You are on page 1of 31

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
Business jet, private jet, or bizjet, is a term describing a jet aircraft, usually of smaller
size, designed for transporting groups of up to 19 individuals. Business jets may be adapted for
other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, and some are used
by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces. The more formal terms of corporate
jet, executive jet, VIP transport or business jet tend to be used by the firms that build, sell, buy
and charter these aircraft
Most business jet aircrafts are of low-wing design and have engines mounted at the aft end of the
fuselage. Except for one three-engine and one four-engine design, all are used. Most of the
modern aircraft produced today have turbofan engines; some of these are repowered versions of
the aircraft that originally appeared with turbojet engines. The wings of most of the aircraft have
a modest amount of sweepback, although one business jet described below has a swept forward
wing. Like any aircraft, the size and performance of business jets vary with the function for
which the aircraft has been designed. Aircraft are available that vary in gross weight from about
11000to 65000 pounds. Cruising speeds lie in the range from 0.7 to 0.85 Mach number. Ranges
Vary from intercontinental values as low as 1150 miles. Many of the new aircrafts being
produced have at least nonstop transcontinental capability. The number of passengers that can be
accommodated, even on an aircraft of the same design, varies widely depending on the interior
cabin arrangements. Aircraft can be found with the capability of carrying from 5 to 18
passengers.

CHAPTER-2
Load Factor Requirements

Load factor is defined as the ratio of the lift of an aircraft to its weight and represents a global
measure of the stress ("load") to which the structure of the aircraft is subjected:

Where:
n = Load factor
L = Lift
W = Weight

Since the load factor is the ratio of two forces, it is dimensionless. However, its units are
traditionally referred to as g, because of the relation between load factor and apparent
acceleration of gravity felt on board the aircraft. A load factor of one, or 1 g, represents
conditions in straight and level flight, where the lift is equal to the weight. Load factors greater
or less than one (or even negative) are the result of maneuvers or wind gusts

Load factor, n

2
1 V S CLM A X
=
2
W

From Aircraft Design Lab-1 Data Book

1. Takeoff weight

= 10000kg

2. Air density at ground

= 1.225 kg/m3
2

3. Cl max

= 1.71, -1.1

4. Wing span Area

= 14.22 m2

Table 1- Load factor for various aircraft velocities


V
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290

n
0
0.006998
0.02799
0.062978
0.111961
0.174939
0.251912
0.34288
0.447843
0.566801
0.699754
0.846703
1.007646
1.182585
1.371519
1.574447
1.791371
2.02229
2.267204
2.526113
2.799018
3.085917
3.386811
3.701701
4.030585
4.373465
4.73034
5.101209
5.486074
5.884934
3

300
310
320
330
340
350

6.297789
6.72464
7.165485
7.620325
8.089161
8.571991

CHAPTER-3
V-n Diagram
A chart of velocity versus load factor (or V-n diagram) is another way of showing limits
of aircraft performance. It shows how much load factor can be safely achieved at different
airspeeds.
The higher the speed, the greater is the load factor n. Compressibility has an effect on the
V-n diagram. In principle, it may be necessary to construct several V-n diagrams representing
different altitudes. This chapter explains only the role of the V-n diagram in aircraft design.
Figure 2 represents a typical V-n diagram showing varying speeds within the specified structural
load limits. The figure illustrates the variation in load factor with airspeed for maneuvers. Some
points in a V-n diagram are of minor interest to configuration studies for example, at the point
V = 0 and n = 0 (e.g., at the top of the vertical ascent just before the tail slide can occur). The
points of interest are explained in the remainder of this section. Inadvertent situations may take
aircraft from within the limit-load boundaries to conditions of ultimate-load boundaries.

