fish and mammals. Tiny nephrons filter the blood that enters, removing wastes to be excreted. Urine is formed in the kidneys and stored in the bladder to be released out the urethra. **The kidneys are also responsible for osmoregulation - maintaining the water and salt (electrolyte) balance. This is important for homeostasis, with blood pressure and pH dependent on water balance.

Analyse data from secondary sources to compare the process of renal dialysis with the functions of the kidney Renal dialysis is the artificial removal of wastes from blood by diffusion across an artificial permeable membrane. It is used for people who have impaired kidney function and harmful substances building up. Blood passes through dialysing tubing and urea and excess salts diffuse out - as opposed to a kidney where they leave by pressure filtration. Those substances needed by the body, such as bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) diffuse from the dialysing solution into the blood (reabsorption). The machine continually discards used dialysing solution as wastes build up in it.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Two healthy kidneys filter the blood volume about once every half-hour. Dialysis is a much slower and less efficient process than the natural processes found in a healthy kidney but it is a lifesaver for those people with damaged kidneys. Risks: Bleeding and infections from access point invasive technique Use of heparin An anti-coagulant when prevents clotting in the machine but is dangerous when used more than 3 times a week as it will stop blood clotting. Kidney Function Natural, filters blood and removes metabolic wastes A pair of kidneys filter wastes from blood and are involved in osmoregulation (salts + water) Renal Dialysis Artificial, replaces function of damaged kidney A dialysis machine is linked to computer equipment. Blood passes through tubules surrounded by dialysing fluid (haemodialysis) or the abdomen is flushed with dialysing fluid (peritoneal dialysis) Passive movement only Wastes diffuse across an artificial membrane of dialysis tubules Tubules are submerged in dialysis fluid with a similar concentration to plasma. Diffusion of wastes occurs out of the tubes. Dialysis fluid is constantly replaced to maintain concentration gradient. Slower Diffusion only. Artificially controlled by a computer linked to sensors monitoring concentrations of substances in the blood. Less effective removal only wastes removed. No regulation of ion content. Takes longer, invasive, carries risks.

Overall process Functioning

Active/Passive transport Maintaining the concentration gradient

Both move wastes from blood and kidney tissue into tubules Active transport means the concentration gradient is less important. Greater solute concentration in medulla allows a greater concentration gradient for water reabsorption Much faster Active transport + millions of nephrons Negative feedback mechanism and hormonal control - natural Effective, efficient removal of wastes, excess fluids and salts. Non-invasive.

Speed of filtration Regulation of the process Outcome

A better table Kidney Two million nephrons in two kidneys Haemodialysis Dialysis tubing in dialysis solution

Filtration structure Reabsorption Hormonal control pH balance Time taken

Back into blood from tubules. None. But useful substances dont diffuse out Glucose, amino acids, sodium, water Aldosterone for salts and ADH for No hormonal control water H+ ions transported in to manage pH Bicarbonate ions diffuse into blood to neutralise metabolic wastes Every hour Over 3-5 hours, 3 sessions per week

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Analyse data from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of mammals marine fish and freshwater fish Note: Hypertonic - More concentrated/more solutes then surroundings. Water diffuses in. Hypotonic - Less concentrated/less solutes then surroundings. Water diffuses out. Freshwater Fish Problem: Fish are hypertonic so water tends to diffuse into body and salts tend to diffuse out. Fish needs to remove water, and keep salts. Kidneys produce large amounts of dilute, hypotonic urine to remove water Kidneys actively reabsorb salts (NaCl) to prevent salt loss Freshwater fish rarely drink water Ammonia is excreted in large volumes of dilute urine, and across the gills Saltwater Fish Problem: Fish are hypotonic so water tends to diffuse out of their body and salts tend to diffuse into body, so fish needs to retain water Excrete small amount of isotonic urine to retain water and excrete salt Kidneys and gills actively excrete salts (MgSO4) Constantly drink saltwater to replace water losses Ammonia is excreted via the gills *Marine cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) have tissues isotonic to seawater, so avoid osmoregulation problems

