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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK Sub. Code : ME 2301 Year/ Class : III - Mech Sub.

Name: THERMAL ENGINEERING Sem.: V UNIT 1 - THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES PART A 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? 2. What is meant by air standard cycle? 3. Name the various gas power cycles"? 4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis? 5. Mention the various processes of the Otto cycle. ? 6. Sketch the P-V and T-S diagram of diesel cycle? 7. Mention the various processes of dual cycle? 8. Sketch the P-V and T-S diagram of Brayton cycle? 9. Define air standard cycle efficiency? 10. Define mean effective pressure? 11. What is the significance of mean effective pressure? 12. Define Compression ratio? 13. Define Cut off ratio? 14. Define Expansion ratio? 15. Which cycle is more efficient with respect to the same compression ratio? 16. Write down the expression for the mean effective pressure of diesel cycle? 17. State the order of decreasing air standard efficiency of Otto, diesel and dual cycle for the same compression ratio and heat supplied? 18. What is the range of compression ratio for Otto and Diesel cycle? 19. Name the factors that affect air standard efficiency of Diesel cycle? 20. What is the effect of cut-off ratio on the efficiency of diesel cycle when the compression ratio is kept constant? 21. Give the expression for mean effective pressure for an Otto cycle in terms of compression ratio and other parameters? 22. In which condition the efficiency of the diesel cycle approaches the Otto cycle efficiency? 23. Write the expression for efficiency of the diesel cycle interms of compression ratio and cutoff ratio? 24. Write any four major differences between Otto and diesel cycle? 25. Sketch the schematic arrangements of open cycle gas turbine plant and name the components? 26. What are all the modifications are carried out in Brayton cycle? Is it always useful to have a regenerator in a gas turbine power cycle? Why? 27. What is the expression for optimum pressure ratio for maximum specific work output in Brayton cycle? 28. Why gas turbine plants are generally designed for optimum pressure ratio for maximum specific work output? 29. When will the gas turbine cycle efficiency reaches maximum? 30. What are the factors affecting thermal efficiency of the regenerative cycle?

31. What are the effects of introducing regeneration in the basic gas turbine cycle? 32. When will the intercooler is provided between two compressors? 33. What are the effects of providing the intercooler in the gas turbine cycle? 34. When the reheater is employed in the gas turbine cycle? 35. What is the condition for maximum work in the case of reheater employed in the gas turbine cycle? 36. What are the effects of reheat cycle? 37. Draw the actual cycle of four stroke S.I. engine? 38. Draw the actual cycle of four stroke C.I. engine? 39. State the conditions for perfect intercooling in the Brayton cycle with intercooler? 40. State the relation between the pressure, temperature and volume in the adiabatic process? Part-B 1. Derive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume ratio. 2. Derive an expression for the air standard efficiency of Diesel cycle. 3. Derive an expression for the air standard efficiency of Dual cycle. . 4. Explain the working of 4 stroke cycle Diesel engine. Draw the theoretical and actual PV diagram. 5. Derive the expression for air standard efficiency of Brayton cycle in terms of pressure ratio 6. A Dual combustion air standard cycle has a compression ratio of 10. The constant pressure part of combustion takes place at 40 bar. The highest and the lowest temperature of the cycle are 1725 degree C and 270oC respectively. The pressure at the beginning of compression is 1 bar. Calculate (i) the pressure and temperature at key points of the cycle. (ii) The heat supplied at constant volume, (iii) the heat supplied at constant pressure. (iv) The heat rejected. (v) the work output. (vi) the efficiency and (vii)M.E.P. 7. An Engine-working on Otto cycle has a volume of 0.45 m, pressure 1 bar and temperature 30oC at the beginning of compression stroke. At the end of compression stroke, the pressure is 11 bar and 210 KJ of heat is added at constant volume. Determine (i) Pressure, temperature and volumes at salient points in the cycle. (ii) Efficiency. 8. Explain the working of 4-stroke cycle Diesel engine. Draw the theoretical and actual valvetiming diagram for the engine. explain the reasons for the difference. 9. Explain the working of 4-stroke cycle Petrol engine. Draw the theoretical and actual valvetiming diagram for the engine. explain the reasons for the difference. 10. Compare the difference between the 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines? UNIT 2 - INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Part-A What is meant by IC engine? Classify IC engines according to cycle of operation? Classify IC engine according to cycle of lubrication system and field of application? List the various components of IC engines? Name the basic thermodynamic cycles of the two types of internal combustion reciprocating engines? Mention the important requirements of liner material? State the purpose of providing piston in IC engines?

