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Biology HSC The Search for Better Health

Discuss the difficulties of defining the terms health and disease Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease. There are difficulties as Different people have different standards and perceptions of health. A person could have a disease and still be healthy or not have a disease and still be unhealthy!

Disease is any condition that adversely affects the normal functioning of the body A broken arm or pregnancy could be considered disease based on this definition

These definitions are broad, which makes achieving good health status difficult. The general public also use the terms in different ways to scientists. Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation assist in the maintenance of health Differentiation: Cells take on different structural features so become suited to perform a specific function Specialisation: Specific genes are switched on in order to perform a particular function in the body. For example: nerve cells have a particular structure and specific genes switched on which allow the transfer of electrochemical messages. These processes enable cells to work together to carry out complex functions in a controlled and coordinated way. If they do not occur, the cells would not be able to function and perform their role. Body processes would be inhibited. Mitosis: Cell division which produces two daughter cells identical to the parent cells. Its importance lies in: Growth Through the division and replication of cells Repair Cells damaged through injury are replaced by division of healthy cells close to injury site Genetic stability A precise distribution of chromosomes to each daughter nucleus so resulting cells contain correct DNA/chromosomes.

Genes: There are certain genes responsible for regulating the cell cycle and so assisting with the maintenance of health: DNA repair gene Used when a gene is not functioning properly. This gene stops the cell cycle while other proteins remove the damaged regions of DNA and replace them with a new correct sequence. Mutation of this gene means it will not function the damaged DNA will replicate freely. The correct proteins and enzymes for cell function will not be produced and disease will occur. Proto-oncogenes Code for proteins that stimulate cell growth and mitosis for growth and repair. Mutations of this gene change it to an oncogene which causes uncontrolled production of cells and prevents cell death, forming tumours. If tumour growth continues it will be malignant cancer. Tumour suppressor gene Code for proteins that slow down or stop cell growth and mitosis. If growth in cell numbers becomes uncontrolled they induce cell death, regulating and maintaining health. Mutations to tumour suppressor genes can cause uncontrolled cell replication or death. This can lead to tumours/cancers or degenerative conditions such as Alzheimers.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Use available evidence to analyse the links between gene expression and maintenance and repair of body tissues

Gene expression: Occurs when a gene is switched on. It is the use of information on a gene to produce a polypeptide. When gene expression functions correctly, cells and body tissues are maintained and repair as genes code for required proteins.

For example, Basal-like breast cancer: Inheritable mutations to the BRCA1 gene put women at a higher risk of this cancer. This gene codes for proteins that repair another tumour suppressor gene, the PTEN gene. If there is damage to the PTEN gene, it will not be repaired and so gene expression will not be correct. Cell division will be uncontrolled and the result is the formation of a tumour. Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious disease

Infectious disease Caused by pathogens which invade the body. Contagious and can often be passed on from one person to another. For example a cold, herpes and malaria. Non-infectious disease These are not caused by pathogens. Caused by heredity, nutrition, environment or other factors. For example down syndrome, beri beri (vitamin B deficiency) and lung cancer. Note: An epidemic is a localised infection (city or area) while a pandemic is worldwide. Explain why cleanliness in food water and personal hygiene practices assist in control of disease Cleanliness helps to prevent the growth and transmission of pathogens, helping to control and prevent disease. Food and water: Provides an easy way for pathogens to enter the body. Meat should be cooked at a high temperature and water treated/sterilised Personal hygiene: Keeping bodies and opening clean inhibits the build-up of microorganisms and transmission to others. Hygiene of community: Prevents the build-up of pathogenic organisms and spread of disease. If infrastructure that maintains health breaks down, there is a rapid spread of disease. Community cleanliness involves: Sewage and garbage disposal these can harbour pathogens Sterilisation and disinfection of hospitals, dentists and health care works stops spread of pathogens City planning reduces overcrowding and risk of disease transmission Ensuring clean water through treatment and food sanitation through legislation and monitoring

Perform a first-hand investigation to identify microbes in food or in water Aim: To observe the presence microbes in milk and water Risk assessment: Burning yourself on the bunsen burner Contamination of agar plates by other micro-organisms can transfer disease or sickness if later opened Use of flammable alcohol and bunsen burners

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Equipment Milk and water Inoculating ring Agar plate Bunsen burner Test tube Method 1) The surface was wiped down with alcohol to ensure it was clean/sterile 2) The Bunsen was lit and inoculating loop was heated until red hot to sterilise 3) A sample of water was placed on the loop and wiped an S shape in the agar plate opened at 45 degrees 4) The plate was taped closed and labelled water 5) This process was repeated in another agar plate with milk 6) Plates were stored upside down in the incubator at 34 degrees for 2 days 7) Growth of micro-organisms was views and recorded 8) The experiments was replicated several times by different groups in the class Control: The control was the unopened nutrient agar plate, therefore not exposed to any microorganisms. In the incubator, there was no growth in the control. This allows us to attribute growth of micro-organisms to the milk and water. Validity: Inoculating loop sterilised, test tubes sterilised, plate opened at 45 degrees, autoclave used to sterilise agar plates, alcohol used to wipe down surfaces Identify the conditions under which an organism is described as a pathogen An organism or infective agent Lives in or on another living organism Causes disease

