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NAVEEN | B.Tech | July 2, 2013 To August 14, 2013 Roll No.

1711591 EEE


Preface Acknowledgment Introduction to NFL National Fertilizers Ltd Introduction To PANIPAT Unit Salient Feature Of The Plants Plants And There Capacities Section A:SGP & CHP Section B:Ammonia Plant Section C:O & U Plant Section D:CPP Production Performance &Achievements


Training report is an integrated part of the course of the 6 to 8 weeks summer training. Vocational training is a valuable experience for an engineering student. This expresses the functional areas of engineering and also provides them an opportunity to be a part of the real technical world. The succeeding pages of the report contain the theoretical aspects of the practical things that I have learnt in 6 weeks training in the 4 Plant of N.F.L. PANIPAT which are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Steam Generation & Coal Handling Plant Ammonia Plant O & U Plant Captive Power Plant


With practical understanding of any process undertaking is just like to mug up of all things is applied that without practical understanding of process he is incomplete. But our institute given chance to know how things practically happen. I am also delighted beyond measure to express my profound sense of gratitude to HRD Dept. Of NFL, PANIPAT for his uncountable assistance and worthy guidance in accomplishing the report without which my report would not have assumed present form. Than s also to all friends who directly or indirectly provided their esteemed co-operation that made this s report see the light of day. Understanding of any process undertaking is just li e t all things is applied that without practical understanding he is incomplete. But our institute has given us chance things practically happen.

Vocational Trainee: Branch :

Naveen Kumar EEE





National Fertilizer Limited was established in 23th August 1974, to set up two fuel oil based plants at BHATINDA (Punjab) and PANIPAT (Haryana). Both of them were commissioned in 1979. The NANGAL fertilizer plant of Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) has been merged with NFL in 1978 on the recognition of FCI and NFL group of companies. Later NFL executed its gas based plant at VIJAIPUR (MP) on HBJ gas pipe line.VIJAIPUR plant had gone in commercial production in July, 1988. NFL is now operating three fuel oil based plants located at Panipat, Bhatinda, Nangal and gas based plant at Vijaipur. NFL produces two popular brands of chemical fertilizer i.e. Kisan Khad (Calcium ammonium Nitrate-CAN) and Kisan Urea. Besides the fertilizers it manufactures and markets the industrial products (Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen, Nitric Acid, Methanol, and Argon) and by-products (Sulphur). NFL had signed a memorandum of Understanding with the government of India in 1991 -92 all the years, after signing the MOU, government has rated the performance of the company as Excellent. Company has been performing at high level of Capacity utilization over the years. FERTILIZER, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Kisan Urea and Kisan Khad :- NFLs popular brands are sold over a large marketing territory spanning the length and breadth of the company. The company also manufactures and markets Biofertilizers and a wide range of industrial products li e Methanol, Nitric Acid, Sulphur, Liquid Oxygen etc. Kisan Urea Kisan Urea is a highly concentrated solid nitrogenous fertilizer, containing 46 .0%. It is completely soluble in water hence nitrogen is easily available to crops. It contains Nitrogen in amide form which changes to ammonical forms and is retrieved by soil collides for longer duration. Urea is available in Granular form and can be applied by drill and broadcasting. Kisan Urea is ideally suited for all types of crops and for foliar spray, which instantly removes nitrogen deficiency. Kisan Urea also has a strong and long lasting effect on crop resulting in bumper crops.



The PANIPAT unit if NFL is situated on National Highway no 1 and Delhi-Amritsar railway turn route. PANIPAT city is about 90 Km from Delhi and is covered in National Capital Region. PANIPAT is a historical city, which was the scene of historical battles. Government of India passed a project on 10/2/1975 and construction was started from 30/4/75. The project was completed on 2/9/78 i.e. in 40 months. TOYO Engineering Corporation, Japan and Engineers India Limited was the main con tractors. Total expense on the project was of 221.33 crores of which 56.45 crores was in the form of foreign investment. Urea production was started from 1/9/79. Till now




5, 45,000 MT 2, 18,000 MWH 5,630 MILLION GALLONS Rs 182.88 CRORES Rs 56.45 CRORES 442 ACRES 131 ACRES



AMMONIA PLANT UREA PLANT SULPHUR RECOVERY PLANT STEAM GENERATION PLANT CAPTIVE POWER PLANT COAL HANDLING PLANT BAGGING PLANT EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT RAW WATER PLANT 900 MT per day 1550 MT per day 26.5 MT per day 3 X 150 MT per hour 2 X 15 MWH 150 & 250 MT per hour 4000 MT per hour 200 cubic meter per hour 2400 cubic meter per hour