Figure 1- Typical V-n diagram showing load and speed limits


5

Table 2- V Vs n
V

negative n

10

0.0069975

-0.004453

20

0.0279902

-0.017812

30

0.0629779

-0.040077

40

0.1119607

-0.071248

50

0.1749386

-0.111325

60

0.2519116

-0.160307

70

0.3428796

-0.218196

80

0.4478428

-0.284991

90

0.5668011

-0.360692

100

0.6997544

-0.445298

110

0.8467028

-0.538811

120

1.0076463

-0.641229

130

1.1825849

-0.752554

140

1.3715186

-0.872785

150

1.5744474

-1.001921

160

1.7913712

-1.139964

170

2.0222902

-1.286912

180

2.2672042

-1.442766

190

2.5261133

-1.607527

200

2.7990175

-1.781193

210

3.0859168

-1.963765

220

3.3868112

-2.155244

230

3.7017007

-2.355628

240

4.0305853

-2.564918

250

4.3734649

-2.783114

260

4.7303396

-3.010216

270

5.1012095

-3.246224

280

5.4860744

-3.491138

290

5.8849344

-3.744958

300

6.2977895

-4.007684

310

6.7246396

-4.279316

320

7.1654849

-4.559854

330

7.6203253

-4.849298

340

8.0891607

-5.147648

350

8.5719912

-5.454904

Cruise Velocity Vc = 300 m/s


Dive Velocity, VD = 1.5 * Vc
= 1.5 * 300
VD = 450m/s
Using all these data, the final V-n Diagram is given in the following figure.

Figure 2- V-n Diagram

CHAPTER 4
Other Load Calculations

4.1 Interception
An interceptor aircraft (or simply interceptor) is a type of fighter aircraft designed
specifically to prevent missions of enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance
aircraft, and destroy them relying usually on great speed and powerful armament.
The load acting on the interceptor is given by the following formula

Table 3- V Vs n for Interception at various densities


Velocity(m/s)
50
50
50
100
100
100
150
150
150
200
200
200

Density(Kg/m3)
1.225
0.5489
0.3652
1.225
0.5489
0.3652
1.225
0.5489
0.3652
1.225
0.5489
0.3652

n
0
0.1218558
0.0810744
1.0878
0.4874232
0.3242976
2.44755
1.0967022
0.7296696
4.3512
1.9496928
1.2971904
9

250
250
250
300
300
300
350
350
350

1.225
0.5489
0.3652
1.225
0.5489
0.3652
1.225
0.5489
0.3652

6.79875
3.046395
2.02686
9.7902
4.3868088
2.9186784
13.32555
5.9709342
3.9726456

Figure 3- V vs n for Interception

10

4.2 Instantaneous Turn Rate


Instantaneous turn rate describes maximum g turns which cause a loss in energy, either in
the form of speed or altitude. These turns are unsustainable, although to some degree the energy
loss may be compensated for by increasing thrust, known as applying "excess specific power."
This usually occurs during hard turns or even harder breaks.
The immediate bank angle an aircraft can achieve before drag seriously bleeds off
airspeed is known as its instantaneous turn performance. An aircraft with a small, highly loaded
wing may have superior instantaneous turn performance, but poor sustained turn performance: it
reacts quickly to control input, but its ability to sustain a tight turn is limited.

Table 4- Load factor at different velocities at different ITR


Velocity(m/s)
0
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
250
250

Turn rate
(deg/s)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
2
4

Turn rate
(Rad/sec)
0.03488
0.06976
0.10464
0.13952
0.1744
0.20928
0.24416
0.27904
0.31392
0.03488
0.06976
0.10464
0.13952
0.1744
0.20928
0.24416
0.27904
0.31392
0.03488
0.06976

n
1
1.015698843
1.06140311
1.133488979
1.227316686
1.338321155
1.462596684
1.597048179
1.739317393
1.887637514
1.133488979
1.462596684
1.887637514
2.357277293
2.849549372
3.354504663
3.867178038
4.384863162
4.905973752
1.338321155
2.040689603
11

250
250
250
250
250
250
250
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