To cause disease, the pathogen needs to right conditions to multiply and be transmitted Gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to describe ways in which drinking water can be treated and use available evidence to explain how these methods reduce the risk of infection from pathogens Filtration using sand beds and membrane filters: Removes any pathogens larger than the pore size. Sand beds remove macro parasites while microscopic membrane filters have smaller pore size for smaller pathogens Chlorination: Chlorine added to water forms a disinfectant and bactericide that kills pathogens in the water Ozone: An unstable molecule which readily gives up one atom of oxygen providing a powerful oxidizing agent which is toxic to most waterborne organisms Coliforms are bacteria such as E.coli that can transmit disease. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are micro-organisms that live in the intestines and are removed or killed by water treatment. This means they wont be consumed and cause disease.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Describe the contribution of Pasteur and Koch to our understanding of infectious diseases Pasteur Before Pasteurs contribution, the theory of spontaneous generation was used: Organisms and micro-organisms such as fungi and maggots were the result of decaying matter. Also prominent was the Miasma theory: that disease was caused by bad air. Opposed Miasma and spontaneous generation theories: Disease is caused by micro-organisms and heat can kill micro-organisms Found that micro-organisms (bacteria) were the cause of wine, beer and vinegar spoilage (which he called disease) and that the solution was to heat these solutions for long enough to kill the bacteria. Today called pasteurisation. Determined the cause of silk worm disease was a parasite, supporting his germ theory of disease. His experiments using swan neck showed the micro-organisms were carried in the air. Two swan neck flasks were set up with meat broth boiled in each. One had the top broken off to expose it to air. The one exposed to air showed bacterial growth.

Koch Some people believed that bacteria found in sick animals followed the infection rather than causing it. He determined that each disease is caused by a particular parasite. Koch observed microscopic rods in the blood of sheep that had died from anthrax, and noticed that these rods were not found in the blood of healthy animals. Kochs postulates The steps followed to determine if a particular micro-organism is responsible for causing a disease. i. ii. iii. iv. The same micro-organism must be present in every diseased host The micro-organism must be isolated and cultured and accurately described and recorded When a sample of the pure culture is inoculated into a healthy host, this host must develop the same symptoms as the original host The micro-organism must be able to be isolated from the second host and cultured and identified as the same as the original species.

His contributions include: He determined that each disease is caused by a particular parasite. He developed an agar plate technique for growing micro-organisms that is still used today and used it to culture anthrax bacteria Developed his postulates, the steps to follow to determine if a particular micro-organism is responsible for causing a disease He also discovered the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Perform an investigation to model Pasteurs experiment to identify the role of microbes in decay

Observations: Sealed flask Clear brown, lighter in colour Vegemite sediment Smells same as before Unsealed white grey layer of fungi above the surface of broth (hairy) murky dark brown liquid Solids, clumps in water Independent exposure to environment/ air, presence of seal Dependent the extent of bacterial growth in each broth solution ie. decay of broth Controlled: temperature, lighting (environmental conditions) concentration of broth (same origin of broth), volume of broth size of flask, flask used how long it was boiled for Reliability repeated 5times with 5 groups consistent results Limitations not same recipe of broth as Pasteur not same glassware Used modern materials such as alfoil that Pasteur would not have been able to use The broth was boiled for 15 minutes (instead of hours) and was kept for several days (instead of weeks)

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Distinguish between and name one example of a disease caused by each type of pathogen

Prions A protein that is capable of causing disease Do not contain genetic material but are coded for by genes in an organisms DNA Smaller than other pathogens

Normal protein prions exist in the brain, do not cause disease and can be destroyed by heat. A mutation to the gene that codes for the prions causes different structure and leads to disease. The mutated prions cannot be broken down by heat or chemicals and multiply by altering the structure of normal prions they contact. Can be acquired (eating tissue, contaminated surgical instruments, blood donations) OR inherited OR rarely through mutation of a gene. Diseases caused by prions are spongiform diseases because the brain tissue of individuals is full of holes. Example: Kuru Kuru was caused by cannibalistic rituals in Papua New Guinea in which brain tissue was eaten. This brain tissue contained infected prions and so the disease was passed on. Kuru causes severe coordination problems, uncontrolled jerking of the body and pathological bursts of laughter.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Viruses Consist of DNA or RNA enclosed in a protective protein coat. Viruses cannot usually be treated but vaccines are available for prevention. Non-cellular pathogens that have both living and non-living characteristics Living genetic material able to replicate and pass on Non-living not composed of cells, can be crystalised Large than prions but still far smaller than bacteria (30-300 nm)

Viruses cannot reproduce on their own, they must replicate inside host cells. Replication of viruses: Attaches to host cell and inject nucleic acid Cell makes copies of virus DNA and produces virus proteins Cell produces the structure of the virus and new viruses assemble Cell bursts are release new viruses