2.1 Introduction to SGP 2.1.1 Objective of SGP:In NFL, PANIPAT Unit Plant, all the basic unit operations need steam for their work and must Of the industrial equipment are driven by steam such as Turbo Compressors, Steam jet Ejectors, preheater etc. In unit operations 1) For evaporation supply the steam to evaporate 2) For crystallizations supply the steam to crystallizer 3) To create the negative suction pressure mostly supply in the steam jet ejector 4) For combustions purpose such as gasification process 5) To exchange the heat of desire product by use of steam. SGP starts from1) Handling &Storage of Coal, Fuel Oil, LHSH, LDO & Methanol 2) Boilers) Coal Fired Boiler b) Fill Fired Boiler 3) Pollutions Control Sections 4) Steam Network Section Unloading of coal 2.2 UNLOADING, HANDLING & STORAGE OF COAL FUEL OIL, LSHS, LDO & METHANOL 2.2.1 PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING AND STORAGE OF FUEL OIL / LSHS:FO/LSHS is used as raw material (feed stock) in the Steam Generation & Ammonia & Methanol plant as a fuel .Daily consumption of oil in Ammonia & Methanol is 860t & in SGP is 60t The oil unloading system is designed to unload 90 wagons at a time .The oil from oil wagons Is transfer to the storage tanks where it is heated to 75-80 by providing steam .For heating? Saturated steam is used at maximum temperature of 150 and pressure 5kg/cm2 at the rate of 15t/Hr One stream of oil is given to NH3-II plant & other two streams are given to Day tank for oil Fired boiler-4 & day tank for coal fired boiler -1, 2, 3 each of capacity 104kl .Then oil is Transferred to two separate preheaters from both the tanks where temperature is increased to 125 & finally is given to their respective boilers. Procedure for handling and Storage of light diesel oil:Light diesel oil is unloaded from tankers transfer to L.D.O. storage tank of capacity 14kl &


Then given to the boilers Procedure of Handling and storage of methanol:Methanol from methanol plant transferred to Methanol storage tank of capacity 500m .One Stream is given to NH3-II plant and other stream is given for loading of railway wagons. Methanol is produced in NH3-II plant at the rate of 67MT/day. It is widely used in plastic as Well as in pharmaceuticals. Procedure for Coal Unloading, Handling and Storage:Coal is used in SGP for burning purposes. Daily consumption of coal in SGP is about 1000T/Day &daily production of steam is about 182t/day. Coals from coal wagons are Unloaded in the tippler where vibrators is used which draw the coal on belt conveyer &through belt conveyer it is drawn in coal yasd From coal yard it is drawn to the underground Hooper with the help of bulldozer & from the Hopper it is drawn to the belt conveyer. Here we use magnets for removing iron particles of Coal & Hammer Crusher for reducing the size of coal.

Then by using Belt Conveyer coal after crushing is transferred to coal pulverizing yard 30000t. Angle of repose of unloading belts COAL FIRED BOILER 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION:The integrated service boilers for the PANIPAT Expansion Fertilizer Project are different from Conventional boilers. These boilers are radiant, outdoor, bid rum, high head, nonreheated type & pulverized coal is used as principal fuel These boilers are designed to heat up external high pressure saturated steam from heat Boilers, along with generated steam coal is used as principal fuel These boilers are designed to heat up external high pressure saturated steam from waste heat Boilers, along with generated steam in the boiler to the same final superheated steam These boilers generated 117t/hr. of steam and 65t/hr. external import steam. The final Superheated steam generated 182t/hr. will have a pressure of 91kg/cm2 & temperature of 510 2.3.2 MAIN BOILER STRUCTURE:The boiler designed of the top supported type & allowed to expand downwards. The main Boiler is supported four rows of column on either side of the boiler (S1, S2, S3 &S4) Boiler feed water which is coming from NH3-II plant which is preheated to 145 & then Passing through the economizer where its temperature is rises to 182-188 then it is transferred To the steam drum. In the steam drum it is converted to the saturated steam & remaining water Is not converted to steam is transferred to mud drum through bank tubes

In the mud drum temperature of the condensed water is raises by the flow of the flue gases from the mud drum through bank tubes. In the mud drum temperature of the condensed water is rises by the flow of the flue gases. From the mud drum preheated water is then transfer through the tubes along the sides of Furnace and recirculated to the steam drum and the above processes continuously running. The purpose of recirculation is that, we cant leave the steam drum empty. The temperature of the saturated steam leaving the steam drum is around 310 to 315C. The Saturated steam is then given to plating super heater where its temperature is rises to about 40oC to 410C. The temperature of the platen super heater is 905C 2.3.3 COAL PULVERSIZING SECTION;In this section ball mill is used to pulverize the coal. Firstly coal which is crushed in the hammer crusher to the size about size 25 mm is then transferred to the coal bunkers & from coal bunkers & from coal bunkers through feeder to the centre of revolving ball of the ball mill. Hot air is given to the Ball which is coming by passing through the air heater for the following two purpose:1. For the drying of the pulverized coal 2. For the movement of the pulverized coal to the furnace Hot air enters the mill housing below the ball and is directed upward passes through theclassifier vanes. The rising hot air around the ball picks up the pulverized coal, the lighter particles carried by the air passes through the classifier & heavier particles are returned from the classifier to the ball for additional grinding. Finally the pulverized coal having particle size 200 meshes & air leaves the Ball Mill through classifier 2.3.4 COAL COMPOSITION MOISTURE VOLATILE MATTER FIXED CARBON ASH Table 2.1 coal composition 2.3.5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER OR BIOLER FURNANCE At the four corner of the combustion chamber or boiler furnace one wind box is installed. At each corner one burner is located. Each burner will comprise of four streams which are given to the furnace, these are coal +Air ,Tail Gas, LDO+ steam & hot air nozzles arranged vertically in an insulated wind box Air is sucked from the atmosphere by the forced draft fans & supplied to the air heater. After passing through the heater temperature of the air is increased and then it is passed through the heater temperature of the air is increased and then it is transferred to the wind box. For the burning of the coal oil gun is used & all the other streams are given for the complete combustion of the coal & unburned coal particles are dropped to the bottom where screen is used to transfer them to bottom ash hopper 6-10% 16-20 % 39-45% 30-35%


