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By
A.
ADRIAN ALBERT
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO ILLINOIS
1941 BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. PUBLISHED JANUARY 1941. SECOND IMPRESSION APRIL 1942. COMPOSED AND PRINTED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.
COPYRIGHT
PREFACE
During recent years there has been an ever increasing interest in modern algebra not only of students in mathematics but also of those in physics, chemistry, psychology, economics, and statistics. My Modern Higher Algebra was intended, of course, to serve primarily the first of these groups, and its rather widespread use has assured me of the propriety of both its contents and its abstract mode of presentation. This assurance has been conits successful use as a text, the sole prerequisite being the subject matter of L. E. Dickson's First Course in the Theory of Equations. However, I am fully aware of the serious gap in mode of thought between the intuitive treatment of algebraic theory of the First Course and the rigorous abstract treatment of the Modern Higher Algebra, as well as the pedagogical difficulty which is a consequence.
firmed by
publication recently of more abstract presentations of the theory of equations gives evidence of attempts to diminish this gap. Another such at
The
tempt has resulted in a supposedly less abstract treatise on modern algebra which is about to appear as these pages are being written. However, I have the feeling that neither of these compromises is desirable and that it would be far better to make the transition from the intuitive to the abstract by the
addition of a
new
mathematics
course in algebra to the undergraduate curriculum in a curriculum which contains at most two courses in algebra
and these only partly algebraic in content. This book is a text for such a course. In
terial is
fact, its only prerequisite maa knowledge of that part of the theory of equations given as a chapter of the ordinary text in college algebra as well as a reasonably complete knowledge of the theory of determinants. Thus, it would actually be pos
a student with adequate mathematical maturity, whose only training in algebra is a course in college algebra, to grasp the contents. I have used the text in manuscript form in a class composed of third and fourthyear
sible for
undergraduate and beginning graduate students, and they all seemed to find the material easy to understand. I trust that it will find such use elsewhere and that it will serve also to satisfy the great interest in the theory of matrices which has been shown me repeatedly by students of the social sciences. I wish to express my deep appreciation of the fine critical assistance of Dr. Sam Perils during the course of publication of this book.
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
September
9,
A. A.
ALBERT
1940
v
RECTANGULAR MATRICES AND ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS 1. Polynomials in x 2. PAQB 1 1 POLYNOMIALS 1. 4. 4. 7. 6. 5. Bilinear 9. . Congruence of square matrices 10. Multiplication of matrices 2. . Nonsingular matrices Equivalence of rectangular matrices forms 8. Summary of results Addition of matrices Real quadratic forms . Skew matrices and skew bilinear forms Symmetric matrices and quadratic forms Nonmodular fields 52 53 56 58 59 62 13. 15 17 . 5.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. Products by diagonal and scalar matrices Elementary transformation matrices . . . LINEAR SPACES 1. The associative law  3. 7. IV. 5. : 66 66 2. Rational equivalence of rectangular matrices III. 11. 19 19 21 Submatrices Transposition Elementary transformations * 4. 6. 9. 15. EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 1. The division algorithm divisibility 4 5 3. 14. 3. Polynomial Polynomials in several variables Rational functions 6 8 9 13 A greatest common divisor Forms Linear forms Equivalence of forms process 8. II. 12. Linear spaces over a Linear subspaces field 66 vii . The determinant of a product 6. The matrix of a system of linear equations 2. 22 24 26 29 32 36 36 38 39 42 44 45 47 48 51 Determinants Special matrices 7.
6. 11. . WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS Matrices with polynomial elements 2. 8. 5. Gauss numbers An integral domain with nonprincipal ideals INDEX 133 . 4.viii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAQBJ CHAPTBR 3. POLYNOMIALS 1. 10. Systems of linear equations Linear mappings and linear transformations Orthogonal linear transformations Orthogonal spaces 67 69 73 75 77 79 82 86 87 89 89 94 97 100 103 105 107 109 109 Ill 112 113 114 116 117 119 121 124 127 130 V. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. Linear independence The row and column spaces The concept of equivalence Linear spaces of finite order Addition of linear subspaces of a matrix 7. 4. Characteristic matrices with prescribed invariant factors 7. 3. Quadratic extensions of a field quadratic fields 12. Similarity of square matrices 6. 8. . Integers of 11. Elementary divisors Matric polynomials 4. 3. 9. The The ring of ordinary integer^ ideals of the ring of integers 10. Additional topics VI. 9. 7. 5. Groups Additive groups Rings Abstract fields Integral domains Ideals and residue class rings 2. 6. 5. The characteristic matrix and function .
then we shall regard f(x) and g(x) as being the same polynomial. and multiplication as the integral operations. we shall assume then either the properties that if a and 6 are constants such that ab = By this 1 . term conterm we shall mean any complex number or function independent of x. we shall merely make the unprecise assumption that our constants have the usual properties postulated in elementary algebra. We shall thus begin our exposition with a discussion of these concepts.) and g(x) are equal polynomials and write the polynomial which is the constant f(x) = g(x). For the present. We shall speak of the familiar operations of addition.CHAPTER I POLYNOMIALS 1. however. Our definition of a polynomial includes the use of the familiar stant. we shall usually say merely that /(a. + g(x) = g(x) for every polynomial g(x). A positive integral power is then best regarded as the result of a finite repetition of the operation of multiplication. Later on in our algebraic study we shall be much more explicit about the meaning of this term. the polynomial f(x) is not the zero polynomial. We shall designate by zero and shall call this polynomial the ze^o polynomial. in the consideration of a conditional equation f(x) = No we seek a constant solution c such that /(c) = 0. However. confusion will arise from this usage for it will always be clear from the where context that. subtraction. This concept is frequently indicated by saying that f(x) and g(x) are identically equal and by writing f(x) = g(x). In particular. We observe that the zero polynomial has the properties g(x) = . Thus. in a discussion of polynomials f(x) = will mean that f(x) is the zero polynomial. A polynomial f(x) plication of a finite g(x) in x is any expression obtained number of integral operations as the result of the apto x and constants. Polynomials in x. There are certain simple algebraic concepts with which the reader is probably well acquainted but not perhaps in the terminology and form desirable for the study of algebraic theories. If is a second such expression and it is possible to carry out the operations indicated in the given formal expressions for/(z) and g(x) so as to obtain two identical expressions.
is The is most important since. but ex the zero polynomial. . we may express f(x) as a sum of a finite number of terms of the form ax k Here k constant called the coefficient of x k . then. . expressions (1) are identical.2 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES if a or 6 is zero.. the indicated integral operations in any given expression of a polynomial f(x) be carried out. We may thus speak of any such n as a virtual de . we may say that the expression (1) of a i = 0. If a 7* we call n the degree* of f(x). . we have f(x) = a. q(x). a = 6* for then/(x) and g(x) are equal if and only if m n. in particular. two polynomials are equal if and only if their with 60 . so that f(x) is the zero polynomial. Thus. if /&(x). any different formal expression of a polyg(x) = nomial in x and that f(x) g(x) in the sense defined above. But if a n = 0.. either any = a n is a constant and will be f(x) has a positive integral degree.). we shall assign to it the degree minus infinity. h(x) = re For example.+. c8  c) + . The constants a unless f(x) is are called the coefficients of /(x) and may be ao zero. = x2 g(x) 2 2c + 3c= (cIf 2z 2 + 3z. we ob 1. .+& 1 = n. and 1 1 a"" such that aar If f(x) is a is a nonzero constant then a has a constant inverse assign to a particular formal expression of a polyit occurs in f(x) by a constant c. any polynomial of degree no may be written as an expression of the form (1) any integer n ^ no. and we may then write (1) coefficient is the sum of all their f(x) = a xn + aixn ~ + l . 2c. Thus. Then it is nomial and we replace x wherever tain a corresponding expression in Suppose now evident that /(c) = g(c). In other words. a n we say that the constant polynomial f(x) has degree zero. . that is. 3 = 2z. r(x) l)(c 2 1. If. a nonnegative integer and a is a The terms with the same exponent fc is may be combined into a single term whose coefficients. + a n \x + an . the label we c which is the constant we designate by is that /(c). if g(x) pression (1) of f(x) with do 5^ polynomial and we write g(x) in the corresponding form a second (2) g(x) 5^ 0. The integer n of any expression (1) of f(x) is called the virtual degree of the expression (1). This will * ^ Clearly of virtual degree gree of /(a. or /(#) called a constant polynomial in x. T(X) are poly= h(c)q(c) nomials in x such that }(x) = h(x)q(x) r(x) then f(c) r(c) + + for any c. = 6 zm + fciz". we may always take ^ 0. is polynomial unique. and are stating that for any c we have x.
What can one say about the degree of/ of/ of/* for/ k a positive integer? . Use Ex. Then = h(x). The of f (x) + g(x) is at most the larger of the two degrees and g(x). that both /and g are zero. The author's . LEMMA g(x) Let f(x) be nonzero and such that f(x)g(x) degree of f (x) = f(x)h(x). s(x) as in a corresponding statement about g(x)s(x) where g(x) has odd degree Ex. / = /(x) a polynomial in x with real coefficients. 1. then. and only 3. if State why it is true that x is not a factor of f(x) or g(x) then x is not a fac tor of f(x)g(x). What can one say about the degree of f(x) + g(x) . State the relation between the term of least degree in f(x)g(x) and those of least degree in /(x) 7. if /(x) and g(x) have posi tive leading coefficients? 2 3 3. LEMMA 4. 2. 7 to prove that if k and only if x is a factor of /(x). 2. EXERCISES* 1. Hint: Verify first that other * The early exercises in our sets should normally be taken up orally. whose almost trivial verification we leave to the reader. LEMMA sum the The degree of a product of two polynomials f (x) and g(x) is the and g(x).POLYNOMIALS 3 be done so as to imply that certain simple theorems on polynomials shall hold without exception. 9. The coefficient ao in (1) will be called the virtual leading coefficient of this expression of f(x) and will be called the leading coefficient oif(x) if and only if it is not zero. 4. and thus. We shall call/(x) a monic polynomial if ao = 1. Let / and g be polynomials in x such that the following equations are satisfied Show.+/? for t > 1. Make and real coefficients. State the condition that the degree of /(x) + g(x) be less than the degree of either /(x) or g(x). The leading coefficient of f(x) g(x) is the leading coefficients of f (x) and g(x). if f (x) and product of of the degrees of f(x) g(x). so is f(x) LEMMA stant if A product of two nonzero polynomials is nonzero and is a conif both factors are constants. We then have the elementary results referred to above. 6. 8. choice of oral exercises will be indicated by the language employed. State a result about the degree and leading coefficient of any polynomial s(x) 5. 4. = /i +. g(x) are monic. is a positive integer then x is a factor of [/(x)]* if (identically). = f(x) a polynomial. and g(x).
ora j* 0. Hint: Show that / and g are nonzero polynomial solutions of these equations of least possible de= xfi as well as g = xgi. b^ CkX g(x) is Thus a virtual degree of f(x) . coefficient degree m 1 a^ ^ 1 0.a# = 2 *)0 4 = 2 if 10. r(x) = The Remainder Theorem Algorithm to write /Or) of Algebra states that we use the Division = q(x)(x  c) +r(x) . . r(x) = f(x). then a virtual degree of s(x) if = r Q (x) m 1. This q(x) r Q (x). "* Use Ex. 11 for polynomials/. But Lemma t(x) states that t(x) t(x)g(x) is the sum of m and q Q (x) 7* the degree of t(x). (6). 1. then x divides/ ^ a contradiction. But then/i and g\ are also solutions grees. Then. coefficients and not all zero. and (5) of Ex. If Ck is the virtual leading coefficient of m+ m. q(x) degree m+k> a polynomial h(x) of virtual k l k 1. there exist unique polynomials q(x) and r(x) such that r(x) has virtual degree (3) m 1. h with complex 2. 4 a) b) c) / 2 / 2 / 2 = xg* + h* + g + (x + 2)fc 2  xg* = xh* 2 = g. and a finite repetition b^ a Q x g(x) is n n~ l of this process yields a polynomial r(x) = f(x) + . then they are all zero: satisfying 11. n > m. and = 0. q(x) is either zero or has degree f (x) n m.zy = c) d) / 2 / 4 + 2xfY + (* + 2zfa . g(z) = ?o(z). Then Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials of respective degrees n and m.)g(x) of b^ (a x m and leading for of virtual degree m hence n and (3) degree 1. If also f(x) = q Q (x)g(x) +r Q (x) for r (z) of virtual r(x) is 1.) and g(x) be defined respectively (3) by (1) and (2) with 6 ^ 0. a virtual degree of h(x) n'^n l 1. 12. either n < m and we have with q(x} = 0. The result of the application of the process ordinarily called long division to polynomials is a theorem which we shall call the Division Algorithm for polynomials and shall state as Theorem g(x) 7* 0. and h are polynomials in x with real coefficients the following equations (identically). g. Use Ex. In parts (c) and (d) complete the squares. . a) 6) and / / 2 + xg* = . ^ Find solutions of the equations of Ex. 9. and = q(x)g(x) + r(x) . For let /(a. if = the degree of s(x) is = impossible. 8 to give another proof of (a). 3. Express each equation in the form a(x) apply Ex.4 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = b(x) wise bothf and g are not zero. The division algorithm. to show that if/.