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8. Define the terms as applied to reciprocating I.C. engines "Mean effective pressure" and Compression ratio"? 9. What is meant by highest useful compression ratio? 10. What are the types of piston rings? 11. What is the use of connecting rod? . 12. What is the use of flywheel? 13. What are the various types of lubrication system? 14. Write the demerits in simple carburetor? 15. What are the functions of governor? 16. Mention the different types of cooling systems? 17. Write down the properties of lubricants? 18. Define compression ratio of an IC engine. What are its typical values for SI and CI engine? 19. Why compression ratio of petrol engines is low while diesel engines have high compression ratio? 20. Why the actual cycle efficiency is much lower than the air standard cycle efficiency? List and explain the major losses in an actual engine? 21. What do you mean by scavenging in IC engine? 22. Define Cetane number? 23. State the air fuel ratio requirements of SI engine under varying operating conditions? 24. Differentiate between ideal and actual valve timing diagrams of a petrol engine? 25. Define Clearance volume? 26. Define swept volume or Displacement volume? 27. Define the term Valve timing diagram? 28. Compare two stroke and four stroke engines? 29. List the various parameters involved in engine performance? 30. Describe briefly the determination of frictional power? 31. Differentiate between brake power and indicated power of an IC engine? 32. Differentiate between SFC and TFC in engine performance? 33. Name any eight air pollutants? 34. Explain exhaust blow down in case of IC engines? 35. What are the parameters to be controlled in engine exhaust? 36. Why the combustion chamber should be redesigned? 37. What is EGR? 38. What is the necessity of treating the exhaust gas? 39. What catalytic converter does? 40. Define the terms viscosity, flash point and foaming? Part-B 1. Explain full pressure lubrication system I.C Engine . 2. Explain the water cooling system in I.C Engine . 3. Explain the 2 types of Ignition system In 5.1 Engine . 4. Draw and explain the valve timing diagram of 4 stroke Diesel Engine . 5. Draw and explain the port timing diagram of 2stroke Petrol Engine . 6. Explain with neat sketch the exhaust gas analysis . 7. The following results refer to a test on a petrol engine Indicated power = 30 Kw, Brake power = 26 Kw Engine speed = 1000 rpm Fuel brake power/ hour = 0.35 kg Calorific value

of fuel = 43900kJ/kg Calculate The indicated Thermal efficiency,The brake Thermal efficiency,The Mechanical efficiency. 8. A four cylinder 2 stroke cycle petrol engine develops 23.5 kw brake power at 2500 rpm. The mean effective pressure on each piston in 8. 5 bar and mechanical efficiency in 85% Calculate the diameter and stroke of each cylinder assuming the length of stroke equal to 1.5 times the diameter of cylinder. 9. The following data to a particular twin cylinder two stroke diesel engine. Bore 15 cm stroke. 20 cm. speed 400 rpm. Indicated mean effective pressure 4 bar, dead weight on the brake drum 650 N. spring balance reading 25 N Diameter of the brake drum 1 m .Fuel consumption 0.075 kg/min and calorific value of the fuel is 44500 kj/J kg. Determine 1. Indicated Power 2. Brake Power 3. Mechanical efficiency 4. Indicated thermal efficiency 5. Brake thermal efficiency 10. Explain the various pollution control measures? UNIT 3 - STEAM NOZZLE&TURBINE Part-A 1. What are the various types of nozzle and their functions? 2. Write down the expression for velocity at exit from steam nozzle? 3. Derive the expression for the critical pressure ratio in a steam nozzle? 4. What are the effects of friction on the flow through a steam nozzle? 5. Write the general energy equation for a steady flow system and from this obtain the energy equation for nozzle? 6. Define nozzle efficiency and critical pressure ratio? 7. Explain the phenomenon of supersaturated expansion in steam nozzle? 8. What is metastable flow? 9. What are the conditions that produce super saturation of steam in nozzles? 10. Draw the T-S and h-S plot of supersaturated expansion of steam in a nozzle? 11. What are the effects of super saturation in a steam nozzle? 12. What are the difference between supersaturated flow and isentropic flow through steam nozzles? 13. What is the critical pressure ratio for initially dry saturated steam? 14. What is steam turbine? 15. State the use of large sizes and small size turbines? 16. Classify steam turbine? 17. How does impulse turbine works? 18. What is meant by carry over loss? 19. State the function of fixed blades? 20. State the function of moving blades? 21. What is the fundamental difference between the operation of impulse and reaction steam turbines? 22. What is compounding of turbines? 23. Explain the need of compounding in steam turbine? 24. What are the difference methods of compounding? 25. How are fixed blades and moving blades arranged in velocity compounding? 26. What is the example for a velocity compounded turbine? 27. State any two advantages and disadvantages of velocity compounded turbines?