Example: Chickenpox: Caused by Herpes varicella-zoster virus Transmission: Viral particles exhaled by infected person, direct skin-to-skin contact with lesions. The virus moves to spinal ganglia of the nervous system. After incubation period of 14-21 days, small raised spots and itchy blisters develop on scalp, face, trunk and limbs o Specific antibodies are produced by the host, which combat infection and generally gain lifelong immunity. Treatment: calamine lotion, anti-histamines and ointments to reduce itchiness. Infected people should be isolated, and contaminated articles disinfected. A vaccine is available. Bacteria Single celled and prokaryotic (DNA and organelles not in a membrane) Reproduce very quickly through binary fission Larger than viruses and prions, up to 100um large but smaller than protozoans

Present in the air, soil and water and human body parts such as skin, throat and digestive system. Bacteria produce toxins, often as waste products, which are harmful. Hence why cooking rotting food will not make it safe. Named by their shape: coccus (round), bacillus (rod-shaped), spirochaete (spiral-shaped) Gram staining: Gram-positive bacteria take up the violet stain colour. Gram-negative bacteria fail to take up the stain Difference is caused by chemical differences in wall structure of bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria have an outer layer of lipid compounds, which enable these bacteria to resist drugs such as penicillin. Example: Tetanus Bacteria: Clostridium tetani Deep puncture wound such as from a nail provides the anaerobic conditions that favour bacterial growth Bacteria produce the tetanus toxin, which causes nervous spasms. Contraction of jaw muscles causes lockjaw, and spasms of respiratory muscles may cause death

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Protozoans Single celled eukaryotic organisms (possess membrane bound nucleus and organelles). Reproduce by asexual binary fission and are sized from 1-300um, larger then bacterium. Protozoan movement Long whip-like tail called flagellum Hair like projections called cilia that beat rapidly to create movement No structures for motion but reproduce by spores Example: Malaria (shown below) Fungi Eucaryotic organisms with a cell wall, they can be multicellular or unicellular. Some reproduce asexually and some sexually. Most live on dead plant and animal material. Fungal pathogens are usually dermophytes, living on skin, nails and hair. Example: Thrush. Explained later. Macro-parasites Macro parasites are visible to the naked eye. They are multicellular eucaryotic that vary in size. Some cause disease directly while others act as vectors to transmit disease Endoparasites Live inside the hosts body, such as roundworms and flatworks. Ectoparasites live on the outside of the body and suck blood. Examples include mosquitoes, flues and lice. Some inject toxins while feeding and some act as vectors to transmit other pathogens.

Example: Hydatid disease Caused by the hydatid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosis Usually lives in intestine of a dog. Worms eggs are passed out with dogs faeces. Transmission: touching infected dogs hair/faeces and transferring eggs to mouth o Can result in hydatid cysts o In humans, hydatid cysts can exert pressure on tissues and block vital blood vessels Symptoms: anaemia, severe pain/shock if cyst bursts Gather and process information to trace the historical development of our understanding of the cause and prevention of malaria 1650: Malaria was treated in Europe with the bark of the cinchona tree, which contained quinine. (Prevention) 1820: Quinine was extracted from the bark and identified as the active ingredient. After this, quinine was used directly to treat malaria. (Prevention) 1880: Charles Laveran, a French army doctor, observed a parasite inside red blood cells of infected people. He proposed that malaria is caused by this protozoan. (Cause) 1885: Golgi established that there were at least two forms of the disease. (Cause)

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


1897: Ronald Ross demonstrated that malaria parasite could be transmitted between mosquitoes and infected patients. (Cause) 1898: Ronald Ross was able to describe the complete life cycle of the malaria parasite (Cause) 1940: Chloroquinine, the first synthetic anti-malarial drug with few major side effects was used. (Prevention) 1942: Wide scale use of DDT to kill mosquitoes as a preventative measure. (Prevention) 1980: Latent liver form of the parasite was observed, explaining why people who appeared to be cured of malaria would relapse years after the parasite had disappeared from their bloodstream. (cause) 2002: Genome sequencing of Anopheles gambiae (malaria parasite) completed Identify data sources, gather process and analyse information from secondary sources to describe one named infectious disease in terms of its Cause: 4 protozoa of the genus Plasmodium can cause human malarial infections. Transmission: An infected Anohpleles mosquito carries the Plasmodium parasites, acquiring gamecytes from a previous blood meal. It then bites a person and injects the protozoan Plasmodium in an immature form called sporozoites which was living in its salivary gland. It is carried down the bloodstream to the liver where they develop and divide asexually into merozoites, then enter red blood cells and divide by mitosis. Host Response When in red blood cells, the body releases Lymphocytes which produce antibodies to try and neutralise the parasite. Circulating infected red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen, to prevent this the Plasmodium displays adhesive proteins and sticks to vessel walls. This can cause blockages. Red Cells containing the parasite burst, releasing it into the blood stream and causing attacks of fever. This is due to the dramatic immune response in which cytokines are released to stimulate other cells such as phagocytes (white blood cells) to destroy the parasite.