2. Show by formal m differentiation that if c is a root of multiplicity m of f(x) = 1 of the derivative /'(x) of /(x). Polynomial divisibility. numbers 3.POLYNOMIALS so that g(x) 5 then r the = x = /(c). Thus f(x) andg(x)are associated if and only if each is a nonzero constant multiple of the other. q(x) and h(x) are nonzero constants. . It for this application that we made the remark. and we shall say in this case that f(x) has g(x) as a factor. Hint: Write h(x) = q(x)f(x) + + + b nic n~ for rational + r(x) and replace x by l c. obvious proof of this result is the use of the remark in = r c) paragraph of Section 1 to obtain /(c) = q(c)(c r. It is clear that every nonzero polynomial is associated with a monic polynomial. Observe thus that the familiar process of dividing out the leading coefficient in a conditional equation f(x) = is equation by the equation g(x) associated with/(x). We shall call two nonzero polynomials/(x) and g(x) associated polynomials if = q(x)g(x)> g(x) = f(x) divides g(x) and g(x) divides /(#). m Let c cients. Then f(x) = q(x)h(x)f(x). Thus. Use the Division Algorithm be a root of a polynomial /(x) of degree n and ordinary integral coeffito show that any polynomial h(c) with rational coefficients may . We shall leave the statements of that theorem. g(x) T only if the polynomial r(x) of (3) is the zero polynomial. * If f(x) is a polynomial in x and c is a constant such that /(c) = then we shall call c a root not only of the equation /(x) = but also of the polynomial /(x). . Applying Lemmas 3 and 2. and the subsequent definitions and theorems on the roots and corresponding factorizations of polynomials* with real or complex coefficients. The Division Algorithm and Remainder Theorem imply the Factor Theorem a result obtained and used frequently in the study of polynomial equations. to the reader. 6 . =0 where g(x) that used to replace this is the monic polynomial . Let f(x) and g(x) f (x) ^ by the statement that g(x) divides we mean that divides /(x) if and nomial q(x) such that/(x) = q(x)g(x). g(x) is a factor o/f(x). (x c) q(x) then c is a root of multiplicity What then is a necessary and sufficient condition that /(x) have multiple roots? 2. EXERCISES 1. we have h(x)f(x). Compute the corresponding &< for each of the polynomials 6 a) c 6) c 4 + 10c + 25c + 4c + 6c + 4c + 4 2 3 2 c) c 6 2 2c 4 +c 3 2 1 d) (2c + 3)(c + 3c) be polynomials. Then there exists a poly 3. be expressed in the form 6 &ic 6 ni. /(c) c + as desired. . so that/(x) q(x)h(x) = 1. The is fifth has degree one and r = r(x) is necessarily a constant. Let /(x) = x3 + 3x 2 + 4 in Ex.
of polynomials shall obtain a property which may best be described in terms of the concept of rational function. . . "n j for every = and/ = n(f) m> n and is any nonzero polynomial of degree n. + . finite As in Section 1 we may express f(xi. . x q to be any expression obtained x q and as the result of a finite number of integral operations on #1. EXERCISES be a polynomial in x and define m(f) = x mf(l/x) for every positive integer m. . . . . . that m(f) xm / 0. It will thus be desirable to arrange our exposition so as to precede the study of greatest common divisors by a discussion of the elements of the theory of polynomials and rational functions of several variables. Some of our results on polynomials extended easily to polynomials in several variables. and we shall do so.. if / 7* 0. 1. x q ) as the sum of a (4) x$ . in x may be .c.d..c. that. If two terms of / have the same set of we may combine them by adding their coefficients and thus write /as the unique sum. . ater when we discuss the existence of a unique greatest common divisor (abbreviated.0. Show that m(f) is a polynomial in x of virtual degree m if and only if m is a virtual degree of /(x). the sum with unique coefficients. g. . . Show that m(0) = 0. of the term (4) and define the virtual degree in k q the virtual degree of a parXi. jX q of such a term to be k\ ticular expression of / as a sum of terms of the form (4) to be the largest of call . . We define a polynomial/ = f(x\.6 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES We Two associated monic polynomials are equal. x q ) in xi. m[m(f)} = /. Let/ = f(x) 2. terms (4). constants.*)= k .d. the virtual degrees of kq exponents k\. Let g be a factor of/. Polynomials in several variables. .) of polynomials in x. x is not a factor of/. 1. We we In our discussion of the g. . Prove that $ a factor of m(f) for every m which is at least the degree of /. We a the coefficient + . . its . Define/ = = if Show 4. . . . . . . (5) / = f(xi. number of terms of the form azji . . see from this that if g(x) divides f(x) every polynomial associated with g(x) divides f(x) and that one possible way to distinguish a member of the set of all associates shall use this property of g(x) is to assume the associate to be monic. 4. . k xq .. . that is. if /is 3.
and a virtual (2) zero. . . xq if all terms of nomial or a form in Xi. . kq T* 0. . . x q is clearly a form of degree m + n and. . = + + . xq The product of two forms / and g of respective degrees n and m in the same Xi. then some a kl . cally in y Xi. g be given by . Then g h. . k ki . zero. . . . . . . . polynomial (1) of degree n = n^in x = x q with . yx q ) = y f(xij x q ) is a form of degree k x q if and only if /(xi. Also / is the zero polynomial if and only if all its coefficients are zero. Theorem is not zero. . derivation. . . . We have 2. It is a generalization of Lemma 1. in xi. need to consider an important special x q ) a homogeneous poly(5) have the same degree . . by Theorem 2. . . .POLYNOMIALS coefficients a^ k q are constants and n/ is the degree of x q ) considered as a polynomial in Xj alone. . . . = To fh. continue our discussion . observe that a polynomial / in x\. We now use this result to obtain the second of the properties we desire. . . . . We . . q and the . . However. . . xq may its coefficients be regarded as a a a n all . . Then. +k for a kl ^ 0. x q \ and a not zero. . Let f. degree of * fl / is defined to be the assign the maximum sum degree minus fci + . If we x qi prove similarly that the product of two nonzero polynomials in x\ . . kq . = a 6 are then and nonzero polyof a If coefficient is &o. . . . Xq and f be nonzero. . is nonzero if and only if / and g are nonzero. . . is and hence have not zero. if / is given by (5) and we replace x> in (5) by + x is replaced by y k ^~ *Xj> power product x k x q ) identixq and thus that the polynomial/(i/xi. . . . . t . . . . XQ We have Theorem fg the immediate consequence 3. . polynomials in x\. . . . Thus we shall call /(xi. . see that each . . g. leading q fg + nomials in Xi and ao6 ^ by Lemma 2. . h be polynomials in Xi. . . . with 6 then a virtual degree in x q oifg is ra not n. } . yx^ we . Then we have proved that the product fg of two nonzero polynomials / and g in x\. x 2 is not zero. = we . nomial. As before we and have the property that nonzero constant polynomials have degree zero. . . . . . . shall type of polynomial. some of the most important simple properties of polynomials in x hold also for polynomials in several x and we shall proceed to their infinity to the zero polynomial v . similarly. If / is a nonzero poly Here the . . If. Note now that a polynomial may have several different terms of the same degree and that consequently the usual definition of leading term and coefficient do not apply. . 2. . . we apply the proof above to obtain ao&o ^ x q is not proved that the product fg of two nonzero polynomials in #1. thus completed the proof of The product of any two nonzero polynomials in Xi. .
. . .) =/o+. . seen by the reader in his earliest algebraic study to imply that every rational x\> . . . . 5. .+/n. . . for forms g> of degree (8) m fg i and such that g Q ^ . . x q ) 7* 0. . .. . Let f and g be polynomials in xi. tion of division The integral operations together with the operaby a nonzero quantity form a set of what are called the rational operations. .. then clearly = h + . xq may be expressed as a quotient for polynomials a(xi.. closed with respect to rational operations.8 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES all the terms of the same degree in a nonzero polybe grouped together into a form of this degree and then may express (5) uniquely as the sum first Observe nomial (5) that we may (6) / = /(*!. . . . Xq. .*. a(xi. By this we mean that every rational function of the elements in this set is in the set. . x q ) and 6(xi. + h m+n i By Theorem 2 /o(7o. . . A rational function of xi. . . . Thus if we call/o the leading form of/. (a/6) (c/d) = (ac)/(6d). . .. The postulates of elementary algebra were on xi f . . The coefficients of x q ) and 6(xi. . . x q) = g + . zero. . + gm 0. . . x q ) are then called coefficients of/. we clearly have Theorem 4. coefficients has a property which we describe by saying that the set is . function of . and we may use Theorem 2 to obtain . This may be seen to be due to the definitions a/6 + c/d Here b and d are necessarily not = (ad + 6c)/6d. forms of f and g. Ao T* 0. . . is where /o is a nonzero form of the same degree n as the polynomial/ and /< a form of degree n i. Rational functions. xq is now defined to be any function obtained as the result of a finite number of rational operations x q and constants. . . . above is evidently fundamental for the study of polynomials in several variables a study which we shall discuss only briefly in these uct of the leading The result pages.. If also (7) g = g(xi. . Then the degree of f g is the sum of the degrees of f and g and the leading form of f g is the prodwhere the hi are forms of degree m+n and Ao = . . Let us obx q with complex serve then that the set of all rational functions in xi.
If dj(x) is the g.c. . d(x) is then the unique 0/f(x) and g(x). of /i(x). and hence the degree . dj(x) and //+i(x). . (x) is the g.POLYNOMIALS bd if 9 7* 0.(*)/(*).+i(x) divides /i(x). f (x) is a unique polynomial.(x). according to our definition. the g.c. . fg = if and only = 0.a(x) = Iand6(x) = b^ 1 is a solution of ( 10) if g(x) is given by (2) Hence. For if /(x) = 0. .1 exists such that //~ 1 = 1. . For every common divisor h(x) of /i(x)./.(x) and //+i(aO.c. that the set of rational functions satisfies the propin Section 1 for our constants. .d. of any number of polynomials in x not all zero to the case of two nonzero polynomials.d. d(x) and d (x) are associated monic its because of We define the g. . d(x) is a common divisor of the /i(x) of largest possible degree and is clearly the unique monic com mon divisor of this degree. . Hence. . there is no loss of generality if we assume that both f(x) and g(x) are nonzero and that the degree of is not the of than For of notation g(x) greater degree /(x). Thus the g. . Then there exist polynomials a(x) and b(x) such that result (10) is The d(x) = a(x)f(x) + b(x)g(x) a monic common divisor o/f(x) and g(x). Moreover.d. and hence both then d (x) is ./. of /i(x)./. .(x) d (z).<x) and d . . . then g(x) divides d(x). . . . . of two polynomials and the method of its computation are essential in the study of what are called Sturm's functions and so are well known to the reader who has studied the Theory of Equations. d (x) divides /. The existence of a g.c. If g(x) divides all the/i(x). /.d. consistency g. We shall repeat this material here importance for algebraic theories. h(x) divides d. while if / j then /.(x).c. of /i(x).c.fs+i(x).//+i(x). . of d. erties we assumed or g / = Observe. of polynomials f\(x). t of d(x) is at least that of g(x). . then d(x) is associated with g(x). . /. A greatest common divisor process. that is. Moreover.d.c. then.c. . . 6. .d. h l (x) = g(x).+i(x) .(x) not all zero to be any monic polynomial d(x) which divides all the fi(x). the g. . If do(x) is a second such polynomial.c. Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials not both zero. then d(x) and d Q (x) divide each other. .d.d. and is such that if g(x) divides every fj(x) then g(x) divides d(x). . We shall now study this latter problem and state the result we shall prove as Theorem 5. above evidently reduces the problems of the existence and construction of a g. . polynomials and are equal. .d. . and the divisor of /i(x). . we put (11) *. d Q (x) divides /i(x).
b(x) = cb r (x). An evident proof hi(x) by then (14) implies that h r (x) induction shows that h r (x) divides both ho(x) b*(x) bi(x) = f(x) and = g(x). his geometric formulation of the analogous result on the g. observe that it not only It is therefore usually called Euclid's process. is = We the degree of hi(x) then Hi > n > while n< > conclude that our sequence must terminate with . . If.(*) . where hi(x) if n< 0. We enables us to prove the existence of d(x) but gives us a finite process by . unless (15) WX) ^  g r_i(oO/l r_i(z) + hr(x) and (16) for r *. of integers.d. where the degree of hz(x) is less than that of h^(x). who utilized it in = ch r (x). If we may At_i(x). we = fc(x)M*) + W*) . Equation (12) implies that h z (x) = = qi(x). . r The polynomial is a divisor of /(#) and gf(x) and is associated with a monic common Then d(x) has the form (10) for a(x) = car (x). Thus h r (x) hi(x) and be replaced by h r^(x) = divides both h r ~i(x) and h ri(x). Equation [qri(x)qr (x) (16) implies that (15) + l]h r (x). Ai. . where the degree of h z (x) is less than the degree of may apply Theorem 1 to obtain (13) hi(x) hi(x). The process used above was first discovered by Euclid.c. now. If ht(x) ^ 0. Thus our division process yields a sequence of equations of the form (14) hi<t(x) = qii(x)hii(x) + hi(x) .10 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 1 By Theorem (12) h (x) = q^h^x) + h (x) 2 .2 () = ai. Clearly also h\(x) = = a*(x)f(x} a\(x)j(x) + b^(x)g(x) with a^(x} + bi(x)g(x) with ai(x) and that Ai(x) = = 1. 0. 1.) = ar (x)f(x) + b (x)g(x). assume that h r (x) divides divides hi.2 ()/(x) (14) + 6<i(a?)g(x) Ai_i(x) = + common 6i_i(o:)gr(a:) then implies = fe r (z) Thus we obtain divisor d(x) /i r (o.$(x). We have already shown that d(x) is unique. A r_i(z) = qr (x)h r (x) > 1.