The flue gases which is produced after the combustion of the fuel is moving upward to the furnace is centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is developed when all the streams from the four corners will meet at a single where the burning is taking place The temperature of the combustion chamber, where burning of the coal is done is 1070C .During the upward movement of the flue gas temperature difference between lower and upper part of the of boiler which is going to be in between 100C to 150C

2.3.7 PROCEDURE FOR DISPOSAL OF ASH:We used coal as a fuel for the running of the boiler, approximate 1000MT/day of coal is used and huge amount of ash is generated. For efficient running of the boiler continuous removal of ash contents is essential .Heavier particles of burned coal are retained in the bottom ash hopper of the boiler and the light particles are collected in the Electrostatic Precipitator. Finally the mixture of ash & water is discharged through feed gate & clinker, grinder, which reduces the size of the clinker to about 50 mm to the ash slurry pit. Then ash slurry is disposed to ash pond area. Import steam which is coming from the NH3-II plant at a temperature 313C and Pressure105ata is given to the import steam super heater where we get superheated steam whose temperature is around 510-520C. The temperature of the final super heater is 872C for controlling the temperature of the superheated steam, one super heater is used whose temperature is ling in between 370400C. So after desuper heater finally we get superheated steam whose temperature is 500C and pressure is 91 atm which is then given to different sections in the plant. It produces 182 Tonne/hr of superheated steam. The flue gas which leaves from the furnace is leaving at the temperature of 530-540C, So arrangement is made for the waste heat recovery. Firstly the flue gases pass through import steam super heater where some amount of heat is recovered and temperature of the flue gas reduces to 430C. Then it passes to economizer where the temperature is reduced to 338C and then it is passed through air heaters which are used for preheating the air sucked by forced draft fan the temperature of the flue gases are sucked by force draft fans and are given to the ESP for the removal of fly ash or dust.




3.0 INTRODUCTION TO AMMONIA-II PLANT This plant is the nerve centre of the NATIONAL FERTILIZER PANIPAT. This plants main objective is to produce NH3, AMMONIUM NITRAT, and SULPHUR The ammonia gas required for the production of urea is being produced over here There are several unit in AMMONIA-II plant these are as follows 1) AIR SEPERATION UNIT 2) GASIFICATION UNIT & GAS PURIFICATION 3) CARBON RECOVERY 4) RECTISOL-I 5) CO-SHOFT CONVERSION 6) METHANOL 7) RECTISOL-II 8) NITROGEN WAS 9) REFRIGERATION 10) SULPHUR RECOVERY PLANT 11) AMMONIA STORAGE These are arteries of the AMMONIA II plant 3.1 HABER PROCESS The Haber process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from Natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of Ammonia is exothermic. THE CATALYST The catalyst is actually slightly more complicated than pure iron. It has potassium hydroxide added to it as a promoter - a substance that increases its efficiency. THE PRESSURE The pressure varies from one manufacturing plant to another, but is always high. You can't go far wrong in an exam quoting 200 atmospheres. RECYCLING At each pass of the gases through the reactor, only about 15% of the nitrogen and hydrogen converts to ammonia. (This figure also varies from plant to plant.) By continual recycling of the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen, the overall conversion is about 98%. EXPLAINING THE CONDITIONS The proportions of nitrogen and hydrogen The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen going into the reactor is in the ratio of 1 volume of Nitrogen to 3 volumes of hydrogen.Avogadro's Law says that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. That means that the gases are going into the reactor in the ratio of 1 molecule of nitrogen to 3 of hydrogen. That is the proportion demanded by the equation. In some reactions you might choose to use an excess of one of the reactants. You would do