Terrestrial Mammals Excrete small amounts of concentrated (hypertonic) urine. Those in dry or desert environments excrete very small amounts of highly concentrated urine to retain as much water as possible

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Analyse data from secondary sources to explain the relationship between the conservation of water and production of concentrated urine in a range of Australian insects and mammals Animals excrete nitrogenous wastes in different forms because they have different amounts of water available to them. Ammonia - Waste product of most aquatic animals Highly toxic Must be diluted in large amounts of water Requires the least energy as form does not need to be changed Urea - Waste product of mammals, some other terrestrial mammals and those who have a moderate amount of water available Moderately toxic Can be stored in the body for longer and needs to be less diluted. Uric Acid - Waste product of birds, reptiles and insects that need to conserve water Low toxicity Needs very little water Can be stored in the body for extended periods of time Organism Spinifex hopping mouse Insects (e.g. Stick Insect) Waste product Urea Explanation Lives in a very arid environment. Drinks very little water and excretes urea in a concentrated form, so that water can be conserved. Covered with a cuticle impervious to water. Conserve water by producing a dry paste of uric acid.

Uric acid

Explain why the processes of osmosis and diffusion are inadequate for removing dissolved nitrogenous wastes i. The rate of movement is too slow. Since nitrogenous wastes are toxins, they need to be removed as quickly as possible so they do not accumulate and cause damage to cells or metabolic processes. ii. Not enough waste can be removed. Osmosis and diffusion will only work while there is a concentration gradient and until an equilibrium is reached. This could not be relied on as there would still be nitrogenous wastes left. iii. Relying on osmosis means too much water may be lost in urine. If urine contained too much waste, water would diffuse into it to try and equalise the concentration and too much water would be lost. iv. In terrestrial environments, the external environment is not water so osmosis could not be used to directly excrete wastes. In freshwater environments, water diffuses into the body, lowering the concentration gradient too much to remove wastes quickly.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney In the kidneys, movement between the bloodstream and nephrons requires both active and passive transport. Passive transport - Diffusion and osmosis. Requires no energy as molecules move along a concentration gradient. Water moves out of the nephrons at the proximal tubule, loop of henle and collecting ducts by passive transport. This is assisted by the high solute concentration of the medulla. Active transport - Requires an input of cellular energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed into bloodstream Additional nitrogenous wastes and added to tubules such as hydrogen ions and ammonia Salts are transported back into kidney cells, causing water to be drawn out of the urine towards the salt concentration (Note: water cannot be moved by active transport)

Explain how processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition Filtration: Takes place in the glomerus, the capillary bed through which blood is delivered High pressure forces the blood plasma into the bowman's capsule The filtrate contains water, salts, potassium, urea, glucose, amino acids Large particles such as blood cells do not fit through Filtration is passive

Reabsorption: Substances needed by the body are reabsorbed through microvilli in tubules into the bloodstream Glucose and salts are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule by active transport, water is reabsorbed by passive transport Hydrogen ions are pumped into the tubule to maintain pH In the loop of henle, most water is reabsorbed due to the high solute concentration of the medulla In the distal tubule, sodium and potassium are reabsorbed to adjust pH Urine is the final filtrate

Secretion Urine collected in collecting ducts moves to the kidney pelvis. Potassium, hydrogen, ammonia actively transported into tubules and urine to finally stabilise pH

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Outline the role of the hormones Aldosterone and ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in the body Hormones are chemical control substances that are secreted by the endocrine glands into the bloodstream. They travel in the bloodstream to reach target cells. In the kidney, adjustments to the concentration of water and salts within the urine take place due to alterations to the permeability of the membranes in the cells lining these walls. Aldosterone Conservation of salts A decrease in the concentration of sodium ions in the bloodstreams leads to a decrease in blood volume, The adrenal gland is above the kidney and cells are stimulated to secrete aldosterone. Aldosterone increases the permeability of the nephron to sodium. Reabsorption occurs Retention of salts, less lost as urine. Anti-Diuretic hormone Conservation of water When a mammal begins to dehydrate, blood volume drops and the hypothalamus detects the more concentrated blood. This stimulates the pituitary gland to release ADH ADH increases the permeability of membranes in cells lining tubules and collecting ducts where water is absorbed. Reabsorption occurs Retention of water, less lost as water. ADH stops being secreted (Note that this is negative feedback) Note: A diuretic is a substance that causes water loss (such as alcohol). These hormones therefore play an important role is helping the kidney in homeostatic functions of osmoregulation in: i. ii. Regulates solute concentration of the blood Amount of sodium and other ions Regulated blood volume A constant fluid volume by producing more or less dilute urine