POLYNOMIALS
11
means of which d(x) may be computed. Notice finally that d(x) is computed by a repetition of the Division Algorithm on /(#), g(x) and polynomials secured from f(x) and g(x) as remainders in the application of the Division Algorithm. But this implies the result we state as Theorem 6. The polynomials a(x), b(x), and hence the greatest common
divisor d(x) of
Theorem 5
all
have coefficients which are rational functions
with rational number coefficients of the coefficients of f (x) and g(x). thus have the
We
COROLLARY. Let
If the
the coefficients of f (x)
and g(x)
numbers.
be rational numbers.
Then
the coefficients of their g.c.d. are rational
only
common divisors of f(x) and g(x)
and
are constants, then d(x)
=
1
and we
shall call f(x)
indicate this at times
by
shall also g(x) relatively prime polynomials. saying that f(x) is prime to g(x) and hence also
We
that g(x) is prime to/(x). When/(x) and g(x) are relatively prime, (10) to obtain polynomials a(x) and b(x) such that
(17)
we use
a(x)f(x)
+ g(x)b(x) =
1
.
It is interesting to observe that the polynomials a(x) and b(x) in (17) are not unique and that it is possible to define a certain unique pair and then determine all others in terms of this pair. To do this we first prove the
LEMMA
is
5.
Let f(x), g(x), and h(x) be nonzero polynomials such that f(x)
prime
to
g(x)
and
divides g(x)h(x).
Then
f(x) divides h(x).
may write g(x)h(x) = f(x)q(x) and use = [a(x)h(x) + b(x)q(x)]f(x) = h(x) b(x)g(x)]h(x)
For we
(17) to obtain [a(x)f(x)
+
as desired.
We now obtain Theorem 7. Let
Then
there exist
f (x)
of degree
n and
g(x) of degree
m
be relatively prime.
of degree at
unique polynomials a (x) of degree at most 1 such that a (x)f(x) most n b (x)g(x) =
m
1.
1
and b
(x)
+
Every pair of
polynomials a(x) and b(x) satisfying (17) has the form
(18)
a(x)
=
a
(x)
+
c(x)g(x)
,
b(x)
= b
(x)

c(x)f(x)
for a polynomial c(x).
For,
if
a(x)
is
any solution of
(17),
we apply Theorem
1
to obtain the
+ + + 6 (x)g(x) = By Lemma 1 ao(x)/(rc) + 1 has degree at most m + n the degree of 6 (z) is at most n  1, a*(x)f(x) + b*(x)g(x) = 1 as desired. 1 and If now ai(s) has virtual degree m bi(x) virtual degree n +
We
1. 1,
first equation of (18) with a$(x) the remainder on division of a(x) by g(x). = a Q (x)f(x) Then a (x) has degree at most 1, a(x)f(x) b(x}g(x) = = define b Q (x) 1. b(x) c(x)f(x) and see that [b(x) c(x)f(x)]g(x)
m
12
a\(x)f(x)
[60(2)
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
+ bi(x)g(x) =
bi(x)]g(x).
a$(x)j(x)
+b
Q (x)g(x)j
then /(x)
clearly
divides
By Lemma
by
degree n
&o(z)
1 is divisible
5 the polynomial 60(2) bi(x) of virtual of n and must be zero. Hence, /(x) degree
and
a (x)/(x),ai(x) a (x). This proves a (x) 6i(x),sothatai(x)/(x) 6o(#) unique. But the definition above of a$(x) as the remainder on
=
=
=
division of a(x)
by
and
g(x)
There
is
also a result
shows that then (18) holds. which is somewhat analogous to Theorem 7 for the
case where /(x)
g(x) are not relatively prime.
We state it as
m.
1
Theorem
8.
Let f(x) T
and g(x)
7*
have respective degrees n and
Then polynomials a(x) j 1 such that at most n
(19)
exist if
of degree at
most
m
and b(x)
^
of degree
a(x)f(x)
+ b(x)g(x) =
relatively prime.
is
and only
if
if f (x)
and g(x) are not
For
the g.c.d. of f(x) and g(x)
a nonconstant polynomial d(x), we
have/(x) = fi(x)d(x), g(x) g\(x) has degree less than
let (19) hold. If /(x)
&o(z)gr(z)
=
0i(z)d(x), 0i(x)/(x)
+
[/i(2)ff()l
=
where
m and /i(x)
of degree
has degree
less
than
n.
Conversely,
(x)/(x)
(a;)
and
g(x) are relatively prime,
we have a
+

=
1,
a(x)
=
a (x)a(x)/(x)
+
ao(x)6(x)].
But then
is
gr(x)
m
a(x)6 (x)gf(x) divides a(x) ^
=
flf(x)[o(x)6
of degree at
most
m
1.
1
which
impossible.
EXERCISES
Extend Theorems
5, 6,
and the corollary to a
set of polynomials /i(x),
.
.
.
,
/<(*)
2.
Let/i(x),
.
.
.
,/t(x)
be
all
sible g.c.d.'s
3.
and the conditions on the/(x)
polynomials of the first degree. State their posfor each such possible g.c.d.
State the results corresponding to those above for polynomials of virtual
degree two.
4.
Prove that the
g.c.d. of f(x)
and
g(x)
is
the monic polynomial of least possible
= degree of the form (10). Hint: Show that if d(x) is this polynomial then f(x) and of that as less than has the form as well d(x) q(x)d(x) r(s), r(x) (10) degree
+
so
must be
5.
zero.
A polynomial /(x) is called rationally irreducible if f(x) has rational coefficients
is
and
What are the
6.
not the product of two nonconstant polynomials with rational coefficients. possible g.c.d. 's of a set of rationally irreducible /(z) of Ex. 1?
Let f(x)
=
be rationally
irreducible, g(x)
have rational
is
coefficients.
Show
if
that/(x) either divides g(x) or is prime to g(x). Thus, f(x) degree of g(x) is less than that of f(x).
prime to g(x)
the
POLYNOMIALS
7.
13
Use Ex.
1 of
Section 2 together with the results above to
show that a
rational
ly irreducible polynomial has
8.
no multiple
roots.
all
Find the
g.c.d. of
each of the following sets of polynomials as well as of
possible pairs of polynomials in each case:
a) /i
/2
6) /i /,
c) /i
/2 /3
d) /i
/ /3
9.
2
= = = = = = = = = =
2x 5

x8
8
2
2x 2
2

6x
+ x x 2x 3x + 8x  3 x + 2x + 3* + 6
x
4 4
8


+4
2
e)
2
x4 z8
x4

2x 3
6x 2
2

2x 2
llx

2x

/)
3
x8
x2 x8
+6  8x  5x + 6 + 4x + x  6  3x + 2  3x + x  4x +
+
= = / / = = /i = / / =
jfi
x6 x
8
2 3
x4 x8 x2
z4
2 3
+ 2x  x  5x + x + 3x + 3 +x x 1 + 2x  3s  6 +x2 + 2x + x + 2
4
8
2
6x

3
2
3
2
8
2
3
2
4
/(x)
0,
=
Let /(x) be a rationally irreducible polynomial and c be a complex root of 0. Show that, if g(x) is a polynomial in x with rational coefficients and g(c) ^
there then exists a polynomial h(x) of degree less than that of /(x) and with
rational coefficients such that g(c)h(c)
10.
=
1.
root of /(x)
is
Let/(x) be a rationally irreducible quadratic polynomial and c be a complex = 0. Show that every rational function of c with rational coefficients
uniquely expressible in the form a
11.
+
be
with a and b rational numbers.
Let /i,
.
.
.
,
ft
of Section 3 to
is 3.
show that if d(x) is the g.c.d. Thus, show that the g.c.d. of n(/i),
.
be polynomials in x of virtual degree n and/i ^ 0. Use Ex. 4 of /i, ...,/* then the g.c.d. of /i, ...,/<
. .
,
k n(f t ) has the form x d, for an integer
fc>
0.
7.
Forms.
A
polynomial
is
of degree
n
is
frequently spoken of as an nic
polynomial.
The reader
and
cubic, quartic,
already familiar with the terms linear, quadratic, = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. quintic polynomial in the respective cases n
x\,
. . .
In a similar fashion a polynomial in
nomial.
4,
,
xq
is
called a qary poly
As above, we
specialize the terminology in the cases q
=
1, 2, 3,
5 to be unary, binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary. The terminology just described is used much more frequently in connecis
tion with theorems on forms than in the study of arbitrary polynomials.
In particular, we shall find that our principal interest
forms.
in nary quadratic
There are certain special forms which are quadratic in a set of variables xm 3/1, t/n and which have special importance because they Xi,
. .
.
,
.
.
.
,
,
. xm A bilinear form / is called symmetric if it is unaltered by the interchange of correspondingly labeled members of its two sets of variables. . compare this . y n separately. y n in a symmetric z and yi. . with (22) and conclude that a quadratic form may be rej/i. This state ment / = only (22) clearly has meaning only if m = ZyidijXj. and see that / may be regarded as a . z n respectively. . are linear in both xi. . . aij = a . x\. yn. j = 1.. . .y = i (a*y = a/<. = a.. . . ... . f. y by a*. . . and / a. . . such forms bilinear forms. . Here again xn. . . xm and yi. A quadratic form / is evidently a sum of terms of the type the type ctjx&j for i 7* j. . Thus skew bilinear forms are forms of the type (24) f . They may be expressed as forms . .Zi. We garded as the result of replacing the variables . . . We may write an = a^ as well as \ c/ for i ^ a. . yi. n (20) f= we may thus write so that (21) / . . form in yi. We shall call yi . n) . But / = S2/ IiXiaayj if = . final A m . .. a  . .i j and have djXiXj = a^XiXj + a^x^x^ so that (23) /= t. bilinear form in x\. . we shall obtain a theory of equivalence of quadratic forms and shall use the result just derived to obtain a parallel theory of symmetric bilinear type of form of considerable interest is the skew bilinear form. . yn) = /(yi. .i (i. . . . . . . . n) . . and we call a bilinear form / skew if / = f(x\. . . . y n whose coeffi cients are linear forms in x\. . j = = 1.l t1 linear . .   . = n. is symmetric if and only if and hence / is symmetric if and m= n.14 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . n. x n ). Later forms. . .
. by corresponding then the new quadratic form/(zi. . . n) . a polynomial in xi.d. . 1. . . ftiXi + . ORAL EXERCISES 1. We ai. . polynomials in x as coefficients. Hence / j a . . . . . . . . . (28) = . . = an = b nx n is the zero form. of a finite the g.POLYNOMIALS where (25) It follows that 15 an an = an * (t. . + b n )xn . Use the language above to describe the following forms: a) ft) c) + Zxy* + xl + 2xiyi + x yi + x^ z3 3 2/i d) x\ e) 2 + 2xfli x#i Xiy 2 2 2. . x n ) is the zero polynomial. sum of terms an(xiyj if . . Thus any polynomial in # is a linear combination of a finite number of nonnegative integral powers of x with x q is a linear combination constant coefficients. . see that . / + g = (a x + 61)0:1 + . . . . = + + anx n . ft. . + (a. . associate (25) only with skew bilinear forms. x n .c. with constant coefficients (29) . . A linear form aixi is expressible as a . . . Linear forms. . . + an = 0. j = 1. . It is important for the reader to observe thus that while (22) may be associated with both quadratic and symmetric bilinear forms we must 2. = #) we . a n The concept of linear combination has already been used without the name in several instances. xi. . . number of power products x$ xj with constant coefficients. b ny we . of /(x) and g(x) is a linear combination (10) of f(x) and g(x) with . . Xjj . + . = (i = 1. n 1. Express the following quadratic forms as sums of the kind given by (23) a) 2x\ ft) : xf  x\ 8. . for i j j. n) . x n with coefficients (27) a linear combination of xi. . The form (27) with a\ = a^ a second form. . . sum (27) / shall call . . . If g is g = fti. i = . It is also evident that replace the y/ . that is (26) a is . .
16 Also (30) if INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES c is any constant. If a any constant. we have cf = (cai)xi + . . and only if / = / + g) 0. then. . as such. . u be a sequence u = (ai. . . . . . = by (61. . . may seem to be relatively unimportant. + + . . . We (31) define / to be the form such that / ( /) = and see that /=!. (32) rows and columns. and (35) define the sum of u and v u + v = (ai + 61. . The sequence all of whose elements are zero will be called the zero sequence and designated by 0. The reader is already familiar with these properties which he has used in the computation of determinants by operations on its Let. (ca n )x n . The properties just set down are only trivial consequences of the usual properties of polynomials and. . . + = (a*)x n that is ./= g if (oi)si g + ( . as the coeffiwill and in this formulation in Chapter IV be very important for all algebraic theory. a) is of n constants a define called the elements of the sequence u. if we so desire. . . . We now consider a second sequence. . They may be formulated abstractly. . as properties of sequences of constants (which cients of linear forms) may be thought of. an + bn) . . we (33) au call = ua = (aai. 6 n) . Then the (36) linear combination au + bv = (aai + bbi. Then / = . however. aa n ) and (34) au the scalar product of v u by a. . n). It is clearly the unique sequence z with the . a< = bi (i = 1. . . . aa n + bbn ) has been uniquely defined for all constants a and b and all sequences u and v.