this if it is particularly important to use up as much as possible of the other reactant - if, for example, it was much more expensive. That doesn't apply in this case. There is always a down-side to using anything other than the equation proportions. If you have an excess of one reactant there will be molecules passing through the reactor which can't possibly react because there isn't anything for them to react with. This wastes reactor space - particularly space on the surface of the catalyst. THE TEMPERATURE EQUILIBRIUM CONSIDERATIONS You need to shift the position of the equilibrium as far as possible to the right in order to produce the maximum possible amount of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. The forward reaction (the production of ammonia) is exothermic. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, this will be favoured if you lower the temperature. The system will respond by moving the position of equilibrium to counteract this - in other words by producing more heat. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as low a temperature as possible. However, 400 - 450C isn't a low temperature! RATE CONSIDERATIONS The lower the temperature you use, the slower the reaction becomes. A manufacturer is trying to produce as much ammonia as possible per day. It makes no sense to try to achieve an equilibrium mixture which contains a very high proportion of ammonia if it takes several years for the reaction to reach that equilibrium. You need the gases to reach equilibrium within the very short time that they will be in contact with the catalyst in the reactor. THE COMPROMISE 400 - 450C is a compromise temperature producing a reasonably high proportion of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture (even if it is only 15%), but in a very short time. THE PRESSURE Equilibrium considerations Notice that there are 4 molecules on the left-hand side of the equation, but only 2 on the right.According to Le Chatelier's Principle, if you increase the pressure the system will respond by favouring the reaction which produces fewer molecules. That will cause the pressure to fall again. In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need as high apressure as possible. 200 atmospheres is a high pressure, but not amazingly high. RATE CONSIDERATIONS Increasing the pressure brings the molecules closer together. In this particular instance, it will increase their chances of hitting and sticking to the surface of the catalyst where they can react. The higher the pressure the better in terms of the rate of a gas reaction. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

Very high pressures are very expensive to produce on two counts. You have to build extremely strong pipes and containment vessels to withstand the very high pressure. That increases your capital costs when the plant is built. High pressures cost a lot to produce and maintain. That means that the running costs of your plant are very high. THE CATALYST EQUILIBRIUM CONSIDERATIONS The catalyst has no effect whatsoever on the position of the equilibrium. Adding a catalyst doesn't produce any greater percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. Its only function is to speed up the reaction. RATE CONSIDERATIONS In the absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction happens in any sensible time. The catalyst ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor. SEPARATING THE AMMONIA When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure. Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot, and so the temperature of the mixture is lowered enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid. The nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures, and can be recycled.




The 0&U group of plants consist of the following sections: i) Raw Water Plant. ii) D.M. Water Plant. iii) Instrument .Air Compressor House. iv) Cooling Tower. v) Sulphur Recovery Plant. vi) Effluent Treatment Plant & Steam Generation Plant. (i) RAW WATER FILTERATION PLANT This water treatment plant has a design capacity to treat 2400 NM3/hr of raw Water into portable occasional over lead of 20%. The plant consists essentially of Flash Mixers Clarifloculators, rapid gravity filters and a chemical House Comprising of Alum tanks, lime tanks and a chlorine room etc. The raw water from the pumping main is received by the inlet of the RCC Ventury Flume. In the ventury flume the calculated amount of alum solution is closed for mixing with the raw water. The chemically treated water then flows to clarifloculators. The pludge thus formed after chemical treatment settles down in the clarifloculator where from it is expelled out while the clear water overflows to the launder leading to filter beds. The filter water is disinfected with the addition of chlorine and then collected in filter eater sump. (ii). D.M. WATER PLANT D.M. water plant was supplied by M/s Ion Exchange (India) Ltd. It consists of cation units, Degasser Towers, An-ion units. Mixed bed units No.l&2. Filtered water coming from raw water filtration plant is received in filter water reservoir. From reservoir filter water passes through a strongly acidic cat-ion exchange Resin where cat-ions like Ca, Ng & Na are removed, the water passes through Degasser tower where dissolved, Ce2 is removed. Then water passes through Anion exchange resin and Anion like CI, S, Se4 and silica, are removed in this unit. Free from cations and anions water passes through mixed bed unit No.l, where further removal of cations and anions takes place. Then treated water coming out from MB, unit goes to DM water tank. Return condensate from Ammonia and Urea Plants is collected in D.M. water tank after treatment in cat-ion unit No.2. Then D.M. water is pumped from DM water tank to mixed bed No.2(MB) for further polishing and collected in polish water tank, which is supplied to boilers through Ammonia Plant. (iii) INSTRUMENT AIR COMPRESSORS HOUSE The purpose of this section is to supply instrument air and service air to all the plants. The instrument air compressor house consists of three instrument air compressors and one service air compressor. One is kept in line generally. The compressed air from instrument air compressors at 9.3 kg/cm2 absolute pressure passes through two sets of dryer, which is filled with silica-gel for removal of moisture. Air coming out from dryer is sent to instrument air feeder for supplying to different plants through instrument air receiver in order to