28. What is pressure compounding? 29. What is the example for a rateau turbine? 30. How pressure velocity compounding is done? 31. What is the optimum blade ratio of impulse turbine for maximum blade efficiency? 32. What is enthalpy drop in each stage of 4-stage pressure compounded turbine? 33. Define degree of reaction? 34. Write down the formula for degree of reaction? 35. What is optimum blade ratio in the case of reaction turbine? 36. What are the different methods of governing steam turbines? 37. How is throttle governing done? 38. Where nozzle control governing is used? 39. Where by - pass governing is more suitable? 40. What are the different losses in steam turbines? PART- B 1. An impulse turbine having a set of 16 nozzles receives steam at 20 bar, 400 C. The pressure of steam at exist is 12 bar. if the total discharge Is 260 Kg/min and nozzle efficiency is 90% . Find the cross sectional areas of each nozzle, if the steam has velocity of 80m/s at entry to the nozzle, find the percentage Increase In discharge. 2. Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 8 bar enters the convergent divergent nozzle and leaves it at a pressure 1.5 bar. If the flow isentropic and if the corresponding index of expansion is 1.133, find the ratio of 0.3 are at exit and throat for max. discharge and leaves at 1.2 bar. The steam turbine develops 220 KW with specific steam consumption of 13.5 Kg/ KW.hr. If the diameter of nozzle at throat Is 7mm . Calculate the number of nozzle 3. Derive an expression for critical pressure ratio in terms of the index of expansion 4. Explain the method of governing in steam turbine. 5. Explain various type of compounding in Turbine UNIT-4 AIR COMPRESSORS Part-A 1. Classify the air compressors according to the pressure limit? 2. Classify the air compressors according to the capacity? 3. Classify the air compressors according to the number of stages? 4. What is meant by single stage compressor? 5. What is meant by multi stage compressor? 6. What is meant by single acting compressor? 7. What is meant by double acting compressor? 8. Draw the p-V diagram of two stage reciprocating air compressor? 9. Indicate the applications of reciprocating compressors in industry? 10. What the advantages of multi stage compression with intercooler over single acting compressor for the same pressure ratio? 11. Define the term volumetric efficiency? 12. Define isothermal compression efficiency? 13. Define mechanical efficiency? 14. Define clearance ratio? 15. Define isentropic efficiency?

16. Define mean effective pressure? 17. What is meant by free air delivered? 18. Explain how flow of air is controlled in a reciprocating compressor? 19. What factors limit the delivery pressure in a reciprocating compressor? 20. Name the methods adopted for increasing isothermal efficiency of reciprocating air compressor? 21. Why clearance is necessary and what is its effect on the performance of reciprocating compressor? 22. Which type of compression is the best in reciprocating compressor? 23. What is compression ratio? 24. Give the expression for inter cooler pressure? 25. What is meant by inter cooler? 26. Give examples for positive displacement compressor? 27. What are the factors that affect the volumetric efficiency of a reciprocating compressor? 28. What is the purpose of using intercooler in multi stage compression? 29. Discuss the effect of clearance upon the performance of an air compressor? 30. Give examples for Nonpositive displacement compressor? 31. What is the difference between perfect intercooling and imperfect inter cooling? 32. Give the expression of work done for a two stage compressor with perfect intercooling? 33. Give the expression of work done for a multi stage compressor with perfect intercooling? 34. Which type of rotary compressor used in aeroplane? 35. Which type of rotary compressor used in gas turbine? 36. Define the relation between the mean effective pressure and indicated power? 37. Which term represent the compressor capacity? 38. Whether the clearance should be minimum or maximum in compressor? why? 39. Compare the centrifugal and axial compressor? 40. Compare rotary and reciprocating compressor? Part-B 1. Drive an expression for the work done by single stage single acting reciprocating air compressor. 2. Drive an expression for the volumetric efficiency of reciprocating air compressors 3. Explain the construction and working of a root blower 4. Explain the construction and working of a centrifugal compressor 5. Explain the construction and working of a sliding vane compressor 6. A single stage single acting air compressor is used to compress air from 1 bar and 22 C to 6 bar 125 C. The compressor runs at 125 rpm and the ratio of stroke length to bore of a cylinder is 1.5. If the power required by the compressor is 20 kW, determine the size of the cylinder. 7. A two stage compressor works between 1 bar and 10 bar. The inlet temperature is 25 C. Intercooling is perfect and compression is isentropic. Find the intermediate pressure and also compare the work done per kg of air with and without intercooling?