If q = r and the determinant (40). . in x\  t . anyi . . . . . .POLYNOMIALS 17 z = u i or every sequence u.. . . . consider two forms / the same degree n. imply that if x q ) of / is carried y q ) by a nonsingular linear mapping. . The reader should observe now that the definitions and properties derived for linear combinations of sequences are precisely those which hold for the sequences of coefficients of corresponding linear combinations of linear forms and that the usual laws of algebra for addition and multiplication hold for addition of sequences and multiplication of sequences by constants. . x g ) is a form of degree n in Equivalence of forms. . x q we obtain the original form We now into g(y\. . is not zero. . bn a n} . we f(xi. . . + a ir y r (i = 1. . then. . and we see that the unique solution of the equation v evidently call this sequence ( w). and thus if we replace t/i. nology is justified by the fact that the equation f(xi. If / = f(xi. . . . This termix q ) = g(yi. x q and we replace every x> in/ by a corresponding linear form . x q ) and g = g(x^ .. . . (39) Xi = . . . #i. yq) y q} is an identity. . . . . In this case y 9 as linear forms in #1. . . . The statements above / is equivalent to g then g is also equivalent to /. Then we shall say that / is equivalent to g if .x q ). 9. . . . . g) . . . . y r ) of the same degree n in t/i. u is the unique sequence that u + + (37) u = 1 w = (ai. we obtain a form g = g(y\. + . . yr Then we shall say that / is carried into g (or that g is obtained from /) by . we shall say that (39) seen that we may solve (39) for yi. constant au = We define the negative u of a sequence u to be the sequence v such v = 0. easily . . . . . Evidently. . .. a n ) . . the linear mapping (39). by the corresponding linear forms f(xi. . . . . . . = . . . . Evidently if a is the zero property that u for every u.. y q in g(y\. . . . . it is . x q and obtain a linear mapping which we may call the inverse of (39). quence u +x= v is the se + We v (38) u = (61 ai. is . Thus. . nonsingular.
x 2 = y*... . q is called the identical mapping. . 1.18 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES say simply that / and g are equivalent. The linear mapping (39) of EXERCISES the form x< = y* for i = 1. pleting the square on the term in x\ and put Xi + + + + a) 2x1 b) c) + 3xi x? + 14^10:2 + 9x1 3x1 + 18xix + 24x1 4xiX 2 2  d) 2xf e)  XiX 2 3x1 + 2xiX 2  xi 3. and even of those forms only under restricted types of linear mappings. We have now obtained the background needed for a clear understanding of matrix theory and shall proceed to its development. 6) / = 4x?  4x!X2 + 3x1 . 3 to the following forms / to obtain equivaand their inverses to g to obtain /.2x 2 = = 2/i 2/ 2 b} M f Xi 2xi + ^2^2/1 +x = 2 2/2 4. What is its effect on any form/? 2. Apply a nonsingular linear mapping to carry each of the following forms to an cx 2) 2 . Find the inverses of the following linear mappings: . lent forms g Apply the linear mappings of Ex. f2xi x* ' \3xj 4. . by coma^yl Hint: Write / = ai(xi expression of the type a\y\ cx 2 = y\. shall usually We shall not study the equivalence of forms of arbitrary degree but only of the special kinds of forms described in Section 7. .
The array an i . y n with constant coefficients . of certain natu ral manipulations on the equations themselves with which the reader is shall devote this beginning chapter on matrices to that very familiar. a in ) 19 . The concept of a rectangular matrix may be thought of as arising first in connection with the study of the solution of a system km of m linear equations in n unknowns y\. chapter we shall make a completely explicit statement about the nature of these quantities. but many matrix properties are ob tainable by observing the effect. . on the matrix of a system. . y n ) according to the usual definitions and hence satisfy the properties usually assumed in algebra for rational operations. . . The matrix of a system of linear equations. . (3) The line Ui = (an. called the coefficient matrix of the system (1). We study.CHAPTER II RECTANGULAR MATRICES AND ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS 1. . of coefficients arranged as they occur in (1) has the ai2 form a22 and is speak of the coefficients . Let us now recall some terminology with which the reader is undoubtedly familiar. . . . In a later . an. It is not only true that the concept of a matrix arises as above in the study of systems of linear equations. shall henceforth in s shall fc as scalar and derive our theoand (1) a/ We rems with the understanding that they are constants (with respect to the variables y\.
20
1JNTKUJLJUUT1UJN
TU ALUEJBKA1U THEUK1ES
of coefficients in the ith equation of (1) occurs in (2) as its ith horizontal line. Thus, it is natural to call u* the ith row of the matrix A. Similarly, the coefficients of the unknowns y, in (1) form a vertical line
(4)
which we
call
We may now
the rows of
as one
the jth column of A. speak of A as a matrix of
are 1
m
rows and n columns, as an
rarowed and ncolumned matrix
A
by n
or, briefly, as an matrices and its columns are
m by n matrix. Then m by 1 matrices. We
shall speak of the scalars
ay as the elements of A, and they may be regarded The notation a^ which we adopt for the element of A in its ith row and jth column will be used consistently, and this usage will be of some importance in the clarity of our exposition. To avoid bulky
by one
matrices.
displayed equations we shall usually not use the notation (2) for a matrix but shall write instead
(5)
A =
(i
=
1,
]
j
=
1,
.
.
.
,
n)
If
m=
wrowed
shall use
is a square matrix, and we shall speak of A simply as an matrix. This, too, is a concept and terminology which we square
n then A
very frequently.
ORAL EXERCISES
1.
Read
off
the elements an,
ai2, 024,
a^ in the following matrices
4050^ 1 2 3
c)
3147 01
6
1.
3
2
1
4
6
l
6
8/
1.
2.
Read Read
off off
the second row and the third column in each of the matrices of Ex.
3.
the systems of equations (1) with constants &,
all
zero and matrices
of coefficients as in Ex.
RECTANGULAR MATRICES
2.
21
Submatrices. In solving the system
is
(1)
by the usual methods the
equations in certain t < n of the unknowns. The corresponding coefficient matrix has s rows and t columns, and its elements lie in certain s of the rows and t of the columns of A.
reader
led to study subsystems of s
in
<
We
call
such a matrix an
s
by
of
t
submatrix
s
the elements in the remaining
m
A
is
B of A. rows and n
shall call
If s
t
<m
and
t
<
n,
columns form an
the complementary
m
up
(6)
s
by n
t
submatrix
C
and we
C
submatrix of B. Clearly, then,
the complementary submatrix of <7. time to regard a matrix as being made to It will be desirable from time
of certain of its submatrices.
B
Thus we
write
(t
A = (A)
=
l,
...,s;j=l, ...,*),
where now the symbols At, themselves represent rectangular matrices. We A it all have the same assume that for any fixed i the matrices A n, An, number of rows, and for fixed k the matrices AU, A 2 A,* have the same number of columns. It is then clear how each row of A is a 1 by t matrix whose elements are rows of AH, AH in adjacent positions and thus have columns. We for accomplished what we shall call the similarly to drawing lines mentally parallel to amounts A what of by partitioning (6) the rows and columns of A and between them and designating the arrays of elements in the smallest rectangles so formed by A</. Our principal use of (6) will be the use of the case where we shall regard A as a two by two
.
.
.
,
;t,
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
matrix
(A,
,
A
whose elements AI, A 2 As, A 4 are themselves rectangular matrices. Then AI and A 2 have the same number of rows, A 3 and A 4 have the same number of rows, and every row of A consists partially of a row of AI and of a corresponding row of A 2 or of a row of A 3 and a corresponding row of A 4
.
Note our usage
in (2), (5), (6), (7) of the
symbol of
equality for matrices.
always mean that two matrices are equal if and only if they are identical, that is, have the same size and equal corresponding elements.
shall
We
EXERCISES
1.
State
how
.
the columns of
A
of (7) are connected with the
columns of AI,
A
2,
A*, and
A4
2. Introduce a notation of an arbitrary sixrowed square matrix A and partition A into a threerowed square matrix whose elements are tworowed square matrices.
22
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
A
into a tworowed square matrix
Also partition
whose elements are threerowed
square matrices.
3.
Write out
all
submatrices of the matrix
2
1
1
3
4
5\
01236
7
021
3
2
1
2
1
and,
4.
if
they
exist,
the complementary submatrices.
Which
of the submatrices in Ex, 3 occur in
some partitioning
of
A
as a matrix
of submatrices?
5.
rices
Partition the following matrices so that they become threerowed square matwhose elements are tworowed square matrices and state the results in the
(6).
notation
a)
6.
Partition the matrices of Ex. 5 into tworowed square matrices
whose elements
are threerowed square matrices.
7.
matrix; a one
Partition the matrices of Ex. 5 into the form (7) such that A\ is a by six matrix; a two by two matrix. Read off A 2; A 3
,
two by three and A 4 and
state their sizes.
3. Transposition. The theory of determinants arose in connection with the solution of the system (1). The reader will recall that many of the prop
erties of
determinants were only proved as properties of the rows of a determinant, and then the corresponding column properties were merely stated as results obtained by the process of interchanging rows and columns.
We
call
rices.
Let
the induced process transposition and define it as follows for matA be an by n matrix, a notation for which is given by (5),
m
and define the matrix
(8)
,
w)
,
which we
A
A. It is an n by m matrix obtained from and columns. rows Thus, the element a*, in the ith by interchanging row and jfth column of A occurs in A 7 as the element in its jth row and ith
shall call the transpose of
its
where A\ is a growed square matrix. It is a diagonal of the square matrix Ai and is its principal diagonal. any matrix of Ex. simply. . t = 1. . If A is our m by n motion of the rigid matrix and m < n we put q = m and write (11) The operation A = (A.. Give also (7). We also observe the evident theorem which we state simply as (10) (AJ = A. Notice now that A' is obtained from A by using the diagonal of A as an axis for a rigid rotation of A so that each row of A becomes a column of A'. where analogous result if A = 1. Note then that in accordance with our conventions been written as (9) (8) 23 could have A' = ((a.) (j  1. ....). We shall pass have now given some simple concepts in the theory of matrices and on to a study of certain fundamental operations. . . . . A. 1 assume that A = A'. We shall call the a. EXERCISES for A'. A. Find the form (2) of A if A = A' and . q = n and have (12) if n < m... In Ex. Let A have the form Give the corresponding notation A' if A is tives of those of 3. Let if also A be a threerowed square matrix. )..} . . .. We should also observe that if A has been partitioned so that it has the . m) . . . we put (A W' l \ where the matrix A\ is again a #rowed square matrix.. . 2.RECTANGULAR MATRICES column.*. the diagonal of A.<= 1. of transposition may be regarded as the result of a certain matrix which we shall now describe. The line of elements a aq of A and hence of A\ is called the principal diagonal of A an. . 1 of Section 1. What then is the form (7) of A ? Obtain the A is the matrix whose elements are the negaA'.. . form (13) (6) then A 1 is the t by s matrix of matrices given by A' = (G/0 (On = A'rfj** 1. On the other hand. a 22 or. A = A'. n.the diagonal elements of A.
. 'Let i and r be distinct integers. for example. equation (4. The addition of a scalar multiple of one equation of (1) to another results in the addition of a corresponding multiple of a corresponding linear form to another and hence to a corresponding result on the rows of A. * . and the reader equations Which are permitted in this method familiar with the operations on method and which A are called elementary transformations on tools in the theory of matrices. & 2 .24 4. for example. multiplication by a scalar) of such sequences were defined in Section 1. 4. Lemma 4.7. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Prove that the determinant of every threerowed square matrix A with the property that A! 5. Solve the system (1) with matrix / 1 2 4 1\ 4= V for in terms of fo.8. Do this system (1) with matrix A' and com Elementary transformations.9. and the operations of addition and scalar multiplication (i. Theorem 8. Let i 5^ r and B be the matrix obtained from A by interchanging its ith and rth rows (columns). c be a scalar. 2/s Write the results as also for the == x & A' and thus com pute the matrix pare the results. Thus. equation (10) in Chapter IV.8.10) we shall mean Section 7. 1 2 32 3/ 3 2/ 2/1. Theorem 4. Thus we make the following DEFINITION 2. by Section 4. B = (&*/). The rows (columns) of an m by n matrix are sequences of n (of m) elements. Lemma 9. as. Theorem 8.e. and B be me matrix obtained by the addition to the ith row (column) of A of the multiple by c of its Tth row (column). we shall mean that theorem of the chapter in which the reference is made. We define this and the corresponding column transformation in the DEFINITION 1. Then B is said to be obtained from A by an elementary row (column) transformation of type 1. if the prefix is omitted. Then B is said to be obtained from A by an elementary row (column) transformation of type 2. A A and will turn out to be very useful of our transformations is the result on the rows of A of the intertwo equations of the defining system. The system is (1) may be solved by the yield systems said to be equivalent to (1). However. 2/2. Jt 8 . = A is zero. The resulting operations on the rows of the of the system and corresponding operations on the columns of matrix of elimination. Our final type of transformation is induced by the multiplication of an We shall use a corresponding notation henceforth when we make references anywhere in our text to results in previous chapters.* The The first change of left members of (1) are linear forms.