drive various valves and instruments. (iv) COOLING TOWERS The cooling water system provided in NFL, PANIPAT is closed re-circulating system supplying cooling water to various consumers in the plant. The system mainly consists of cooling towers, cooling water re-circulation pumps, supply & return headers and cooling water treatment facility. There are three cooling water systems : 1) C.W. system supplies cooling water to Ammonia Plant. 2) Urea Plant and Boilers, Instrument -Air Compressor, Caustic dissolving facilities & Sulphur Recover Plant. 3) C.W. system supplies cooling water to Crystallization section of Urea Plant. (v) SULPHUR RECOVERY PLANT The separation of sulphur by catalytic reactions is as follows:H2S + 3/2 O2 SO2 + H2O H2S + 1/2 O2 S+ H2O 2H2S+ SO2 2H2O + 3S The capacity of the plant: Generation steam : 26.5 T/day Export steam : 6.4 T/Hr. Plant performance : 85% PROCESS OF SULPHUR RECOVERY: The Acid gas from Rectisol Section of Ammonia Plant is composed of 47.5% H2S, 50.3% C02 and a little COS & CO and flows to this unit, 70% of feed gas is introduced into Acid gas exchanger where 1/3 of total H2S is burnt to S02 with air supplied through furnace air blower. The S02 reacts with H2S and forms elemental sulphur. I he sulphur is thus condensed at 191oC and separated in sulphur storage tank. The gas stripped off the above sulphur is mixed with the remaining 30% of feed acid gas and bypass from acid gas exchanger in such a way that the temp. of mixed gas is controlled at 215oC and proportion of H2S, S02 in this gas is over 2:1 ratio. This gas reacts over the first catalyst bed of reactor to form elemental sulphur. This gas is cooled to 177oC in acid gas exchanger and stripped off and so condenses sulphur in the sulphur storage tank. The remaining H2S & S02 react again to form elemental sulphur. D.M. WATER PLANT Water in its natural form contains no. of dissolved salts such as sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium magnesium and sodium. If water is used as such in the boilers for raising steam, these salts will form scale on the tubes, which in addition to heat losses lead to many other many problems. Hence, removal of these salts from the water becomes quite essential. Ion exchange resign are used for this purpose of salt removal. The de mineralizing water plant of NFL PANIPAT was supplied by M/s ION


exchange (India) ltd Delhi. It consisted of three units each of cation, anion, mixed bed, four secondary mixed bed and three units of condensate cation. At the time of setting up of a captive power plant, another stream to augment the existing capacity of polish water generation was by M\s BPMEL. It consisted of one unit each of cation, anion, primary mixed bed, two secondary mixed bed and two condensate cations. Filtered water is received from raw water filtration plant into two filtered water reservoir feed water pumps discharge water from these reservoir tom cation units. These are total five feed pumps each having a capacity 0f 130m3/hr and four cation units. Three of these are charged with 13125L of cation resin and fourth unit is having 11900 0f resins. Cation like Na+, Ca++, and Mg++ present in the water are removed in the cation unit once exhausted, these units are regenerated with the counter current flow of dilute sulphuric acid. The present day resins are made of cross linked polystyrene and cross linking is done by di vinyl benzene.Cation resins are made of sulphonated polystyrene SO3H can be represented by as RH.anionic resin is similarly made but is chloromethylated and then is animated. The final product is quaternary ammonium compound a strong base and is represented by ROH. CATION UNIT: In the cation units free H+ ion of the resin is replaced by Ca and Mg or Na ions as per the following reactions. Page No. 66 of 74 RH + NaCl---------------RNa+ HCl 2RH + MgSO4--------------------- R2Mg + H2SO4 2RH + Ca (HCO3)2---------------------------R2Ca +2CO2 + 2H20 Natural salts are converted into respective mineral acid and alkaline salt split into carbon dioxide. The outlet water has low pH. DEGASSER: From the cation units water move to the degasser. Here the free CO2 content of the water is splitted off with the help of air by passing the water over by the rasching ring packed bed. Water from the degasser is received into three Nos. degasser water sump each of having a capacity 40m3 from these sump degassed water pumps discharge water into the anion units. There are total five Nos of pumps each having a capacity of 150M3/ hr. ANION UNITS: Anionic impurities of water beside CO2 and silica are removed in the anionic unit. There are total four No of anionic units. Two anionic units having a capacity 7920L of resin while the two are 5965 and 8400L of resin. Anion present in the water gets removed as per the following reactions. 2ROH + H2SO4---------------- R2SO4 + 2 H2O ROH + HCl------------------------ RCl + H2O MIXED BED UNITS (PRIMARY): Certain amount of sodium and silica ions gets slipped from cation and anion units. Very large volume of resin is required to check these leakages. Hence