6
8
10
12
14
16
18
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

0.10464
0.13952
0.1744
0.20928
0.24416
0.27904
0.31392
0.03488
0.06976
0.10464
0.13952
0.1744
0.20928
0.24416
0.27904
0.31392
0.03488
0.06976
0.10464
0.13952
0.1744
0.20928
0.24416
0.27904

2.849549372
3.695626634
4.558243943
5.429523597
6.305876003
7.185445349
8.06717947
1.597048179
2.683701091
3.867178038
5.080256508
6.305876003
7.537921724
8.773686879
10.01179428
11.25147074
1.739317393
3.016769792
4.384863162
5.779584753
7.185445349
8.596982018
10.01179428
11.4286657

12

Figure 4- V Vs n at different ITR

13

4.3 Sustained Turn Rate


Sustained Turn Rate is where a plane maximizes its smallest turn radius, g - load, and
speed to acquire the best possible turn rate and continuously sustains the turn for long periods of
time, without giving up alt, speed, or degrees of turn. The maximum rate of turn possible for a
given aircraft design is limited by its wing size and available engine power: the maximum turn
the aircraft can achieve and hold is its sustained turn performance.

Table 5- Velocity and load factor for Sustained turn rate at 14 deg/sec
Velocity
(m/s)
0

Turn rate (deg/s)


14

50

14

100

14

150

14

200

14

250

14

300
350

14
14

Turn rate (Rad/sec) n


0.2443
1
1.5976
0.2443
2.6850
0.2443
3.8692
0.2443
5.0830
0.2443
6.3094
0.2443
7.5421
0.2443
0.2443
8.7786

14

Figure 5- V Vs n at STR 14 deg/sec

15

CHAPTER 5
Wing Load Distribution
The loads on the wing are made up of aerodynamic lift and drag forces, as well as
concentrated or distributed weight of mounted engines, stored fuel, weapons, structural elements
etc.
The following formulae were used to compute the Lift distribution on the wing.

16

The following formulae can be used to compute the shear force distribution and the
moment distribution on the wing.

Table 6- Lift, Shear Force and Bending Moment acting on the Wing

Y
0
0.368
0.736
1.104
1.472
1.84
2.208
2.576
2.994
3.312
3.68
4.048
4.416
4.784

a=Y/(b/2)
0
0.055547
0.111094
0.166642
0.222189
0.277736
0.333283
0.38883
0.451925
0.499925
0.555472
0.611019
0.666566
0.722113

c(y)
2.19
2.326988
2.316159
2.297999
2.27233
2.238895
2.197339
2.147191
2.079014
2.018448
1.937965
1.844929
1.737326
1.612241

L(Elip)
961.0806
959.5967
955.1314
947.6423
937.0571
923.2692
906.1326
885.4526
857.3379
832.3621
799.1726
760.8068
716.4337
664.8514

L(trap)
1371.93
1320.871
1269.813
1218.754
1167.696
1116.637
1065.579
1014.52
956.5241
912.4028
861.3442
810.2857
759.2271
708.1685

L(bar)
1166.505
1140.234
1112.472
1083.198
1052.376
1019.953
985.8555
949.9863
906.931
872.3824
830.2584
785.5462
737.8304
686.51

V.Lift
2306.739
2252.706
2195.67
2135.575
2072.33
2005.809
1935.842
1856.917
1779.313
1702.641
1615.805
1523.377
1424.34
1317.173

M Lift
10932.59
10083.71
9254.717
8446.711
7660.819
6898.202
6160.064
5447.675
4764.329
4109.542
3482.97
2888.354
2327.751
1803.594
17

5.152
5.52
5.888
6.256
6.6249

0.77766
0.833208
0.888755
0.944302
1

1.465204
1.288722
1.068301
0.76695
0

604.2166
531.4395
440.5431
316.2728
0

657.1099
606.0514
554.9928
503.9342
0

L Flap

V Flap

M Flap

W Fuel

V Fuel

M Fuel

350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3850

3850
3500
3150
2800
2450
2100
1750
1400
1050
700
350
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