RECTANGULAR MATRICES
25
equation of the system (1) by a nonzero scalar a. The restriction a 7* is made so that A will be obtainable from B by the like transformation for or 1 Later we shall discuss matrices whose elements are polynomials
.
in x
and use elementary transformations with polynomial
scalars a.
We
a to be a polynomial with a polynomial inverse and hence to be a constant not zero. In view of this fact we shall phrase the definition in our present environment so as to be usable in this other
shall then evidently require
situation
and hence state it as DEFINITION 3, Let the scalar a possess an inverse or 1 and the matrix B be obtained as the result of the multiplication of the ith row (column) of A by a. Then B is said to be obtained from A by an elementary row (column*) transformation of type
8.
in the theory of matrices are connected with the study of the matrices obtained from a given matrix A by the application of a finite sequence of elementary transformations, restricted by the
The fundamental theorems
particular results desired, to A. Thus, it is of basic importance to study first what occurs if we make no restriction whatever on the elementary
transformations allowed. For convenience in our discussion
the
we
first
make
DEFINITION. Let
tions.
A and Rbembyn matrices and let B be obtainable from A
many
arbitrary elementary transforma
by the successive application of finitely
Then we
shall say that
A is
rationally equivalent to
B
and
indicate this
by writing
A ^
B.
We now
see that,
observe some simple consequences of our definition. First,
we
if is rationally equivalent to B and B is rationally equivalent to to C, the combination of the elementary transformations which carry
A
A
B
with those which carry B to C will carry equivalent to C. Observe next that every
equivalent to
c
itself.
A
to C.
Then
m by n matrix is rationally For the elementary transformations of type 2 with
=
1
A A
is
rationally
=
and of type 3 with a
are identical transformations leaving
all
matrices unaltered.
Finally, we see that if an elementary transformation carries A to B there an inverse transformation of the same type carrying B to A. In fact, the
1
is
inverse of
any transformation of type 2 defined for c is that defined for c, of type 3 defined by a is that defined for a" of type 1 is itself. But then A is rationally equivalent to B if and only if B is rationally equivalent to A.
,
verify the fact that, if we apply any elementary row transformaand then any column transformation to the result, the matrix obtained is the same as that which we obtain by applying first the column transformation and then the row transformation.
*
The reader should
tion to
A
26
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES
shall replace the
is rationally equivalent are rationally equivalent. have now shown that in order to prove that and are rationally both rationally equivalent to the and equivalent it suffices to prove
Thus we may and
terminology
A
to
B
in the definition above
by A
and
B
We
A
B
A
B
same matrix
C.
As a
tool in such proofs
we then prove
be
the following
LEMMA
1.
Let r
<
m,
s
<
n,
and
\
A and B
_
m by n matrices of the form
A,
/B,
r by n s rafor T by 8 rationally equivalent matrices AI and BI and B B A and and are Then matrices 2 2 rationally equivalent. tionally equivalent For it is clear that any elementary transformation on the first r rows and s
.
m
A
columns of
A
A
and the zero matrices bordering
of such transformations induced
will replace
induces a corresponding transformation on A\ and leaves A* it above unaltered. Clearly the sequence
by the transformations carrying A\
Bl <
to B\
by the matrix
A 
\0
A*)'
by
ele
M
r
We
similarly follow this sequence of elementary transformations
mentary transformations on the last which carry A 2 to B 2 and obtain B.
It is
m
rows and n
s
columns of
A
important also to observe that we may arbitrarily permute the rows of A by a sequence of elementary row transformations of type 2, and similarly we may permute its columns. For any permutation results from some properly chosen sequence of interchanges.
Before continuing further with the study of rational equivalence we shall introduce the familiar properties of determinants in the language of matrix theory and shall also define some important special types of matrices. We
shall
then discuss another result used for the types of proofs mentioned above.
5.
Determinants. Let
B
be the square matrix
(14)
The corresponding symbol
.....
(15)
bi
D
RECTANGULAR MATRICES
is
27
t.
called a trowed determinant or determinant of order
It is defined as the
sum
(16)
of the
t!
terms of the form
(l)*^*,...^,,
. . .
where the sequence of subscripts ii, t and the permutation 1*1, of 1, 2,
.
,
it
,
.
.
,
.
.
.
it
ranges over all permutations may be carried into 1,2,...,
is
t
1)* is unique interchanges. That the sign ( son's First Course in the Theory of Equations, and
proved in L. E. Dickshall assume this result as well as all the consequent properties of determinants derived there. The determinant D will be spoken of here as the determinant of the matrix
by
i
we
B
and we
shall indicate this
by writing
(17)
DD
fi
equals determinant 5). Nonsquare matrices A do not have determinants, but their square submatrices have determinants called the
(read
a square matrix of n > t rows, the complementary submatrix of any trowed square submatrix B is an (n t) rowed square matrix whose determinant and that of B are minors of A called complementary
minors of A.
If
A
is
minors. In particular, every element a,/ of a matrix A defines a onerowed square submatrix of A whose determinant is the element itself. Thus we have seen that the elements of a matrix may be regarded either as its onerowed
square submatrices or as its onerowed minors. We now pass to a statement of some of the most important results on determinants.
The
result
on the interchange of rows and columns of determinants menLet
'
tioned in Section 3
LEMMA
(18)
2.
may now be stated as Abe a square matrix. Then
A'
=
A.
The next three properties of determinants are those frequently used in the computation of determinants, and we shall state them now in the language we have just introduced.
LEMMA
3.
Let
B
be the matrix obtained
.
from a square matrix
A
A.
by an
by an
ele
mentary transformation of type 1 Then B A. LEMMA 4. Let B be the matrix obtained from a square matrix
=
ele
mentary transformation of type
2.
Then

B = A


.

LEMMA
5.
Let
B
be the matrix obtained
mentary transformation of'type The reader will recall that
to obtain
from a square matrix A by an ele3 defined for a scalar a. Then B =a A.
Lemma
3
may
be used in a simple fashion
Then B has two equal rows and by Lemma 6 will B B =0. . Of particular importance is that result which might be used to define determinants by an induction on order and which does yield the actual process ordinarily used in the expansion of a determinant. .28 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES LEMMA 6. that is. Those we shall use are. The and Let result (20) is of fundamental importance in our theory of matrices be applied presently together with the following parallel result. and of these we shall use only very few. i. If a square matrix has two equal rows or columns. we have 8. Combining umns we have (21) this result with the corresponding property about col a ik ckq *~1 = k=l (i c 8k a k j = T* q. . n) . . = A + B. its determinant is Finally. B. // a square matrix has a zero row or column. j. the determinant of A is obtainable as the sum of the products of the elements a/ in any row (column) of A by their cofactors c/i. We expand B as above according to the elements of its ith row and obtain as its vanishing determinant the sum of the products of all elements in the qih row of A by the cofactors of the elements in the ith row   of A. Thus. the properly signed and labeled minors ( l) <4 " J 'd t/. its determi nant is zero. . 7. Then (19) C are. . Then the result we refer to states that if we i+) define c/* = ( l) 'da then We let A (20)  A =  aikCki = c ik a ki (i. n) . also well known to the reader. s ^ j. of course. = 1. Another result of this type is LEMMA zero. of course. j. . be an nrowed square matrix A = (o</) and define AH to be the complementary minor of aj. LEMMA Let A. . . is the C be nrowed square matrices such that the ith row (column) of C sum of the ith other rows (columns) of B and C row (column) of and that of B while all are the same as the corresponding rows (col A umns) of A. q. 8 = 1. There many other properties of determinants. be the matrix obtained from a square matrix A by replacing the tth row of A by its qth row.
and. These relations its will have important We call the matrix (22) the adjoint of A and see that if A= (an) is an nrowed square matrix adjoint is the nrowed square matrix with the cofactor of the element which appears in the jth row and ith column of A as the element in its own tth row and jth column./) is called a diagonal matrix matrix A if it is a square matrix. we have The determinant of a triangular matrix is is the product ana22 . Expand the determinants below and verify the following instances of Lem ma 8: 321 a) 1 3 1 2 3 01 1 1 003 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 01 1 3 1 234 6../) is triangular if it is true that either a. = (a. moreover. n) . that is. There are certain square matrices which have speforms but which occur so frequently in the theory of matrices that they have been given special names. Compute the adjoint of each of the matrices 2. EXERCISES 1. . (i. Clearly. 1. . if A = then adj A = 0. 1 1 4 1 3 1 234 1 234 1 1 Special matrices. = if for all j that an for all j < i. j = 1. . . Thus a square matrix A = = (a. It is clear that A is triangular and only if > i or A is 7 triangular.  A = \ an. a nn of its diagonal elements. .RECTANGULAR MATRICES The equations square matrix (22) (20) 29 A and (21) exhibit certain relations between the arbitrary and the matrix we define as adj A = later consequences. The result above clearly true if n = 1 so that A = (an). The most general of these is the triangular cial matrix. . We first assume it induction by 1 and complete our true for square matrices of order n expanding \A according to the elements of its first row or \ column A in the respective cases above. a square matrix having the property that either all its elements to the right or all to the left of its diagonal are zero. Theorem .
The reader will find that this usage will cause neither difficulty nor confusion. a diagonal matrix A is triangular so the product of its diagonal elements. We let A be a square matrix and partition it as in = t and the submatrices An all square matrices. We shall discuss the implications of this notation later./ = . we shall indicate the order by a subscript and thus shall write either 7 n or I as is convenient for the n rowed identity matrix. Then the La(6) with s place expansion clearly implies that if all the A/ are zero matrices for either all i > j or all i <j. where a = an is the common value of the diagonal elements of the matrix. . (24) implies that 4 is necessarily square. .30 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = its and a/ that If all determinant Clearly. The property above and that of Theorem 1 are special instances of a more general situation. We shall frequently feel it desirable to of the forms consider square matrices of either Al A A. Evidently Theorem 1 is the case where the A. sidered in (24) the case where t = 2. and every A. we call the for all i ^ j. are onerowed square matrices and the result con. Any (23) scalar matrix may be indicated by of. then A = An A. It is natural to call any m by n matrix all of whose elements are zeros a zero matrix. In connection with the discussion just completed we shall define a notation which is quite useful. fact that the Laplace expansion of de where A! is a square matrix. Then and the reader should verify the terminants implies that A A  A =  Ai A 4 . the diagonal elements of a diagonal matrix are equal. In any discussion of matrices we shall use the notation to represent not only the number zero but any zero matrix. Let be a square matrix partitioned as in (6) A and suppose that s = t} the An are all square matrices. is matrix a scalar matrix and have \A = ajl4 The scalar matrix for which an = 1 is called the nrowed identity matrix and will usually be designated by 7. If there be some question as to the order of I or if we are discussing \ several identity matrices of different orders.
By an ? r c > = 1. of A is the product of the determinants of its submatrices Ai. and I\ is the identity matrix of one are rationally equivalent. .. either AI = and we have (26) for / = /i. .. by Lemma 1. and we shall indicate this Then A is by writing (25) A = diag{Ai. A is rationally equivalent to a matrix (29) . For by elementary transformations of type 7* we may carry any element a pq of A into the element 6u of a matrix B which is rationally equivalent 1 elementary transformation of type 3 defined for a = frji we = 1. LEMMA matrix 9. In closing we note the following result which we referred to at the close of Section 4. the determinant .A. or our proof shows that AI is rationally equivalent to a matrix is Now Ai an m 1 by n A and A ( But t then. 31 composed of zero matrices and matrices Ai = An which are what we may call its diagonal blocks.. d r \ = to A. Moreover.}. Every nonzero m by n matrix A is rationally equivalent to a /I (26) 0\ \o or 1 where I is an identity matrix.RECTANGULAR MATRICES for i 7* j. and then use elementary column transformations of type 2 with dir to replace D by the matrix row.. At. . We then apply replace B by a rationally equivalent matrix C with c\\ = of 2 with row transformations c c r \ to replace C by elementary type for the rationally equivalent matrix D = (d< ) such that du = 1. As above. 1 matrix. Clearly.
1\ 5/ d) /O 2\ 1 c) Vl 2 4 VO 5 3J 4. and by row transformations we may a matrix with ones on the diagonal and zeros below and then into /. EXERCISES 1. Carry the following matrices into rationally equivalent matrices of the (26) / form 3 5 1 10 2 4\ 6) /I 1 2\ a) I \l 1  211 O/ (2 \1 3 2 5] 3/ 2023 0000 i (1 2. Hint: The property \A\ in the first column carry 7. . is After finitely We shall show later that the number of rows in the matrix I of (26) uniquely determined by A. / a) 2 32\ 27 3 1 1 \5 / J . is ^ of A The largest order of any nonvanishing minor of a rectangular matrix A is called the rank of A. 3 2 4 1 x /! 6) \ . 1 2\ o i iy Apply elementary row transformations only arid carry each of the following matrices into a matrix of the form (26) 10^ 2250 2152 10 00 ly 3. * e. A = (11). Some element must not be zero. A into preserved by elementary transformations. Not every matrix may be take carried into the form (26) by row transformations only.. The result of (20) states that every (t + l)rowed minor of A is a sum of nuRational equivalence of rectangular matrices.32 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES many such steps we obtain (26).g. Show that if carried into the identity matrix the determinant of a square matrix A is not zero then A can be by elementary row* transformations alone. Apply elementary column transformations only and carry each of the following matrices into a matrix of the form (26).