these ions are removed in mixed bed units. It consists of bed of mixed cation and anion resins. This water is stored in DM water tank there are two DM water tanks each having a capacity 1400L. Each of cation and anion resin is charged in three mixed bed units while in fourth unit the quantity is 1880L. CONDENSATE CATION UNITS: Steam condensate is received from ammonia plant. It contains ionic and colloidal iron. Colloidal iron is removed in colloidal filters while ionic iron is removed in condensate cation units. Condensate coming from ammonia plant is first cooled to 45 C in a condensate cooler. There are total five condensate units. Three units are charged with 1810L of resin while two are charged with 4200L of resin. After polishing the condensate it is stored in DM water tanks. SECONDARY MIXED BED UNITS: DM water from DM water tank is pumped to secondary mixed bed units with the help of DM water pumps. Final traces of impurities are removed again with the help of mixed bed cation and anion resins. After passing through the bed polish water of the following specifications is obtained. pH 7+0.2 Conductivity 0.2 micro mhos/cm Total iron as Fe 0.015 mg/l Silica 0.015 mg/l Hardness NIL Polish water thus obtained is stored in polish water tanks. There are two polish water tanks each having a capacity of 1500M3. it is pumped to ammonia pant and captive power plant with the help of five nos. of polish water pumps each having a capacity of 220M3/hr. FINAL DISPOSAL AREA This area is used for receiving, storing and finally disposing off the treated water from ETP and storm water. This area is having five ponds. Their capacities and services for which these are used are given below. Sl no. Name Capacity Service 1. Pond no 1 25,000 Ash pond overflow & off grade effluent 2. Pond no 2 25,000 -do3. Pond no 3 26,000 Treated water 4. Pond no 4 48,000 Storm water 5. Pond no 5 60,000 Treated water meeting the MINAS standard is received in pond no 3 and 5 from final effluent pump discharge located in EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT. If this water is not conforming to MINAS standard, then provision is to receive it in pond no no. 1& 2. Storm water from the factory is received in pond no.4 and stagnant water area. It is then pumped from this place to pond no. 1&2


with the help of four vertical pumps. Effluent from ponds no 1&2 is pumped to factory for deashing in SGP and CPP. Three pumps each with a capacity of 500m3/hr, have been provided for this purpose. Treated water received in pond no. 3 and 5 is supplied for irrigation in fields and township. Provision is also being made to use this water as fire water and for kitchen garden in township. Two pumps each with a capacity of 275M3/hr has been provided for this purpose. WATER BALANCE ACROSS FINAL DISPOSAL AREA WATER IN WATER OUT Sl no Source Qty M3 Sl no Supplied to Qty M3 1 From ETP 230 1. For deashing in SGP 2. Ash ponds 388 2. For deashing in CPP 3. For irrigation in township 4. For fire Header changing and for use in township. SAFETY Safety & fire Department manned by qualified personnel in various disciplines has been provided in the Factory. High quality safety equipments are made available to the employees free of cost. In order to make workers safety conscious, regular publicity and frequent training programmes are arranged. As this plant containing chemicals therefore it is dangerous while working in factory. As protecting from these gasses these are prepares and kept in spheres, still there is chance of leakage of gasses; gasses like Ammonia, CO are very dangerous to the human life. As some gases smell less they can be detected. For this reason windsocks have been installed at several places on Plant/building tops to see the direction of wind. In case of any toxic gas / vapours in to atmosphere, it is preferable to run in a direction at right angle of wind. They have a separate department known as 'Safety Department' that gave the knowledge about these things. Fire station also comes under this section. They placed fire detectors at different places. Some secret automatic systems are also there for security purposes. Safety Comes In Cans I CAN, YOU CAN, WE CAN HOW WINTER PROJECT IS USEFUL Industrial training is very useful for an engineer. It gives an overall idea about the companys production problems one has to face in realizing companies goals, when he is in the field. Winter Project done under IFFCO fetched me much of the practical knowledge. I was at least aware of many factors that play crucial role in an Managers life while working with in an industry. Training made me understand the rudiments of an manager. At IFFCO I came in contact with workers and officers of various cadres. I found both of them to be well versed in their fields. Exposure to industry makes an MANAGER grasp the subject in a better


way since confidence plays an important role in it and it is some thing which can be gained only by practical training. Having came in contact of IFFCO AONLA, its glories, its triumphs, its success due to its toiled, zeal and zest employees. I am fully inspired to work hard with dedication and my uttermost sincerity.




CAPTIVE POWER PLANT Since inception, PANIPAT unit was drawing power from HVPN. Electricity is the main driving force after steam, being used for moving auxiliary equipments. The unit requires about 27MWs of power per hour when running at full load. NEED FOR CPP It was thought to install a captive power plant in which electric power for our requirement shall be generated in a COAL FIRED BOILER. The benefits Envisaged were: 1. Any disturbance in the HVPN grid used to trip the whole plant. Lot of money was lost due to this as each re-startup costs around 40 to 50 lakhs rupees. Moreover, frequent trippings had an ill effect on machines and equipments extending the re-startup period. 2. Three boilers of 150Te/hr steam capacity were initially installed in SGP to keep 25 boilers running and one stand by as designed steam requirement was less than 300Te/hr. but in actual operation steam requirement was more and all three boilers had to be run and there was no breathing time for their maintenance. As new boiler was to be installed for CPP, its capacity was so designed that it could export around 60Te of steam for process requirement so that only 2 boilers of SGP would be run keeping the 3rd as stand by. With these points in mind CPP was installed. The functioning of CPP can be sub-divided into parts: 1. BOILER AND ITS AUXILIARIES: for generation of high pressure superheated steam. 2. TURBO-GENERATOR AND ITS AUXILIARIES: to generate power, using steam from the boiler. Operation of CPP is based upon microprocessor based computerized Instrumentation which allows automatic operation, start up, shut down of the whole or the part of the plant. BOILER Boiler has been supplied by M/S MITSUI ENGINEERING AND SHIP BUILDING CO. OF JAPAN. It has a capacity to produce maximum 230Te/he of steam at 105KG/cm2 pressure and 4950C temp. 150Te/hr steam is used for power generation if both generators are running at 15MWH each. Around 60Te steam per hr is drawn for process use and joins with the SGP steam header. The basic principle of this boiler is the same as discussed earlier for SGP boiler that is formation of steam by heating boiler feed water inside furnace fired by coal and heavy oil, utilization of heat of the gases and venting these gases at a safe height. Main differences between the two boilers are: 1. SGP boiler is tangentially fired where as CPP boiler is front fired with 6 coal burners and 6 oil gun fixed inside the coal housing. 2. SGP boiler can be loaded upto 30% load with oil firing only whereas CPP boiler can be fully loaded with oil alone. 3. Height of combustible zone in CPP boiler is more and it has residence