Symptoms Chills Sweating Fever Headache Shortness of breath Shivering Delirium

Treatment of the Sufferer Anti-malarial drugs such as quinine and the orally administered chloroquinine. These drugs can reduce fever within 24 hours or cure infection. The only drawback is resistant strains of mosquito are developing.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Preventive Practices In countries where malaria is common, clothing that protects and covers skin should be worn between dusk and the next morning to stop mosquitoes biting. Use of mosquito repellent, sprayed on the body to keep away mosquitoes and biting + transmitting disease. Mosquito nets and mosquito proof houses to stop the insects entering sleeping area and biting + transmitting disease. Prophylaxis - Preventative medical treatment. Proguanil is a medicine that is taken during, and up to four weeks after visiting an area where malaria is common. They kill the parasite after the liver stage is complete.

Control Methods Destruction of breeding places such as swamps to kill larvae and stop spread of disease. Biological control, introducing species that will kill or eat mosquitoes. e.g. fish in breeding grounds. Insecticides used on vehicles travelling out of areas with the Anopheles mosquito to destroy the vector of malaria. Genetic engineering of mosquitoes that are resistant to the parasite

Identify the role of antibiotics in the management of infectious disease Antibiotics: Chemicals that inhibit growth of or destroy bacteria. They affect the micro-organism but not the host. Because of this property, antibiotics play a role in managing infectious diseases caused by bacteria. Before antibiotics, many people died of what we now think of as simple infections. Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered by Fleming. It accumulates in bacteria cells and prevents cell walls forming when dividing. Some antibiotics interfere with protein synthesis so the bacteria are unable to make essential compounds and die. Broad spectrum antibiotics act against a wide range of bacteria useful when the bacteria is not known

Antibiotics have no effect against viruses such as cold and flu. Process information from secondary sources to discuss problems relating to antibiotic resistance Natural selection is the cause of antibiotic resistance. Some resistant bacteria survive antibiotics and reproduce and the proportion of bacteria with antibiotic-resistance increases. This makes subsequent antibiotic treatments less effective. For example, golden staph is becoming a super bug due to its resistance to antibiotics. Even vancomycin which has been used only as a last resort treatment is becoming ineffective. Eventually some diseases will have no treatment because of their resistance unless more effective drugs are produced. Antibiotic resistance is caused by: Overuse of antibiotics and using them to treat diseases not bacterial such as coughs and colds. Taking antibiotics only until symptoms disappear as more resistant bacteria survive longer Antibiotics fed to farm animals on a regular basis Cleaning products that contain antibacterial ingredients

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Strategies to combat antibiotic resistance: Only prescribing antibiotics for bacterial infections Using a more specific antibiotic, not broad spectrum Taking the whole course of antibiotics to eliminate all bacteria Identify defence barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in humans Defence of the body 1st line of defence: non-specific Prevents pathogens from entering the body E.g. Skin, chemical secretions, cilia nd 2 line of defence: non-specific If a pathogen has entered the body, the second line of defence tries to destroy them before any damage is done. Mainly involves white blood cells inhibiting/destroying pathogens which have entered the body, regardless of what pathogen it is 3rd line of defence: specific The immune response. Involves responses specific to invading pathogens E.g. B cells, T cells Skin

Tough outer barrier that covers the body and forms a physical barrier against pathogens Fairly dry to prevent growth of pathogens Has its own population of bacteria to stop invading microbes from multiplying Oil and sweat glands produce antibacterial substances After a cut, blood clots quickly to seal that barrier

Mucous membranes The respiratory, digestive, reproductive tracts are covered by mucous membranes which trap the entering pathogens Pathogens are held by the mucous until they are removed by processes such as coughing and sneezing Can also contain an antibody that prevents bacteria and viruses from attaching Cilia

Cilia are tiny hair-like projections that line respiratory tract. Constantly beat in an upwards direction to move mucus containing trapped pathogens to the throat where they can be coughed out or swallowed.

Chemical barriers Chemicals act as barriers to stop or kill invading pathogens. Stomach acid destroys pathogens, including those carried by cilia and swallowed Alkaline conditions in the small intestine destroy pathogens resistant to acid Tears and saliva contain lysozyme that dissolved the cell membranes of bacteria Urinary and vaginal openings are acidic to inhibit the growth of bacteria

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Other body secretions Urine and sterile and slightly acidic flushes and cleans ureter, bladder and urethra to prevent microorganism growth Tears and saliva, as well as containing lysosomes, wash away micro-organisms from eyes, mouth and teeth Sweat glands secrete salty sweat which inhibits growth of bacteria

Gather process and present information from secondary sources to show how a named disease results from an imbalance of micro flora in humans Many micro-organisms that live on the skin, intestines, colon, mouth and vagina are beneficial to the body and inhibit growth and multiplication of harmful pathogens, protecting the body from disease. An imbalance or reduction in these micro flora can lead to pathogens not being controlled and disease occurring. Thrush (candidiasis) Caused by a fungus (yeast) that is normally part of the natural micro flora in mucous membranes Lactic acid produced by the lactobacillus bacterium (a non-pathogenic bacteria) normally keeps vaginal pH low and hence the numbers of Candida fungus low. Reduced numbers of these (caused by taking antibiotics, steroids, oral contraceptives and even pregnancy) lead to increases in fungus population and onset of disease.