8500.8
7084
5796
4636.8
3606.4
2704.8
1932
1288
772.8
386.4
128.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
-900
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-9900

-9900
-9000
-8100
-7200
-6300
-5400
-4500
-3600
-2700
-1800
-900
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-14850
-12375
-10125
-8100
-6300
-4725
-3375
-2250
-1350
-675
-225
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

630.6633
568.7454
497.7679
410.1035
0

1199.409
1066.513
907.8715
410.1035
0

1318.874
877.4917
485.0148
150.9181
0

W
V
M
Structure Structure Structure
-108
-1026
-1714.5
-102
-918
-1458
-96
-816
-1228.5
-90
-720
-1024.5
-84
-630
-844.5
-78
-546
-687
-72
-468
-550.5
-66
-396
-433.5
-60
-330
-334.5
-54
-270
-252
-48
-216
-184.5
-42
-168
-130.5
-36
-126
-88.5
-30
-90
-57
-24
-60
-34.5
-18
-36
-19.5
-12
-18
-10.5
-6
-6
-6
0
0
0
-1026

18

W
engine
0

V
Engine
-317.5

0
0

-317.5
-317.5

0
0
0
0
0
-63.5
-63.5
-63.5

-317.5
-317.5
-317.5
-317.5
-317.5
-317.5
-254
-190.5

-63.5
-63.5
0
0
0
0
0
0

-127
-63.5
0
0
0
0
0
0

M
Engine
1285.24
-1168.4
1051.56
-934.72
-817.88
-701.04
-584.2
-467.36
-350.52
-233.68
140.208
-70.104
-23.368
0
0
0
0
0
0

Total V

Total M

-5086.76 1583.653
-4482.79 2166.313
-3887.83 2645.657
-3301.93
-2725.17
-2157.69
-1599.66
-1056.58
-518.187
78.64085
659.3046

3024.291
3304.839
3489.962
3582.364
3584.815
3502.109
3335.262
3062.062

1228.377
1234.84
1227.173
1139.409
1030.513
889.8715
404.1035
0

2687.75
2215.883
1746.594
1284.374
857.9917
474.5148
144.9181
0
42693.35

19

Figure 6- Y Vs Lift distribution on wing

Figure 7- Y Vs Shear Force distribution on Wing

20

Figure 8- Y Vs Bending Moment distribution on Wing

21

CHAPTER 6
Fuselage Load Distribution
The fuselage may be considered to be supported at the location of the center of lift of the main
wing. The loads on the fuselage structure are then due to the shear force and the bending moment at that
point.

Figure 9- Schematic representation of loads acting on a fuselage

22

Similar to the loads acting on a Wing, the Shear force and the Bending moment can be computed
from the following formulae.

23

Table 7- Loads, Shear force and Bending Moment distribution on the Fuselage

Length
0
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.8
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.6
6.3
7
7.7
8.4
9.1
9.8
10.5
11.2
11.9
12.6
13.3
14

x/L
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1

W Pay
0
0
0
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
-60
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-600

V Pay
0
0
0
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

M Pay
1650
1650
1650
1650
1620
1560
1470
1350
1200
1020
810
570
300
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