 1 I \  1 I    . Let and let all (r + l)rowed Note that we are assigning zero as the rank of the zero matrix and that the rank of any nonzero matrix is at least 1. and A has a Ao. then AJ = A\. + l)rowed minors of A vanish. a row erf B is in the ith row of A and a row of B is in the 0th row of B.        1    1   \ \ l  .4 we have B = B If. If. and the former. and our proof shows the Also there exists an rrowed minor B 5* = B or B = B + c C in existence of a corresponding minor B =0 implies that C = cr \B\ ^ 0. But then it is easy to see that C is a minor of A as well as of AO.RECTANGULAR MATRICES merical multiples of its Crowed minors. The problem of computing the rank of a matrix definition A would seem from our and lemmas to involve as a minimum requirement the computation of at least one rrowed minor of A and all (r + l)rowed minors. then by Lemma 8 Bo = B + c C where C is a Crowed square matrix all but one of whose rows coincide with those of B. But then B nonzero rrowed minor C. 11. the . Let then A result from the application of an elementary row transformation of either type 1 or type 3 to A. however. the correspondingly placed submatrix B of A is equal to B if no row of B is a part of the ith row of A. If A has rank r we put t = r + 1 and see of A that B = C =0. and this remaining row is obtained by ever. Bo = Of or every (r + 1) rowed minor B in A. By the above  \ . We thus clearly have if 33 all the latter are zero so are LEMMA is at 10. A and A have the same rank. a row of B is in the ith row of A but no row is in the 0th row of A. that if an elementary row transformation be applied to the transpose A' of A to obtain Ai and the corresponding column transformation be applied to A to obtain Ao. We are thus led to study the effect of such transformations on the rank of a matrix. By Lemmas 3 and 5 every Crowed minor of A is the product by a nonzero scalar of a uniquely corresponding Crowed minor of A. then by Lemma 2. replacing the elements of B in the ith row of A by the correspondingly columned elements in its 0th row. Howproblem may be tremendously simplified by the application of elementary transformations. Let all (r r. finally. If Ao results when we add to the ith row of A the product by c 7^ of its 0th row and B is a Crowed square submatrix of A. and the computations themselves generally quite complicated. Then r is the rank of A. finally. Then the rank of A most We may also LEMMA minors of state this result as A have a nonzero rrowed minor A vanish. We observe. and it follows that A and Ao have the same rank. The number of determinants to be computed would then normally be rather large.
let the rank r of two by n matrices m A and B be the same 9 to carry A into a rationally equivalent matrix (26). r.34 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES proof A' and AI have the same rank. have also the consequent COROLLARY. We have thus proved what we regard as the principal result of this chapter. respectively. (H 0). By the above proof A and this matrix have the same rank. If we then apply the inverses of the column transformations in reverse order to (30). where G is an Trowed matrix. I = I r and use Lemma . Conversely. and to A. A < is rationally equivalent to (o' Similarly. But then Theorem 2 implies. H is an Tcolumned matrix. by Lemma 2 A and A! have the same minors and hence the same rank. by a sequence of elementary row or column transformations only. as in Ex. any two rationally equivalent matrices have the same rank. we is For A by a sequence of elementary first may obtain (30) by row and column applying all the row transformations and then all the column transformations. Every urowed nonsingular matrix is rationally equivalent to nrowed identity matrix. Hence. Theorem they have the Two m by n matrices are rationally equivalent if and only if m r is rationally equivalent to same rank. Theorem 3. Thus. Clearly. It is clear that the rank of the matrix in (26) is the number of rows in the matrix /. Every m by n matrix of rank r > may be carried into a matrix of the forms (31) . we obtain the result of the application of the row transformations alone to A. 4 of Section 6. But column transformations applied to (30) clearly carry this matrix into . Every by n matrix of rank We an m by n matrix is (SO). In closing let us observe a result of the application to a matrix of either the row transformations only or column transformations only. A matrix is called nonsingular if it is a square matrix and its determinant not zero. I) (30) B is rationally equivalent to 2. A and A have the same rank. We shall prove Theorem 4. so that A\ and A( = AQ have the same rank. and both G and H have rank equivalent to (30) transformations.
Compute the rank r of the following matrices by using elementary transformabut r tions to carry each into a matrix with all rows (or columns) of zeros and an obvious rrowed nonzero minor. . Hint: If necessary carry A and B into the form (30) and then apply the inverses of those transformations which carry B into (30) to carry (30) into B. it is evident that the rank of this matrix is that of (?. B=ll VO /I 1 \3 3/ 0. Moreover. Carry the first of each of the following pairs of matrices into the second by elementary transformations. The result for column transformations is obtained similarly. EXERCISES 1. 4 2 4 6 I/ 1\ J5=(60 \1 A = ( 2 2 1 .RECTANGULAR MATRICES 35 a matrix of the form given by the first matrix of (31). /I a) 1 ( 1 5 5 3\ 2 /2 6) 1 (  1 4 14 32 11 \1 I/ 3 4 16 \1 /' c) 4 12 2. A = /2 1 3\ ' _ /I n 6)A = (l \2 /I c) 2 i\ /2 3 1 221. G has rank r.
with n by q matrix stitute (2) in (1) B = (bj k ). carrying the y. xm and t/i. . ra. . m) . this system was said in Section y. mapping (3) is usually called the product of the mappings (1) and we shall also write C = AB and call the matrix C the product of the matrix have now defined the product AB of an m by n matrix A and an n by q matrix B to be a certain m by q matrix C. m) . by n matrix . if we sub we obtain a third linear mapping (3) Xi = 2*c ik z k it is (i = 1. . Moreover. . . y n are variables (1) Xi = atMi (i = 1. . . . . . . ping (1). . q) . Then. . We 36 .. . . . A = (a^) the matrix of the mapping carrying the mapy\. . . . . If xi. . . Multiplication of matrices. y n by a q (2) yi = ^b ik z k (j = 1. k = 1. . . n) . . with m by q matrix C = (CM). we have defined*C so that the element dk in its ith row and fcth column is obtained A by the matrix B. The and linear (2). related by a system of linear equations . . .CHAPTER III EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 1. . .9 to define a linear Xi to the We call the m . . Suppose now that 21. second linear mapping zq are variables related to . to the z k . and easily verified by substitution that (4) c ik  _ (i = 1. . 1. .
B is an n by q matrix. they are generally not equal and may not even be matrices of the same size. Observe also that I m is the matrix of the linear transformation Xi = yi for i = 1. . . A is an m by n matrix. . In symbols we state this result as (8) (AB)' = B'A' . AB is also. Here trix. matrices in the exercises below. A is m by n. But when both are defined. If A and B are nrowed square matrices. Note the examples of noncommutative square . (AB)' is a q by in mawhich we state is the product of the q by n matrix B' and the n by m . and m^n.* in the fcth column 61* 62* (6) of B.6. The transpose of a product of two matrices is the product of their transposes in reverse order. We have not defined and shall not define the product AB of two matrices in which the number of columns in A is not the same as the number of rows in B. we shall say that A and B are commutative if AB = BA. (7) if A is an m by n matrix. Im A a zero matrix the product then we have . . + o>i n b n k of the products of the elements ay in the ith row (5) of Ay by the corresponding elements ?>. = AI n = A where 7 r represents the rrowed identity matrix defined for every r as in Section 2. Observe that if either A or B is Moreover. w. the fact that AB is defined need not imply that BA is defined. evidently. This latter fact is clearly so if. for example. Finally. let us observe the following Theorem 1. . Thus we have stated what we shall speak of as the row by column rule for multiplying matrices.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS as the 37 sum dk = an&i* + + . and thus in this case the product of (1) by (2) is immediately (2) hence (7) is trivially true. Then. B is n by m. .
It is important to know that matrix multiplica tion has the property (9) (AB}C = A(BC) for every is mby n matrix A. 3. q by s matrix C. The associative law.38 matrix INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A f . the powers A of any square matrix are unique. . . Compute (3) and hence the product C = AB for the following linear changes variables (mappings) and afterward compute C by the row by column rule. of EXERCISES 1. 2/2 92/3 = *i 2z 2 s3 Compute the latter following matrix products is AB. /4 a) 3 2 1 /I 2 3^ 1 3 3 4^ \2 1 I/ \~1 2  2 3illi o "I/" t * A ^t f\ i . I I Vl == ~~~ "2*1 ^"2 i~ "^"8 Ixi = 2y l +  32/2 2/s ISai [2/1= 1 2/a + 26z 2 +  13* 8 Us = 2. In particular. Verify by explicit computation that EijEjk = Eik and that if j ?* g then EijE ok = 0. 2. We shall assume these two consequences of 6 .v ci. n by q matrix B. This result known as the associative law for matrix multiplication and it may be shown as a consequence that no matter how we group the factors in forming a product A\ At the result is the same. Compute also BA in the cases where the product 2\ 1 defined. We leave the direct application of the row by column rule to prove this result as an exercise for the reader. .   9 j/9 ^ n* o io 1  ith Let the symbol EH represent the threerowed square matrix with unity in the row and jth column and zeros elsewhere.
. m. . . I/ B = \0 ~3\ / / 2 1 1 ^a. = (ft/*). n) . Hence. j = 1. I = 1. BA = (btftf) (i = 1.! c) A(l 2 1 3). . q. then ' B by &<. . . Then that BA is defined. . G = H. . hu for all i and Z. where in all To prove (9) we write A . B cases is i = 1. . . 1 1 2 3\ A = 3 12. . . Let A = (a/) be an m by n matrix and of B be a diagonal matrix.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS (9) 39 without further proof and refer the reader to treatises on the founda tions of mathematics for general discussions of such questions./). C = (c k i). . . . m\j = 1. k = 1. . . Then it clear that the element in the ith row and Ith column of G = (AB)C is (10) gn while that in the same position in H = A(BC) is (ii) hu y = i Each of these expressions is a sum of nq terms which are respectively of the form (dijbjk^Cki and a^bjkCki). (12) ith diagonal element is rarowed so our definition of product implies that if and designate the B . and (9) is proved. . . n. . But those terms in the respective sums with the same sets of subscripts are equal. gu EXERCISES Compute the products /2 o) (AB)C and A(BC) in the following cases. Products by diagonal and scalar matrices. since we have already assumed that the elements of our matrices satisfy the associative law a(bc) = (ab)c. . = (a. s. . . . 3.
Then Let the diagonal elements of an nrowed diagonal matrix B be the only nrowed square matrices commutative with B are the We may now nrowed diagonal matrices. Now. . . then (14) implies that a.. j = 1. = 0. n) . . next see that. the elements in the ith column of EjB must be zero. The only nrowed square matrices which are commutative with every nrowed square matrix are the scalar matrices. Then from (12) and (13) we see that (14) AB = BA if and only if (&<  bj)av = = . = l. the product of A by a diagonal matrix on the right is the result of multiplying the columns of A in turn by the corre sponding diagonal elements of B. let m = n. For (15) let B = (ba) (i.. j = 1. As an immediate consequence simple of the case bi . we have 6/ = is the matrix with 1 in its first row and jth column and zeros elsewhere.40 while (13) if INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES B is nrowed. prove the converse of Theorem 2 a result which is the inspiration of the name scalar matrix. n) . .< is in the for j j* i.n) A. . Theorem 4. if i 7* j and & 5^ This gives the result we shall state as We &/. Thus if i ^ j. and 5 is a diagonal matrix. Every nrowed scalar matrix is commutative with all nrowed square matrices. First. Thus the product of a matrix A by a diagonal matrix B on the left is obtained as the result of multiplying the rows of A in turn by the corresponding diagonal elements of B.j. . the the diagonal matrix with unity in . Since 6. then AB = (aijbj) (i = 1. 3. ra. . . . (i. . If D ith column. . be and suppose that B is commutative with every nrowed square matrix We shall select A in various ways to obtain our theorem. Equations (12) and (13) imply that the jth row of EjB is the same as that of B and the jth column of BEj is the same as that of 5. . .. . we let E its 3 jth row and column and zeros elsewhere and put BEj = EjB.. A be a square matrix. = bn we have the very Theorem 2. while all other columns of BEj are zero. Theorem all distinct.
and B is the scalar matrix 6/ n Let us now observe that if A is any m by n matrix and a is any scalar. fry. 0\ 6) A = \0 1 07 . 2. then (16) is (a! m )A = A(al n) by n matrix whose element in the ith row and jth column is the product by a of the corresponding element of A. This is then a type of an product (17) m aA = Aa like that defined in Chapter I for sequences. we have defined (17) as the instances (16) of our matrix product (4). . B = 1 o 1 Ov /O ** 000 2/ (2 73 d) 02 01 002 or 0\ 0\ _ ~ / 1 01 1 o o \0 A \0 2 17 . . Compute the products rule if EXERCISES AB and BA by the 0\ use of (12) and (13) as well as the row by column 71 a) A = \0 71 2 37 .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 41 product BDj has bu in its first row and jth column and is equal to the matrix DjB which has 6/. Find all threerowed square matrices /I o) B such that BA = AB\i 0\ 4 = 1 b) A . . = bn = 6 for j = 2. However. and we shall call such a product the scalar product of a by A. 1.in this same place. . . n. Hence.