Symptoms: white patches in mouth, inflamed skin, itchiness in vaginal area, stinging while urinating, white discharge Prevention: carefully washing/drying susceptible parts of the body, avoiding some antibiotics Treatment: anti-fungal chemicals, stop using whatever causes the imbalance (e.g. oral contraceptives or steroids)

Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) Investigated genetics of influenza virus Formulated the clonal theory of antibody production, explaining how the body learns to distinguish between self and non-self cells vital for understanding why rejection occurs in transplants. Developed important methodology to culture viruses that was used to develop a vaccine. Made the discovery that antibody production occurs during foetal development, not inherited

Identify antigens as molecules that trigger the immune response An antigen is any foreign particle. Antigens are chemical markers on the surface of pathogens. They allow the body to recognise self cells. When a foreign (non-self) antigen enters the body, it triggers an immune response from a B cell or T cell and induces the formation of antibodies. Explain why organ transplants should trigger an immune response An organ from another person will have different antigens on the surface of cells and so the immune system will attack the organ as if it were a pathogen Helper T cells identify the unmatched tissue to cause an attack.

Because of this, donor and recipients must have their tissues typed to find out major antigens present and determine compatibility. A better match increases chance of success.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Bone marrow transplants: Bone marrow contains T cells, so may recognise the bodys cells as antigens and produce cytokines to begin an attack. Recipient must therefore be treated with immunosuppressive drugs or some T cells must be removed. Unfortunately immunosuppressant drugs make the patient more susceptible to infection.

Identify defence adaptations including the following: Inflammation response A non-specific defence at the site of infection. Infected cells release a chemical alarm signal (e.g. histamines and prostaglandins) which cause arterioles at the area to dilate and blood supply to be increased -> Swelling and inflammation Phagocytes enter tissues and attack the pathogens. Platelets and clotting factor form blood clot around infection, preventing spread Phagocytes A type of white blood cell that changes its shape, extending parts of the cell, to surround a foreign particle such as a bacterium. Once inside, enzymes produced by lysosomes destroy it. Phagocytes can be: o Neutrophils called upon first to inactivate pathogens that cause short, severe infections. Short acting and self-destruct after a few days. o Macrophages Long lasting phagocytes that stay in tissue or travel to infected area. After engulfing a foreign particle, antigen is displayed on the surface on the macrophage Lymph System Foreign particles move with tissue fluid into the lymph vessels When they reach the lymph nodes, the foreign particles are filtered from the fluid and trapped in the node The particles are then destroyed by macrophages or T/B cells released by lymph nodes Cell Death to Seal off Pathogen For some larger pathogens which cannot be engulfed, macrophages and lymphocytes completely surround the pathogen in a cyst (granuloma). These white cells die, isolating the pathogen from its food supply and killing it. Identify components of the immune response Leucocyte: A white blood cell. Lymphocytes are special white blood cells involved in specific immunity. They are produced in bone marrow. Antibodies These are proteins (called immunoglobulins) found in plasma cells. They are highly specific to antigens, i.e. specific antigens cause production of specific antibodies. Antibodies cover the active site of an antigen and destroy it in different possible ways: o dissolve part of the cell wall and cause foreign particles to clump together o Immobilise the antigen o Neutralise the active site of the antigen

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


T cells Lymphocytes that are produced in bone marrow and mature in thymus gland. Each T cell has a particular surface receptor protein that recognises a specific antigen. 1) Antigen is present 2) Helper T cells recognise antigen and secretes interleukin chemical to activate cytotoxic T cells 3) Cytotoxic T cells move to site of infection and bind to the infected cell, releasing chemicals to destroy it Tell cells control cell mediated immunity which defends the body against: Bacteria and viruses inside cells Protozoa, fungi, flatworms and roundworms Cancerous cells and transplanted foreign tissue

Types of T cells Helper T cells These have receptor proteins on the surface that recognise a particular antigen. Secretes the cytokine chemical (interleukin) that activates cytotoxic T cells and other cytokine chemicals that activate B cells for that antigen. Can also stimulate macrophages. Cytotoxic T cells Produce many copies of themselves when activated (through helper T cells and their own receptor proteins). Releases chemicals that destroy infected cell o Natural killer cells a type of cytotoxic cells that destroy abnormal host cells o Some cytotoxic T cells produce a chemical called interferon which prevents viral invasion of cells around an infection cell Memory T cells Remain in the body so future illnesses can be more quickly overcome and T cell act more quickly Suppressor T cells Stop immune response once infection is overcome. B cells Lymphocytes that are produced and mature in bone marrow. Each B cell has an antibody on its surface specific to an antigen so millions must be produced. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Antigen is present B cells divide B cells specialise into plasma cells Plasma cells produce and release antibodies Antibodies combine with antigen to produce antigen-antibody complex that inactivates the pathogen