time of 1.5 sec where SGP boiler has 1.0 sec. 4. Mills used for pulverizations of coal in SGP are negative pressure bowl mills whereas in CPP ball tube mill are used which are positive pressure mills. 5. Due to more residence time and better pulverization the efficiency of CPP boiler is about 4% higher. 6. Boiler feed water required for steam generation can be fully generated in CPP itself. A part of the steam generated is exported for process use in ammonia plant and rest is utilized for power generation in turbo generators as described below: Description MITSUI RILEY TYPE BOILER Maximum evaporation 2,30,000kg/hr Design process for boiler 124kg/cm2G Steam temp at outlet 4950C Heating surface 1250M2 FUEL COAL SYSTEM The purpose of fuel coal system is to pulverize coal to dry coal and to convey the pulverized coal from ball tube mill to burners by primary air for coal firing. Fuel coal system consists of three systems: 1. coal supply system. 2. primary air system. 3. seal air system. Coal supply system Primary air system The primary air system performs two functions. It provides the proper amount of air required to convey the pulverized coal to the burners and the heat necessary to dry coal so it can be pulverized and burned efficiently. The details of primary air fan are:Make Degree of protection No of poles Frequency RPM Power factor Insulation class Rated power Type of construction Normal temp rise limit Seal air system MEIDEN IP 55 4 50Hz 1475 0.89 F 195kW IEC-34 700C


The seal air is distributed to the components by the sealing of the mill system by the sealing air fan. The sealing air fan takes suction from silencer and discharges it to a common header. The controller for each mill system provides a constant differential pressure to protect against coal leaking into the bearings and seals. This system should be in service before being placed in operation. Crusher dryer system Crusher-dryer performs the CRUSHING function. Metered coal from the feeders blends with a properly heated amount of air from the primary air fan and enter the crusher dryer. The non clogging pre crushing flash dryer operates Coal bunkers Coal feeders Crushers dryers Ball tube mill continuously at constant speed. Rotating hammers drive the incoming coal against a breaker plate and adjustable crusher block, increasing the surface area of the coal and mixing it with the incoming preheated air. BALL TUBE MILL Grinding the coal to the proper fineness is done by ball tube mill. The crushed coal and air mixture from the crusher dryers enter the mill through the mill inlet boxes on both ends of the mill. The mill barrel rotating at constant Speed, contains thousands of kilograms of various sizes of hardened steel balls Which cascade down upon the entering coal and pulverize it to talcum powder Consistency. The heated primary air, entering with coal, not only completes the drying process, but now conveys the coal dust from the mill through the mill output boxes to the classifiers on both ends of the mill. The specifications of the balll tube mill are as:Make Degree of protection Insulation class No of poles Voltage Frequency Current Power factor Type of construction Power rating Connection Temp. risk limit normal RPM MEIDEN IP 55 F 4 3300V 50Hz 98A 0.89 IEC-34 445kW Y 700C 1430

The pulverized coal from the BTM is fed to the boilers with the help of primary air fans. The coal is burnt in the boiler to generate steam to move the turbines. The forced and induced draft fans are used to assist in the combustion of fuel and steam production. These two major types of fans supporting the units operation.


FORCED DRAFT FAN The forced draft fans supply the proper amount of secondary air required to support the combustion of the fuel delivered to the boiler. The details of the FD fan are: Make Rating Insulation class Rated power Voltage Power factor Current RPM Poles Connection MEIDEN continuous F 320kW 3300V 0.85 71A 980 6 Y

INDUCED DRAFT FAN The induced draft fans control the furnace draft by drawing the gases of combustion through the boiler, regenerative air heaters, delivering them to the stack. Thus the FD fan provides combustion air for the furnace while the ID fan removes flue gases from furnace through chimney. The details of the ID fan are: Make Rating Insulation class Rated power Voltage Power factor Current RPM Poles Connection MEIDEN continuous F 295kW 3300V 0.83 67.5A 735 8 Y

