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# Ateneo de Naga University College of Engineering Department of ECE and CpE Signals, Spectra and Signals Processing Laboratory

[ECEM324LAB] Activity 7: Z Transform: Transfer Function: Poles and Zeros and Gain And Get the Partial Fraction (System Creation and Conversion) OBJECTIVE     To be able to represent different systems; transfer function, poles and zeros and gain To be able to represent one system to one system; specifically transfer function to poles j zero to gain To be able to plot the poles and zeros of a transfer function. To get the partial fraction expression.

THEORY/ DISCUSSION The Z transform performs the transformation from the domain of discrete time signals, to another domain which we call Z-domain. It is used with discrete time signals, the same way the Laplace and Fourier transforms are used with continuous time signals. The Z transform yields a frequency domain description for discrete time signals, and forms the basis for the design of digital systems, such as digital filters. Like the Laplace transform, there is the one-sided, and the two-sided Z transform. We will restrict our discussion to the one-sided Z transform F(z) of a discrete time function defined as

F z =
n=0

f n z −n

MATERIALS   Computer Set MATLAB Dangle

PROBLEM Let’s assume that we have the following function. A z + 2z −2 A z = B z + 3z −1 B z − 0.5z −2 B(z) 1. Find H z = A
B z z

. Note for transfer function use -1 for sampling rate.

2. Express the system as poles, zeros and gain. Given a system with double poles located at j and –j and double zeros located at -1 and 1. 3. Convert for transfer function (tf) to zero-pole (zp) representation and vice-versa 4. Plot the zeros and poles. 5. Get the partial fraction expansion.

Name: Bulalacao, Arysa M. Montañez, John Joshua F. Year: 4th

Course Code: ECEM324LAB Section: GE41

Name of Activity: Z Transform Date:16 September 2013

Score:

b.p. b=[1 3 -0. b=[1 3 -0. G = zpk(z.-1i]. c=tf(a.b.5]. NUMBER THREE p=[1i.1i.b. Year: 4th Course Code: ECEM324LAB Section: GE41 Name of Activity: Z Transform Date:16 September 2013 Score: . c=tf(a.5].-1]. g=zpk(z. d=zpk(c). k=2.-1) NUMBER TWO p=[1i.K).1.-1i. z=[1.-1.1.-1).p. John Joshua F. Montañez. zplane(b. K=2.-1].5]. Arysa M.1i.-1i.-1i]. NUMBER FOUR T = tf(G) a=[1 0 2]. z=[1.-1.OUTPUT NUMBER ONE a=[1 0 2].a) Name: Bulalacao.-1). b=[1 3 -0.k) NUMBER THREE a=[1 0 2]. c=tf(a.

Year: 4th Course Code: ECEM324LAB Section: GE41 Name of Activity: Z Transform Date:16 September 2013 Score: .-1i. Montañez. z=[1.1i.p) NUMBER FIVE a=[1 0 2]. John Joshua F.1.p.b) Name: Bulalacao.-1. [r.NUMBER FOUR p=[1i. G = zpk(z. Arysa M.1i]. K=2. zplane(z.p.K).-1]. b=[1 3 -0.k]=residue(a.5].

the problem gave already the poles and zeros of the system. poles. For the system is not sampled for any positive integer. John Joshua F. MATLAB therefore is a big help. The arguments include the respective poles and zeros of the function being plotted. Thus the output will be noted as sample unspecified. Therefore. the primary difference of the gain is the radius that the circle that will be created. the problem requires for the plot of the poles and zeros of the number one and number two problems. and back again. the problem requires for the partial fraction expansion of the function in number one. CONCLUSION In the basic representation of the z-transform can be seen through the usage of the built-in MATLAB functions.p) plots the zeros specified in column vector z and the poles specified in column vector p in the current figure window. The residue function converts a quotient of polynomials to poleresidue representation. We must first specify the poles and zeros of the function in the matrix form but in one column only as we can see in the output number two. In the fourth problem. In fifth problem. The plot includes the unit circle for reference. The answer can easily be acquired through the use of the built-in MATLAB function same as to number three but the usage of other MATLAB function is possible like the tf2zp and zp2tf functions. requires the transfer function of the system in the problem. zpk function is used to create zero-pole-gain models (ZPK objects) or to convert TF or SS models to zero-pole-gain form. the problem requires for the zero pole representation of the number one function and transfer function for number two. For the gain which is specified by the variable k. The answer can easily be acquired through the use of the built-in command in MATLAB which is the tf function. say their works on the problems regarding z-transform. it is required to acquire the function. that is it will have different values of radius at different values of the gain. it can be any value.ANALYSIS AND OBSERVATION In the first problem. the answer can be acquired through the use of the function zpk function. In the third problem. The built-in MATLAB functions will ease up the study of the z-transform and it will help the students check. Montañez. If z and p are arrays. Year: 4th Course Code: ECEM324LAB Section: GE41 Name of Activity: Z Transform Date:16 September 2013 Score: . The answer can be acquired through the use of the MATLAB built-in function which is the zplane.or complex-valued transfer function models (TF objects) or to convert state-space or zero-pole-gain models to transfer function form. The answer was easily acquired using the MATLAB built-in function residue function. poles. tf function is used to create real. The expected output is not in the form of a fraction but it will give the coefficient of the zero-pole form of expressing the function of a signal. and gains of a continuous-time transfer function and the zp2tf forms transfer function polynomials from the zeros. In the second problem. The symbol 'o' represents a zero and the symbol 'x' represents a pole. zplane plots the poles and zeros in the columns of z and p in different colors. tf2zp finds the zeros. the needed sample should be -1. Arysa M. number one and two are two different problems relative to one another. and gains of a system in factored form. Name: Bulalacao. zplane(z.