B cells control the antibody-mediated immunity which defends the body against: Bacteria and viruses outside cells Toxins produced by bacteria

Types of B cells B cell clones B plasma cells differentiated B cell clones B memory cells Remain in the body so future illness can be more quickly overcome and antigens produced more quickly

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of: The interaction between B and T lymphocytes When T cells encounter an antigen, they produce a soluble factor. B cells will become activated and produce antibodies when they react with the soluble factor When T cells are interacting with the antigen, they come into contact with B cells which in turn are activated and produce antibodies. Helper T cells produce cytokines that activate both B and T cells. B cells show part of the antigen which in turn can activate helper T cells. Suppressor T cells stop the action of both B and T cells

The mechanisms that allow B and T cells to interact There is a system that allows the cells to identify that they both belong to the body. On the surface of cells are glycoprotein molecules called MHC molecules which allow recognition of cells. Foreign cells will have different MHC molecules. MHC1 molecules are involved in recognition of antigens by T cells. Infected cells have MHC1 molecules and are destroyed. MHC2 molecules are present on B cells and macrophages so that helper T cells can recognise the antigen that needs to be fought

Outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection Vaccination involves introducing an antigen to an immune system in a harmless form so that B and T memory cells can form as they would in the primary response (first exposure to the disease). This means that when a person is actually exposed to the pathogen, cytotoxic T cells and B plasma cells can be very quickly produced in large numbers to easily overcome the infection. This is called active acquired immunity. Injection of dead micro-organisms o Activates the immune system to produce memory cells and antibodies against that antigen, without actually causing the disease Injection of attenuated (weakened) live micro-organisms (with antigen) o Attenuation: treatment of a bacterium may remove its disease-causing characteristic without affecting its antigens, e.g. by removing the bacterial capsule o Attenuated bacteria can still reproduce initially, stimulating a higher level of antibody production than using dead micro-organisms E.g. Measles and mumps vaccines A subunit, or acellular vaccine o Many pathogens cause disease by secreting toxins. Detoxified forms of these toxins which cannot cause disease, called toxoids, can be used as vaccines E.g. purified tetanus toxoids Passive acquired immunity receiving antibodies from an organisms that has had that infection.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Outline the reasons for the suppression of the immune response in organ transplant patients When a patient receives a donor organ, the organ will have marker molecules on the surface of cells which are different to markers in the recipients body. Because of this, B and T cells will attack the new tissue. It is often difficult to find close matches for organ donors, so drugs are given to suppress the immune system (immunosuppressants) Drugs such as cyclosporine inhibit T cells. This disadvantage of this is that the patient is at much higher risk of infection.

Evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the spread and occurrence of once common diseases including smallpox diphtheria and polio Smallpox A virus spread through air and contact. It causes high fever and blistering rash and is often fatal. Has killed more people than any other infectious disease. 300mill deaths in 20th century. Vaccination was made compulsory in Europe in the 1820s The WHO developed a mass immunisation program, targeting 33 countries still facing the disease and ensuring every person was immunised and possible cases were monitored

Advantages: Besides routine mass immunisation, supplementary doses were given to target people who missed out, ensuring it reached a greater number of people Effectively eradicated smallpox from the world population by 1979 Surveillance and containment were used, where susceptible areas were monitored and any new cases meant resources and vaccinations were directed to where that case could spread. Containment made sure infected persons and groups did not spread the disease. Besides preventing occurrence in individuals, also prevented spread as a majority of immunised people means an infected person coming into contact with an unimmunised, uninfected person, is unlikely. Disadvantages: While completely eradicated, there are still two samples of the virus kept in labs. The last recorded death from the disease was a British researcher studying the virus so if these viruses escaped they could spread the disease. Since the disease is eradicated, people will not be vaccinated, so if it reappeared it could easily spread.

Diptheria Caused by highly contagious and fast acting bacteria Can kill within a week. A leathery membrane forms across the through and causes suffocation. Death can be caused by toxins, which cause damage to other organs such as the heart even if the patient recovers from the infection, they can be left with permanent nerve and heart problems prior to development of a vaccine, mortality rates were high, with 90% in diphtheria of the larynx; two-thirds of these were children under 5 years old in 1921 there were 206 000 cases with 15 500 deaths in the United States of America alone

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Advantages: Immunisation programs were introduced in Australia in the 1930s and 1940s and resulted in a rapid decrease in the incidence of diphtheria similar programs were also successful in Europe and other developed countries the introduction of the WHO EPI saw the percentage of children immunised worldwide increase to 80% by 1990 (only 50% of children in Africa) this corresponded to a greatly decreased mortality rate reported worldwide Disadvantages: There is currently a chance of resurgence of the disease due to parents refusing to vaccinate their children Polio

Viral disease transmitted by droplets in air or direct contact


In 1988, the World Health Assembly (WHA) voted to launch a global goal to eradicate polio This Global Polio Eradication Initiative involved widespread vaccination of children under 5 years in countries where the disease was still endemic In 1997, almost 450 million children under 5 years were immunised during National Immunisation Days

Advantages:

There were 719 cases of wild poliovirus in 2000 - this represents a 99% reduction in cases since the program began in 1988

Disadvantages: Polio is not yet completely eradicated, with endemics still occurring in some countries - Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan and has re-established transmission in three countries which were previously polio-free (Angola, Chad and Democratic Republic of the Congo). Several more countries had ongoing outbreaks in 2011 due to importations of poliovirus. Reduced effectiveness occurs because of parents neglecting to immunise their children, perhaps because: They become complacent and believe children will not contract the disease due to low incidence in society They feel risk of side effects is too great They do not want their child to have the fever or nausea that can come with the vaccine (although only briefly) Identify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung cancer as an example Epidemiology is the study of distribution and frequency of disease within a population. It includes collection of statistics and analysis of data to investigate cause and effect of disease. Main features: Description of disease Groups suffering most from the disease, e.g. smokers suffering more lung cancer, Risk factors that may contribute, e.g. more blue collar workers smoke, people working with asbestos Includes statistics and analysis, including data on: o Mortality Percentage of the population that dies from the disease o Morbidity Number of cases of the disease in a population o Incidence Number of new cases in a specific period

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


o Prevalence Number of cases affecting a population at any one time

Features of a valid epidemiological study: Study must be done on large groups of people with a large range of exposures (age, race, sex, occupation, socioeconomic status and geographic location) for trends to be reliable, especially when determining groups most at risk. For example, collecting data from only pack-a-day smokers will not illustrate cause and effect. Therefore a wider study is taken and it is clear that smoker are more at risk of lung cancer

Identify the cause and effect relationship of smoking and lung cancer In 1954, the British Doctors Study over 20 years confirmed the link between smoking and lung cancer. Since then, many epidemiological studies have been done to show the same cause and effect relationship Cigarette smoke contains over 60 known carcinogens, including nitrosamine. Nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths. Carcinomas begin to appear along the fine tubules of lung tissue Rate of smoking, and length of time a person smokes, increase the persons chance of developing lung cancer o If a person stops smoking, this chance decreases as lungs are gradually repaired and contaminants removed. o Smokers are 10 times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers o Those who smoke have a decreased life expectancy, and the more cigarettes smoked per day, the more life expectancy decreases

Identify causes of non-infectious disease using examples from: Inherited disease Result from a mutation to DNA that leads to incorrect gene expression. They can either be genic or chromosomal and result in impaired body function and disease. An example is Down syndrome caused by trisomy-21 where a person has 3 copies of chromosome 21.

Nutritional deficiency result from the body not receiving enough vitamins or minerals. An example is scurvy which occurred in sailors Causes wounds not to heal, bleeding around hair follicles and swollen and bleeding gums Caused by a vitamin C deficiency

Environmental disease Those due to lifestyle or substances in the environment An example is Mesothelioma in construction workers that worked with asbestos Symptoms appear 20-30 years after exposure. Causes breathlessness, coughing and weight loss Substance becomes imbedded in lung tissue causing inflammation. It becomes coated with protein and causes cancer of the outer covering of lung, heart and abdominal cavity

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health

Present information about occurrence, symptoms, cause, treatment and management of a named non-infectious disease Cystic Fibrosis An inherited disease Occurrence Cause Recessive condition caused by a mutation to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) It results in the lack of production of a protein that is responsible for pumping ions across cell membranes. It means chloride ions cannot effectively move across. Cells absorb water to try and dilute the ions and the result is a buildup of thick, sticky mucus, mainly in the lungs. Amongst Caucasian descent, 1/25 carry the defective CFTR gene One in 2,500 Australian children are born with cystic fibrosis One in 4000 US children are born with cystic fibrosis

Symptoms Blockage of airways by mucus causes shortness of breath, lung infections, high blood pressure in lung, hypoxia and respiratory failure Blockages of pancreatic ducts prevent digestive enzymes being released, reducing digestion and causing deficiency poor growth and weight loss. Heart complications Infertility (no vas deferens)

Treatment and Management Newborns are screened for Cystic fibrosis through genetic testing, looking for increase blood concentration of trypsinogen and analyzing sweat to determine if levels of sodium and chloride are too high Daily chest physiotherapy to loosen mucus in airway Antibiotics to suppress bacterial infection Pancreatic enzyme supplements to assist food absorption Gene therapy to replace defection CFTR genes with functional genes so a functional transmembrane conductance regulator protein is produced o Most recently, this has involved using a nebulizer to inhale harmless/disarmed adeno-associated viruses that act as a vector to deliver fixed gene into lung cells.