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Prove by direct multiplication that BA = AB if i 2 = 1 and 4. Let w be a primitive cube root of unity. . Apply an elementary row (column) transformation to A (to B) resulting in what we shall designate by Ao(by B ). Then (0) (0) (18) Co = AB . . 3 3 Compute BAB if Ha where c ic d\ c)' Hi n /O 1\ o)' c and d are any ordinary complex numbers. 1 AB on of type by applying it to A. . Let A be an m by n matrix. We might of course give a formula for each E and verify the statement..in the right members of (4) Thus we obtain the result of an elementary row transformation get c. if we replace a^ by a. Elementary transformation matrices. . Our definitions also imply that for elementary row transformations of type 3 the result stated as (18) follows For proof we see that we from (19) .! . 4 has the property B = al and that the A = 7. C<> = AB<> . . q) .*. . We shall show that the matrix which is the result of the application of any elementary row (column) transformation to an m by n matrix A is a corresponding product EA (the product AN) where E is a uniquely determined square matrix. . B be an n by q matrix so that C = AB is an m by q matrix. . but it is simpler to describe E and to obtain our results by a device which is a consequence of the following Theorem 5.42 3.'1 (i = 1. and then the same elementary transformation to C resulting in Co (in C ). A has the property B of Ex. and 3 are their conjugates. m. Prove that BA wAB if 5. Show that the matrix matrix 6. Obtain similar results for the matrices of Ex. .. k = 1. 4. 3.
and if Ri(a) is nrowed. result and we have proved the first equation in (18).EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS Finally. n. P. ./(c). 43 we n see that for type 2 they follow / from / n \ n \ 1 (20) yi 2} (a*.2 as the following . cc 9k = . we may interpret Theorem 2. the product AE^ is the result an elementary column transformation of type 1 on A. R^a^R^a) = E i (a)^ i (a~ 1 ) = / . First of all. and Ri(a) elementary transformation matrices of types 1. k = . in which 7 is the matrix called E above. The corresponding column C (0) = AB (Q) has an obvious parallel proof or may be thought of as obtained being by the process of transposition. . Thus the elementary column transformations give rise to exactly the same set of elementary transformation matrices as were obtained from the row transformations. Here we define EH I. to be the matrix obtained by interchanging the ith and jth rows of by adding c times the jth row of I to its Oh row. and if P. then ARi(a) is the result of an elementary column transformation of type 3 on A. Similarly.7 in terms of elementary transformation matrices. then APa(c) is the result of an elementary column transformation of type 2 on A. (22) (PH(C)]' = P. Ri(a) by multiply ing the ith row of / by a ? 0. P. . We shall call EH. E En = i3 / . Then we see that to apply any elementary row transformation to A we simply multiply A on the left by either EH. q) . Observe that (21) Eh = E. . or R<(a). and 3. 2. = c ik + 1. of if we now assume that EH is nrowed. P*.. . + ca j)b = t 3k I \yi ^a^b/^  / + c I \yi (i ^^A* / 1. respectively. . We shall now interpret the results of Section 2.(c) supply further details.(c) is nrowed. so that.(c).< = EH . P(c)P w (c) = P(c)P(c) = / . Finally.(c) . (23) [Ri(a)Y = Rt(a) . It is surely unnecessary to We now write A = IA where / is the rarowed identity matrix and apply Theorem 5 to obtain A = /<>A.
By Theorem 5. that is.4. mentary transformations carrying A into an r rows are all zero. Qt such that . . ^ 0) 2 l 2. . (24) is the AB = A B. Find the elementary transformation jjrtatjafes corresponding to the elementary of that exer row transformations used in Ex.30) by matrix multiplication. if the rank of A is r. A Qt. .Qi matrix. transformation matrices PI. m . The rank of a product of two matrices does not exceed the rank of either factor. and consequently B . EXERCISES 1. by Theorem 2. Then r rows of the wrowed matrix C are all zero. and the rank of result C is the rank of relation on the C and is at most r. In the theory of determinants it is the shown that symbol for the product of two determinants may be computed as the row by column product of the symbols for its factors. . Every nonsingular matrix is a product of elementary transforma We shall close the results with an important consequence of Theorem 2. The determinant of a product of two square matrices product of the determinants of the factors.)A(Qi . The corresponding between the ranks of C and B is obtained similarly. . tion matrices. In our The determinant present terminology this result may be stated as Theorem 7. we the bottom m obtain a rationally equivalent matrix Co = A Q B. B = if (?! . v Theorem 2. .44 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES LEMMA 1. 6. 2 of Sectfoi^fcfrand carry the matrices cise into the form (2. Let A and B be . Express the following as products of elementary transformation matrices. and it is interesting to note that it is possible to derive the theorem as a . Q t) and only if A and B have the same rank. of a product. The usual proof in determinant theory of the result is quite complicated. is the nrowed identity . . Theorem For. Thus we obtain LEMMA 2. by n matrices. . tom there exists a sequence of eleby n matrix A Q whose bot m if m we apply these transforma tions to C = AB. . P.3 is the case of Lemma l where = PI P. Then there exist elementary P 8 Qi.4. as desired. . . 6.
and hence G = \E\ G. that (?    It follows clearly that. then Lemmas 2. inverse Nonsingular matrices. G.= / = 1. 1. We shall. but we shall prove instead the result that if A 5^ then A" 1 is For if  1 (25) holds. . if . \Ei\ G. give such a derivation. Moreover. by A . From our definiwe see that. and 2.. or a. P and then \B\ We apply this reto A B to obtain J8 \AB\ = Pi.20) and (2. matrices. where adj our symbol for the adjoint matrix defined in (2. . and Lemma 2.4. if E is an nrowed elementary transformation matrix of 1. Hence.. then \E\ = nrowed square matrix and <7 = EG. respectively. then EiO\ = \E t sult first to A to obtain \A\ = Pi . Thus. Ei.aG . A ^ 0.A = 8..  \  \ A = PL.3.21) in terms of matrix product. =  \A\ as desired. . we have Theorem singular.P. therefore. B is = 7 is the nrowed an nrowed square matrix which we shall l 1 designate (25) by A* and thus write 1 AA~ = A.. The converse may be shown to follow from (21). respectively. . E t are . . I l multiplication by the scalar \A\~ and we observe that (27) is the inis terpretation of (2. if G is an type 1.5 imply = \G\. A square ?>8j^m^A has an inverse if and only ^ if A is non we apply Theorem 7 to obtain \A JA. (23). tions where the Pi are elementary transformation matrices.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 45 simple consequence of our theorems which were obtained independently and which we should have wished to derive even had Theorem 7 been as sumed. or 3. . . . . M_i . I .22). Pi .P. \ !   \ uniquely determined as the matrix (26) A* This formula follows from the matrix equation (27) A(adj A) = (adj A) A = A . (22). \ any elementary transformation .. 2. P. Clearly. We thus let A and B be nrowed square matrices and see that Theorem 6 states that if A = then AB = 0. = 6. An nrowed square matrix if there exists a matrix B such that AB = BA A is said to have an identity matrix. 2. by Lemma 2. let A be nonsingular so that.
. Compute the inverses of the following matrices by the use of (26). We note also that. that C = AB  the identity matrix. This is clear since in either l case \A\ ^ 0. if 2. that is. Show 1. adj A has rank   1. if A (28) B are nonsingular. Finally. and similarly BA = and /. Use Ex. shall (1) is what we called a nonsingular linear mapping in Section 1.lA~ l ) lar we have (29) = A(BB~ )A~ = A A" = l /. But this is then possible if and only if A 5^ 0. A~ l of (26) exists. = B+A* 1 . (AB)* l For (AB)(B.9. that if A By is has rank Hint: an nrowed square matrix of rank n 1 ?* = 0. if A is nonsingu (AO'^A')/' 1 .46 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES We now prove A~~ then B is unique by showing that if either AB = / or BA = / 1 necessarily the matrix A" of (26). and adj (adj A) = A if n  adj (adj n~2 A A) = A n > 2 3. Use the result above and (28) to prove that 2 and A ^ 0. PAQ(Q~ 1 adj A) (27) we have A(adj A) 0. 4. 1 A n = linear q mapping (1) is with m= (A. if A" = A^I = A~ (AB) = (A~ A)B = 1 l 1 IB = B. 1 and (27) to show that adj A = lA]^ 1 .)' = (AyA'.)' is the inverse of A'. We use this concept later in studying the equivalence of forms. For = if I = (AA. then adj for A = Then the first n 1 rows of Q"1 adj A \ must be zero. if  1 (2) with is the product (3) the identical mapping. EXERCISES 1. n has an inverse mapping is.
(The details of an instance of this method are given in the example at the end of Section 8. We Theorem EXERCISES 1. Show is rank 2 that the product AB of any threerowed square matrices A and B of not zero. Equivalence of rectangular matrices.30). Compute C and verify that (AE)C = I by direct multiplication. = 7.2 shows that the elements of P and Q in (30) may be taken to be rational functions. We first DEFINITION. is to be regarded here as simply another definition of equivalence given Theorem the 9. The reader should notice that the definition of rational equivalence form of the above and. = 2. with rational coefficients. B. we may obtain P by apillustrative plying those elementary row transformations used in that exercise to I m and similarly for Q. AB for the following matrices. Observe that P and Q are necessarily square matrices of m and n rows. Hint: There exist matrices P and Q such that A = PAQ has the form (2. if AB = 0. Hint: If A is m by n. Compute the ranks A.6 PAQ has the form (2.) 2. respectively. exist make the Two m by n matrices A and B are called equivalent if there nonsingular matrices P and Q such that (30) PAQ = B . Two m by n matrices are equivalent if and only if they have same rank. we have A*B* = where B Q B and may be shown to have two rows with elements of QrlB has all zero. 1 of Section 2. that above is the one which has always been given in previous expositions of matrix theory. By Lemma 2 both P and Q are products of elementary transformation matrices and therefore A and B are equivalent if and only if A and B are rationally equivalent. while the previous definition is more useful for proofs.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS 5. Then. emphasize in closing that. if A and B are equivalent. Hint: into a simpler matrix A Q = PA by row transformations alone. Our considerations thus far have been devised as relatively simple steps toward a goal which we may now attain. We may now apply Lemma 1 and have the principal result of the present chapter. Carry A B into B Q = BQ by . of the elements of A and B. the proof of 2.30) for r the same rank as 3. 47 Let A be the matrix of 1 by (28) (d) above and B be the matrix of (e). Compute matrices such that P and Q for each of the matrices A of Ex.
made for the case of bi by the presentation of certain notations which will simplify our The onerowed matrices (31) x' = (xi. a) A= 2 3 4 . . and thus compute the rank stead of that of = P(AE)Q in AB. . . y' = z'(A') 1 = x'(A~y of (32) for y in terms of x (or y' in terms of x'). x m) . xn is the solution (33) y = A 1 x . . But then the solution of (1) for yi. have called (1) a nonsingular linear mapping singular. y n) let have onecolumned matrices x and y as their respective transposes. .48 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES of AoB<> column transformations alone. . y' = (yi. . . and shall by n matrices We shall again consider m A now introduce the no tation (34) . x = P'u . . As we indicated at the close of Chapter I. Bilinear 4^ 11 02 5/ forms. . y n as linear forms in xi. A be the m by n matrix of the system of equations (1) and see that system may be expressed as either of the matrix equations (32) We this x = Ay . . . We if . We now precede the introduction of those restrictions which are linear forms discussion. m= n and A is non . . the problem two forms of the same of determining the conditions for the equivalence of is restricted type customarily modified by the imposition of corresponding restrictions on the linear mappings which are allowed. . and variables Xi and y. x' = y'A' . B B 1213 583 (352 8.