POWER GENERATION There are two 15MW turbine generator sets to generate power at 11kV which is fed into 132kV bus of PSEB and again distribution network. TURBINE The turbine used is supplied by M/S SGP of AUSTRIA. It is condensing cum extraction turbine designed as single casing reaction turbine with single control stage and high pressure (HP), mild pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) reaction parts. The turbine is fed with high pressure steam at 100kg from boiler and flows through various control valves for normal and emergency operation. It gets high velocity through the nozzle group and then passes over the impellers fixed on to


the rotor and fixed diffusers thus rotating the turbine. The enthalpy of steam is utilized in steps. Steam is also extracted from various stages. HP1 at 10.4kg/cm2, HP2 at 8.1kg/cm2, feed water bleed at 4.3kg/cm2 and LP bleed at 0.9kg/cm2. The exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed in a condenser maintained under vacuum to extract maximum steam enthalpy. The output of the turbine depends on flow of steam and heat difference that is on condition of steam at the main steam valve and the pressure at the turbine outlet or condenser pressure. The turbine is connected to the generator through speed reducing gears. The exhaust steam is condensed in a condenser using cooling water. The resulting condensate can be fed back to LP heater but is normally sent to the polishing water plant. As shall be clear from the attached block diagram various bleeds from the turbine are utilized for heating purpose. HP1 and HP2 are used for heating boiler feed water in HP1 and HP2 heaters. Feed water bleeds is used for heating the feed water tank and LP bleed is used for heating the polish water make up to the feed water tank. A lubrication system is also there to lubricate the various bearings of the turbine, gears and generator. Normally the oil pump driven by the turbine shaft supplies oil but auxiliary motor driven pumps are used for start up and during shutdown. A turning gear has been provided for slow cooling of turbine rotor. Latest instrumentation has been used in this plant. Baileys network-90 microprocessor based instrumentation system is being used. The NETWORK 90 SYSTEM is a distributed process control system. Using a series of integrated control nodes. The network 90 system allows controlling process variables like flow, pressure and temperature according to a control configuration. There is operator interface unit (OIU) like a TV screen on which various parameters can be displayed and controlled. It allows fully automatic start-up/shut-down of boiler, turbine and other auxiliaries. Description:Make Type Capacity RPM Critical speed

Simmering Graz Panker, Austria Multifunction (28 stages) 65 T/H at 15 MW 6789 at 50 Hz 3200-3600 RPM

GENERATORS CPP is having two number turbo generators of capacity 15MW each. The Generators are type SAT three phase, 50Hz, 11kV, 984amps, at 0.8 power factor rating supplied by M/S JEUMONT SCHNEIDER OF FRANCE. These are totally enclosed self-ventilated type with two lateral airs to water coolers for cooling. The alternators are able to bear 10% overload for one hr with an increase in temp. of 100C while maintaining the voltage as near as possible to the rated one. The excitation is compound and brushless with exciter rotor and Rectifier Bridge


mounted on the extended main shaft on non-driving end. The excitation is controlled automatically with automatic voltage regulator and a PLC controller. All protection relays installed for protection of generator are solid state having high accuracy, quick response and low power consumption. Under normal running conditions of the plant and healthiness of the PSEB grid, we generally run in synchronism with the grid merely drawing the power corresponding to minimum charges to be paid to state electricity board. In case of any disturbance in the grid measured by higher low frequency, high rate of change of frequency, low voltage etc. our system gets isolated from the grid automatically. With both generators running, we are able to feed power to the whole plant, thus production is not affected. In case only one TG is in line and grid cuts off, urea plant is cut off automatically to balance the load with one generator. As soon as the grid becomes stable, the generators are again synchronized with it. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR [3 Phase] [T.Gs] Description:MakeDegree of protection Type of excitation Insulation class RotorStatorTemperature rise RotorStatorOutput Voltage Frequency Current Speed Excitation Voltage Excitation current Power factor Duty Continuous Noise level at 186mt. Total weight Capacity Connection Max. Inlet temperature Air Water SAT, (JEUMONT SCHNEIDER)-FRANCE IP (54) Brush less F F 800C B CLASS 700C 11,000V 5% 50Hz 984 A 3000 RPM, Permissible-3500 RPM 163V 580 A 0.8 85dB 3dB 45Tonnes 15 MW, 12.75 MVA at 0.8p.f (Lag) Star-Delta 500C 360C

EXCITATION CHARACTERISTICS At no load I At MRC I At 125% of MRC I = 276A V = 55V = 580A V =163V = 672A V = 189V


REACTANCES Synchronous Transient Subtransient Xd 133% Xd 18.2% Xd 12.1%

TIME CONSTANT 4.5 secs EFFICIENCY AT At 100% load At 75% load At 50% load 0.8 PF 97.53% 97.25% 96.49%

EFFICIENCY AT UNIT PF At 100% load At 75% load At 50% load 98.03% 97.06% 96.82%



RECORDS Highest Production of Ammonia on single Day (Against 900MT/Day rated Capacity) Highest Production of Urea on single day (Against1550 MT/Day rated Capacity) Highest Annual Production of Ammonia (Against 297000 MT rated Capacity) Highest Annual production of Urea (Against 511500 MT rated Capacity)

Peaks in Production Scale 1041 MT (on02.01.1998)

1918 MT (on 17.12.2000)

316619 MT (97-98)

562250 MT (97-98)