Discuss the role of quarantine in preventing the spread of disease and plants and animals into Australia or across regions of Australia Quarantine: Isolation of a diseased organism in order to stop the spread of disease Prevention: Stopping occurrence Control: Regulating incidence and stopping any further spread

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) is responsible for preventing pests and diseases entering the country. This is essential to protect our agricultural industry which exports $30billion worth of food each year much of the demand due to our reputation of being pest and disease free. Pests or diseases could alter ecosystems and destroy crops, reducing yield and income. Into Australia: Border control Checking of passengers and cargo entering Australia. Involves use of X-rays, dogs and inspection. They may not bring seeds, fresh foods, eggs, dairy, meat or soil. Animal quarantine All animals entering the country must spend time isolated to ensure they are free of disease. They are regularly monitored. Human quarantine Captains of aircrafts and ships must notify AQIS if any passengers are displaying symptoms of prohibited diseases such as rabies, malaria, SARS or avian influenza. Aircrafts also sprayed with insecticides to get rid of mosquitoes that could being disease. The Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy (NAQS) due to its close proximity to countries with exotic pests and diseases, Northern Australia takes special precautions o Cattle and pigs up north are regularly checked for foreign diseases such as blue tongue to indicate whether disease has entered Australia. These are called sentinel animals. o Insect traps are set up to determine if foreign insects are present such as screw-worm flies

Across Regions of Australia: Fruit fly exclusion zones set up to protect fruit growing areas. This involves all fruit being disposed of before entering the area. Since fruit flies cannot fly very far, if people dont bring in fruit, they will not be able to enter new areas such as FFEZ. Restrictions placed on movement of vegetables and livestock from one area to another, since this can spread pests and diseases. Each state has its own legislation governing these movements. Exclusion zones in place for potato growing areas to prevent the spread of potato cyst nematodes During 2007 when there was an outbreak of equine (horse) flu, movement of horses was altered to stop spread of disease.

Evaluate the effectiveness of quarantine in preventing the spread of plant and animal disease into Australia or across regions of Australia Points for: Australia is free of many pests and diseases that are common in other countries, so quarantine has been effective When there is an outbreak in another country, Australia quickly implements further procedures to ensure it does not reach Australia, e.g. when there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in cloven hoof animals in 2001, animals and unprocessed hay and straw were not imported, shoes of travellers were disinfected, non-commercial imports of meat were banned. We are still free of the disease. Points against: We cannot stop all movement of plants, animals and people and so AQIS could never be 100% effective Overall: Measures have been very effective and Australia is free of major pests and diseases that cause damage to agriculture and environment in other countries

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Discuss the changing methods of dealing with plant and animal disease, including a shift in emphasis from treatment and control to management or prevention. Humans: A few lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking, alcohol, obesity, physical inactivity, etc.) account for a significant amount of disease. Campaigns have been developed to change peoples behaviours in these factors to prevent diseases such as coronary heart disease developing later in life. Smoking is responsible for almost 10% of all disease. Government campaigns attempt to reduce this lifestyle factor. o QUIT campaigns o Ban on cigarette advertising and warning notices on cigarette packets. New plain packaging not showing branding o Banning smoking in public areas World-wide immunisation has caused diseases such as smallpox to be eradicated. Immunisation of the population is more cost-effective than treatment of each smallpox case. Screening programs such as BreastScreen Australia and the National Cervical Screening Program try to detect diseases early in their progression so that they can be more effectively controlled, rather than waiting for symptoms to appear. Prevention is preferred because: Prevention is more cost effective than treatment, e.g. billions spend on CVD when education is quite low cost With many diseases such as lunch cancer being highly preventable, there is a lot of potential to reduce disease in these areas Improves quality of life instead of having to live with the disease Plants and Animals: Genetically resistant crops are grown so that plants do not have to be sprayed for diseases later in life Quarantine restrictions have managed animal/plant diseases (e.g. rabies, foot-and-mouth) more effectively than treatment and control as outbreaks occur Explain how public health programs have controlled and/or prevented disease Public health programs are put in place to help prevent disease: Government regulations Ensure procedures are in place in regard to handling, cooking and storing food. Prevents spread of pathogens through food. Strict guidelines are put in place in hospitals and health services including appropriate sanitation to prevent spread of disease between patients. Free screening for certain diseases and promotion of the need to screen Women are encouraged to check for lumps that might indicate breast cancer and also have regular mammograms after 50. Mobile screening vans also operate. Immunisation programs such as those in place for diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus in children Public education programs aim to eliminate risk behaviours to prevent disease later in life, examples include compulsory health education in schools to promote a healthy lifestyle and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease later in life. Another example is the Slip! Slop! Slap! Campaign and others similar that raise awareness about how to prevent skin cancer.

Biology HSC The Search for Better Health


Perform an investigation to examine plant shoots and leaves and gather evidence of pathogens and insect pests Aim to examine plant shoots and leaves, particularly those with evidence of pathogens and insect pests Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Results - pustules of rust fungus could be seen on leaves - little holes could be seen on shoots of plants indicating damage by scale insects - aphids were observed they have mouthparts for piercing the epidermis and sucking nutrients out Pathogens - bacteria cause spots on the surface of the leaves (rust on the Banksia leaves) - fungal infections are shown by dark growths on the stems (black stem rot) or on the undersides of leaves Insect Pests - insects (azalea lace-bugs) feed on the plant itself, creating holes and damage - other insects, such as psyllids, reproduce on the plants, and leave behind egg shells and holes a leaf was placed in a petri dish observations of the leaf were made the petri dish was placed under a microscope lens the leaf was focused in low power then high power observations were made