24

W Struct V Struct M Struct W Engine V Engine M Engine W Wing V Wing M Wing


-125
0
3762.5
0
0 -1359.13
0
0
350
-125
125
3762.5
0
0 -1359.13
0
0
350
-125
250
3675
0
0 -1359.13
0
0
350
-125
375
3500
0
0 -1359.13
0
0
350
-125
500
3237.5
0
0 -1359.13
0
0
350
-125
625
2887.5
0
0 -1359.13
0
0
350
-125
750
2450
0
0 -1359.13
-20
20
350
-125
875
1925
0
0 -1359.13
-20
40
336
-125
1000
1312.5
0
0 -1359.13
-20
60
308
-125
1125
612.5
0
0 -1359.13
-20
80
266
-125
1250
-175
0
0 -1359.13
-20
100
210
-125
1375
-1050
0
0 -1359.13
-20
120
140
-125
1500 -2012.5
0
0 -1359.13
-20
140
56
-125
-1000 -3062.5
0 -373.56 -1359.13
-20
-40
-42
-125
-875 -2362.5
0 -373.56 -1097.64
-20
-20
-14
-125
-750
-1750
-67.33 -373.56 -836.15
0
0
0
-125
-625
-1225
-67.33 -306.23 -574.658
0
0
0
-125
-500
-787.5
-67.33
-238.9 -360.297
0
0
0
-125
-375
-437.5
-67.33 -171.57 -193.067
0
0
0
-125
-250
-175
-67.33 -104.24 -72.968
0
0
0
-125
-125
0
-67.33
-36.91
0
0
0
0
-2625
-403.98
-180

25

W Rudder V Rudder M Rudder L Tail


V L tail
M L tail Total V Total M
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
0 -34171.6
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
125 -34171.6
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
250 -34259.1
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
435 -34434.1
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
620 -34726.6
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
805 -35136.6
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
1010 -35664.1
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
1215 -36323.1
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
1420 -37113.6
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
1625 -38035.6
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
1830 -39089.1
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
2035 -40274.1
0
0
-4975
0
0
-33600
2240 -41590.6
0
-1250
-4975
0
-8000
-33600 -10663.6 -43038.6
0
-1250
-4100
0
-8000
-28000 -10518.6 -35574.1
0
-1250
-3225
0
-8000
-22400 -10373.6 -28211.2
-250
-1250
-2350
0
-8000
-16800 -10181.2 -20949.7
-250
-1000
-1475
0
-8000
-11200 -9738.9 -13822.8
-250
-750
-775
-8000
-8000
-5600 -9296.57 -7005.57
-250
-500
-250
0
0
0 -854.24 -497.968
-250
-250
0
0
0
0 -411.91
0
-1250
-8000

Figure 10- X Vs V of Fuselage

26

Figure 11- X Vs M of Fuselage

27

CHAPTER 7
Detailed Layout of the Aircraft
The main conclusion from the constraint analysis and aircraft performance
estimations is that the aircraft landing requirements are too tight and should be renegotiated
with the customers. To provide evidence on the effects of the landing constraints, the revised
baseline layout will ignore them. The new design can be analyzed to show what landing
characteristics are feasible.
With the above strategy in mind the design point for the aircraft will be moved closer
to the intersection of the take-off and climb constraint lines, i.e.:
(T /W ) = 0.20 and

(W /S) = 362.35 kg/m2 (80 lb/sq. ft)

Anticipating the need to increase aircraft mass to allow more fuel to be carried, the
maximum take-off mass is increased to 9850 kg (and the structural design mass
increased to 10100 kg). Using the new values for (T /W ) and (W /S) the new thrust
become:
T = 0.20 9850 = 1970 kg (SSL)
For an aspect ratio (AR) of 5, the new area gives a wing span (b) = 8.56 m and a mean
chord = 1.71 m. For an aspect ratio of 4.5 the wing geometry becomes b = 8.12 m and
mean chord = 1.80 m. Rounding these gures for convenience of the layout drawing
gives:
cmean = 1.75 m (75 ft) and b = 8.5 m (28 ft)
gives, AR = 4.86 and S = 14.87 sq. m/160 sq. ft
This geometry will be used in the new layout.
Also, since the tip chord on the previous layout seemed small, the taper ratio will
be increased to 0.33.
Hence Cmean = (Ctip + Croot )/2 = 1.75 m (assumed)
With, (Ctip/Croot ) = 0.33
This gives Croot = 2.63 m/8.6 ft, Ctip = 0.87 m/2.8 ft
28

Figure 12- Final Aircraft Layout

29

CHAPTER-8
Conclusion

30

31