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Present information to outline the general use of hormone replacement therapy in people who cannot secrete aldosterone
People may lack aldosterone due to: Damage to the adrenal gland due to accident, surgery or disease (such as cancer or infections) Damage to the pituitary gland which controls the adrenal gland Consequences include Addisons disease Adrenal gland cannot secrete sufficient aldosterone Low sodium levels blood volume may drop. Imbalance of hydrogen ions may lower blood pH. Without treatment, heart failure will result. Hormone replacement therapy Involves restoring the balance of hormones to levels normal for the body by giving a patient hormones. Increases fluid retention, raises blood pressure and removes danger of heart failure First used in 1927, using hormones extracted for the adrenal glands of sheep and cattle. Today a genetically engineered hormone called fludrocortisone is used.

Define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations. Enantiostasis The maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment. Estuary Where a fresh body of water meets saline water from the sea. This causes fluctuating salt and water levels based on the tide. Organisms must cope with this. At high tide, the environment is high in salt, causing a higher osmotic pressure that the cell cytoplasm, drawing water out by osmosis. At low tide, a low salt environment draws water into the cells. Osmoconformers Tolerate environmental change by altering concentration of internal solutes to match the external environment. Osmotic pressure is then the same in and outside the body. Metabolism and cell function can continue. Example: The fiddler crap accumulates solutes when in salt water and pumps excess salt out of its gills when exposed to water of lower salinity. Osmoregultors Avoid changes in their internal environment and keep solutes at an optimal level. They usually have a mechanism to regulate solute concentrations in the body. Body fluids are similar to those in a marine environment, so when exposed to fresh water, it tends to accumulate by osmosis. The animal produces more dilute urine to counteract this. Example: Muscles in rock pools close their valves when the tide is out to keep the salt concentrations in their bodies the same as the seawater.

Biology HSC Maintaining a Balance

Halophytes Plants adapted to living in salty environments. Euryhaline organisms - can tolerate a wide range of fluctuation in water salinities. They use mechanisms such as: Salt excretion: Glands in leaves get rid of salt. Example: Salt bush, river mangrove. Salt exclusion: Root do not allow salt in but filter it out. Example: Grey mangrove, red mangrove. Salt accumulation: Leaves accumulate salt and eventually drop off. Example: Milky mangrove.

Describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss Xerophytes Plants adapted to arid or dry conditions Reducing the internal temperature of plant Shiny, reflective, waxy leaves Think, insulating cuticle. Reflects suns radiation and insulates to cool. Allows cooling without dehydration caused by evaporative cooling. Example: Salt bush has waxy leaves, the banksia has a think cuticle. Reducing the exposure of leaves (and stomata) to sun. Changing leaf orientation or rolling to avoid heat in the middle of the day. Example: Eucalypts. Reduction is size or dropping of leaves. Example: River gum sheds its leaves during hotter periods. Reducing exposure to the sun allows for less evaporation by transpiration. Changing leaf orientation allows stomata to remain open for gaseous exchange, and the plant to reposition again for photosynthesis when there is less heat. Examples: Shown above. Reducing the difference in water concentration between plant and outside air Sunken stomata Hairs on leaves Rolled leaves caused when hinge cells lose the turgidity in dry conditions and collapse These features trap air and stop air currents taking moisture by evaporation. This creates local humidity around the stomata, decreasing the concentration gradient between the inside and outside of the plant so less water is lost. Example: The Marram grass features all three adaptations plus a think outer epidermis. Water storage Succulent plants have specially adapted organs for water storage such as swollen leaves and stems Woody fruits reduce water use during growth. Water is stored and conserved for when it is less available. Example: The swollen stem of cactus.