8. A two stage single acting reciprocating air compressor takes 6 m of air at 1.1 bar and 23 C and compresses into 20 bar. The intermediate receiver cools the air to 25 C and 8.5 bar pressure. The law of compression is pV1.35=C. Calculate the work done. 9. Explain the construction and working of a axial flow compressor? 10. The single stage double acting air compressor compresses air from 1 bar and 22 C to 6 bar 125 C. The compressor runs at 250 rpm and the ratio of stroke length to bore of a cylinder is 1.5. If the power required by the compressor is10 kW, determine the size of the cylinder.

UNIT 5 - REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Part-A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name four important properties of a good refrigerant? What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration? What is the function of the throttling valve in vapour compression refrigeration system? In a vapour compression refrigeration system, where the highest temperature will occur? The vapour absorption system can use low-grade heat energy in the generator. Is true of false? 6. Name any four commonly used refrigerants. 7. Explain unit of Refrigeration. 8. Why throttle valve is used in place of expansion cylinder for vapour compression refrigerant machine. 9. What are the effect of superheating and sub-cooling on the vapour compression cycle? 10. What is a ton of refrigeration? 11. How are air-conditioning systems classified? 12. How does humidity affect human comfort? 13. What are the various sources of heat gain of an air-conditioned space? 14. What do you mean by the term infiltration in heat load calculations? 15. Define Apparatus dew point of coil? 16. Define tonne of refrigeration? 17. Show the vapour compression refrigeration cycle in T-S diagram?\ 18. How does the actual vapour compression cycle differ from that of the ideal cycle? 19. What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration? 20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of air refrigeration system? 21. What are the advantages and disadvantages of vapour compression refrigeration system? 22. What is the objective of under cooling? 23. What is net refrigerating of the refrigerant? 24. Name the various components used in simple vapour absorption system? 25. State the condition of the refrigerant at the end of compression in vapour compression systems? 26. Define refrigerant? 27. What types of condensers are in common uses for vapour absorption refrigeranat systems? 28. What is the function of analyzer and rectifier in an absorption system? 29. State the substances used in the Lithium Bromide system and their functions?

30. What is psychrometry? 31. Define DPT? 32. Define degree of saturation? 33. Define relative humidity? 34. Define specific humidity? 35. How are air conditioning systems classified? 36. How does humidity affect human comfort? 37. What are the various sources of heat gain of an air conditioned space? 38. Define RSHF? 39. Define RTH? 40. What factors affect by pass factor? Part-B 1. Draw with neat sketch, explain the simple vapour compression refrigeration system. 2. Explain with sketch the working principle of aqua Ammonia refrigeration system. 3. Explain with sketch the working principle of water-Lithium bromide refrigeration system. 4. Briefly explain the cooling load calculation in air conditioning system. 5. Explain winter, summer, and year round A/c system. 6. Explain unitary A/c and central A/c system. 7. Explain any four psychometric processes with sketch. 8. A refrigeration system of 10.5 tonnes capacity at an evaporator temperature of -12C and a condenser temperature of 27C is needed in a food storage locker. The refrigerant Ammonia is sub cooled by 6C before entering the expansion valve. The compression in the compressor is of adiabatic type. Find 1. Condition of vapour at outlet of the compressor. 2. Condition of vapour at the entrance of the Evaporator 3.COP &Power required. 9. A sling psychrometer in a lab test recorded the following readings DBT=35C, WBT=25C Calculate the following 1. Specific humidity 2. Relative humidity 3. Vapour density in air 4. Dew point temperature 5. Enthalpy of mixing per kg of air .take atmospheric pressure=1.0132 bar. 10. Explain the Summer Air conditioning system?