. It follows also that every bilinear form of rank r is equivalent to so that B = PAQ A the form (37) zit/i + . Xi to new variables Uk. so that the transpose P of P is a nonsingular mrowed 1 = Um). (35) y = Q Q and 1. if . we write (u\. . v' = (v\ t . . . and we call the m by n matrix A the matrix rankle rank of/. . . . v n ). . . for r m. carried by these mappings / is B. . its (31).EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS for a nonsingular linear fc 49 i. . two bilinear forms f and g are equivalent if and only if their matrices are equivalent. . . . . A bilinear form / = Zziauj//. . . m and j ~ 1. Similarly. Thus. equivalent there exist nonsingular linear mappings (34) and (35) such um and Vi. and are yn / by say g Here x and y are given by . . The matrix f of / is 23 1 3 1^ W6 W 5 . . of/. . square matrix and u = 1. . But if (34) holds. . for a nonsingular nrowed square matrix return to the study of bilinear forms. . and are equivalent. We now . By Theorem 9 we see that two bilinear forms are equivalent if and only if they have the same rank. . xm m n B. then x' = u'P and = (u'P)A(Qv) = u'(PAQ)v . n. . . for i = . mapping carrying the . ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE We shall find nonsingular linear mappings (34) and (35) which carry the form into a form of the type (37). Then with matrix we shall that and ?/i. . Also let g = x'By be a bilinear form in #1. v n into which / is that the matrix of the form in ui. . These results complete the study of the equivalence of bilinear forms. . is a scalar which may be regarded as a onerowed square matrix and is then the matrix product (36) / = x'Ay . . +xy r r . . .
x&i 2 2x22/2 .8 + 3i. Use the method above to mappings which carry the o) 2x<yi + 3x# . add twice the new first We interchange the first and second new second row. EXERCISES find nonsingular linear following bilinear forms into forms of the type (37).30) f or r = 2 by adding five times the column and V times the second column of /I PA to its third column. 2 as desired. We then add the second row to the third row.Jtt2 + Uz = Ui .ftt2 ~ = ^3 Vi 2/2 4W3 . add 6 times the new first row to the row to the third row. and obtain which evidently has rank the first 2. the second row by /I and obtain 05\ i PA= o \o y o/ o The matrix P is obtained by performing the transformations above on the threerowed identity matrix. 1.50 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES rows of A. I i 2/3 = = = vi t>2 + 5^3 ^3 We verify by direct substitution that (6vi  30t. multiply J. and hence / Pf* \ 1 1 I 4 0\ o I/ . row by 1. Then 5\ 1 Q = \0 V 17  The corresponding linear mappings f (34) and (35) are given respectively ( by xi I I Z2 Z8 = . We continue and carry first PA into PAQ of the form (2.
mapping on . n so that the matrices A of forms/ = x'Ay are square matrices. We A and B congruent if there exists a nonsingular matrix P satisfying (38). of the type (37). .2x yi 2xiyi Xiy + 3xi2/ + . a) c) Xii/i  4xi2/ 2 + Zi2/ 8  x 22/i +xy 2 2 d) e) 3 2x42/2  Find a nonsingular linear mapping on 2/1. Q = 4. Hint: The matrices A of the forms of Ex. P. 4.X + 2X32/4 + 4X42/1 2xiyi 2 Zi2/a 8 22/i 2 2 2 s 3 2/i 2 zi2/4 2 32/3 X 4t/2 + OJ42/3 + 5X42/4 Use the method above to find a nonsingular linear mapping on Xi. 9. Then P = A" 1 AQ = / has the unique solution 3. 2 into forms of the type (37). x8 such that it and the identity mapping on 2/1. (38) B = PAP' shall call .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS c) 51 d) + 3xi2/ ~ + 5x + 2x y + x y + 3x . 2/3 such that it and the identical xi. y2 y* carry the following forms into forms 2. . Ex. Use elementary row transformations as above 6. . There are some important problems regarding special types of bilinear forms as well as the theory of equivalence of quadratic forms which arise when we restrict the linear mappings we use. Use elementary column transformations to compute the inverses of the fol lowing matrices. = P' Then/ and g and (35) are called cogredient mappings if Q (34) are clearly equivalent under cogredient mappings if and only if We let m = Then . 2/2. to compute the inverses of the matrices of Section 5. x 2 x3 carry the forms of Ex. X2. 2 are nonsingular so that the corresponding matrices P have the property PA = I. 1301 10 23 1 4 1 1\ O I 3 1 Congruence of square matrices.
. c 2 i congruent to A and with Ci 2 = For either A = = PAP' t a sequence of cogredient elementary transformations of type 2 where we add c/i times the second row of C to its jth row as well as c. An gruent to A and with a. Before passing to this study we observe that are congruent if and only if A imply that A and B Lemma 2 and Section 7 may be carried into B by a sequence of operations each of which consists of an elementary row transformation followed by the corresponding column transformation. .= hiz j^ 0. P.) con= ^22 = 0. if B is is symmetric if and only if A is symmetric.. then an = an for all and consequently every diagonal element of A 10. B = P . Hence is zero. 2 times the first row of C to its jth row for j = 3.) OJ .. r. A then B' if = PA'P'.. We shall speak of such operations mentary transformations of on a matrix A as cogredient elethe three types and shall use them in our study of the congruence of matrices. Skew matrices and skew bilinear forms. We thus obtain a skew matrix H = (/&.' P. We now apply 1.. Multiply ^12. . A = (an) is a an = skew matrix. . . i B is skew If and only a>a A skew. en = c 22 = 0. A square matrix A is called A. where the P* are elementary transformation matrices. and so deforth as 2 (P!APDP 2 P. \0 O/ for every P and our result is trivial. We may interchange the ith row and first row. P. . or some an T* 0. If B = PAP' is congruent to symmetric if A' = A. We use this result in the proof of Theorem the Two nrowed skew Moreover r is matrices are congruent if integer 2t..52 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES We shall not study the complicated question as to the conditions that two arbitrary square matrices be congruent but shall restrict our attention to two special cases. PI.) = 1.'. and thus obtain the skew . . PjAPJ .. same rank an even It and only if they and every skew matrix is thus congruent to a matrix /O (39) It 0\ . the ^'th and second row and thus also the corresponding columns by cogredient elementary transformations of type 1. .. hzi = the first row and column of H by h^ and obtain a skew matrix C = (c . Thus = P = P. . matrix (40) Ac = \ ' E_(0 * \1 1\ ' A. and j. and skew if A' = 10. n. . sired.
This is true for A = H if some diagonal element of A is not zero. = 0. + EXERCISES Use a method analogous to that of the exercises of Section 8 to find cogredient linear mappings carrying the following skew forms to forms of the type above. . and any cogredient elementary transformation on the last n and columns of A induces corresponding transformations on AI. . a) b) c) + 11. . . We then obtain H as the result of adding the jth row of A to its ith row and . .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS The matrix Ao is 53 congruent to A. the corresponding bilinear form x'Ay is a skew bilinear form. then G and A have rank 2t. . a finite number we may replace A by a congruent skew matrix (41) G = diag {JEi. and we shall obtain only some of its most elementary results. = a< and an = a/. if / is a skew bilinear form of rank 2t it is equivalent under cogredient non singular linear mappings to (xiyz x^yi) + . both A and B are con gruent to (39). E t.. . . a. The theory of symmetric is considerably more extensive and complicated than that of skew matrices. 0. Moreover. . We may evidently assume that A = A' =^ 0. rank 2. Hence. carrying it to a congruent skew matrix H\ and carrying Ao to a congruent skew matrix (E VO It follows that. Otherwise there is some a</ ^ 0. . 80:22/4  Symmetric matrices and quadratic forms. . Every symmetric matrix A is congruent to a diagonal matrix same rank as A. two such forms are equivalent under cogredient nonsingular linear mappings if and only if they have the same rank. If A is a skew matrix. Clearly. 0} with each trix of Ek = E. A i is necessarily a skew matrix of n 2 2 rows rows. Our matrices principal conclusion may be stated as Theorem of the 11. and we shall prove first that A is congruent to a symmetric matrix H = (hij) with some diagonal element ha ^ 0. after H of such steps. If B also is a skew maB is congruent to (41) and to A.
We call the uniquely determined symmetric matrix A the matrix of f and its rank the rank of f. . oj n ).7. Theorem 11 may also be applied to quadratic forms/ = As we saw in Section 1. . We may then use the notations developed above and see that / and g are equivalent if and only if A and B are congruent.54 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A to its iih column. . + a x* r . . = 2a. . x r with nonsingular matrix diag . . For if our nonsingular linear mapping is represented by the matrix equation x = P'u. Now in Section 1. . / is the onerowed square matrix product (44) / = x'Ax = ui for a symmetric matrix A. .J and g are equivalent if and only if B = PAP'. . . . follow with the corresponding column transformation. x n with be regarded as a a r j. . ar .* +a . bilinear forms / = x'Ay defined Theorem 11 then states that /is equiva lent under cogredient transformations to a (43) aiXitfi form a rx ryr . and it is clear that we ultimately obtain a diagonal matrix. Then we add ~~cTiCki times the first row to its ifcth row. . and/ = u'(PAP')u. 0}. It is a matrix equivalent to A and must have the same rank.. 0. form in XL. it may {ai. . Thus Theorem 11 states that every quadratic form of rank r is equivalent to (45) ap* + .9 we defined the equivalence of any quadratic form / and any second quadratic form g = y'By. A\ in the proof of symmetric bilinear forms of rank by a symmetric matrix A of rank r. form in xi.j^ as de permute the rows and corresponding columns of H to obtain a congruent symmetric matrix C with en = ha 7* 0. + The f(xi. . results of . . . ha = a. r. We shall . However. . The form matrix diag (45) is of course to be regarded as a {ai. and obtain a symmetric matrix We now /On (42) \ \0 Aj 1 rows. . Clearly. . that is. the jth column of sired. . . . . . + . . The result above may be applied to obtain a corresponding result on congruent to A. As is a symmetric matrix with n Theorem 10 we carry out a finite number of such steps. then x' = u'P is a consequence.
x n with nonsingular matrix A a nonsingular form. 2 are congruent we num bers as elements of 6.J 211 1 1 ~5 3. . (c). 14/ \l 1 O/ and Write the symmetric bilinear forms whose matrices are those of (a). (6). 2 e) . What is the symmetric matrix a) 3x1 6) c) A of the following quadratic forms? 3 2 + 2xiX 3x x + x\ 2xix 8x3X4 + x\ . 3 to (e).3xJ x\ + 2 0:1X2 4  4 2. and (h) of if Ex. 2 for quadratic forms. allow any complex Which of the matrices of Ex. Apply the process of Ex. matrices Find a nonsingular matrix P with rational elements for each of the following A such that PAP' is a diagonal matrix. Consider mappings + of / and of g.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS call . EXERCISES 1. 5. . 55 a quadratic form / = x'Ax in xi. 3 7 6 1 0023 I 2 2 1 3 1 3 0\ "0023 l 1 6 15 3 '341 4 5 1 1 1 / *> 3 2 1 2 1  5\ 1 . . and we have shown that every quadratic form of rank r in n variables may be written as a nonsingular form in r variables whose matrix . (/). (g). Determine P by writing A = IAI' and by applying cogredient elementary transformations. Pf Show linear = xf x\ are not equivalent under that the forms / = xf x\ and g the possible signs of values with Hint: real coefficients. is a diagonal matrix. 2 and use the cogredient linear mappings obtained from that exercise to obtain equivalent forms with diagonal matrices. (d) of 4.3x^2 + 2xiX . Ex.
6. as yet. the set of all real numa. just like those of F. been necessary to emphasize it. until now. Thus all our fields contain the field of all rational called numbers and are what are will modular fields called nonmodular fields. c 7* are. In our discussion of the congruence and the equivalence of two matrices A and B the elements of the transformation matrices P and Q have thus far always been rational functions. with rational coefficients.56 12. of all the set of all rational functions and the set complex numbers. We now make the fol set of elements F is said to form a nonmodular field if F contains the set of all rational numbers and is closed with respect to rational operations such that the following properties hold: I. given conditions that two symmetric matrices be congruent. But the reader will observe that we have not. . III. Now it is true that even if one were interested only in the study of matrices whose elements are ordinary complex numbers there would be a stage of this study where one would be forced to consider also matrices whose elements are rational functions of x. . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Nonmodular fields. A numbers fe. c of F. A II. . a fc. + b) + c = a + (b + c) a(b + c) = ab + ac ab = ba a + b = b + a (a . ab. algebraic concept which is one of the subject the concept of a field. b. and our reason is that it is not possible to do so without some statement as to the nature of the quantities which we allow as elements of the transformation matrices P. Examples then. The fields be defined in Chapter VI. field of a. . fields in of such F. . lowing brief DEFINITION. bers. of the elements of A and B. for every a. = F(x) of all rational complex numbers. it has not. . While we have mentioned this fact before. Thus we shall find it desirable to define the concept above. If F is any field of functions in x with coefficients in erties. But it is clearly possible to obtain every rational number by the application to unity of a finite number of rational operations. (ab)c = a(bc) . of a field in such a general way as to include systems like the field defined shall do so and shall assume henceforth that what we called con K We stants in Chapter I and scalars thereafter are elements of all a fixed field F. the set F is a mathematical system having prop K with respect to rational operations. . We shall thus introduce an most fundamental concepts of our complex numbers is a set F of at least two distinct complex and a/c are in F for every such that a + &. The fields we have already mentioned contain the complex number unity and are closed with respect to rational operations. with rational coefficients of any fixed complex number c.
l. = ab for every a and b of a field F. EXERCISES 1.a ~ and a unique solution y = 6" of yb = 1 for 6^0. 1 + 1 a + + = a) ( 1 6) a + Hence = It is (a) = a. of (47) to that of by = a. Then the solutions = ab~ of (46) and (47) are uniquely determined by z = a + ( b). made as . and the quotient a/6 to be a solution y (47) F of the equation* . and a ( thus ( 1 a. Prove that F is a field. Show that if a. and the existence of a solution of (46) is equivalent to that of b x = a. ' r " x /a b ^(b a) b 2. whereas a. F and that there exists a unique solution x = aoix }. We 1 also see that the rational number a 1 is defined so that l)a = also true that ( ( 1) 1=0. In the author's Modern Higher Algebra it is shown that the solutions of (46) and (47) are unique. the + bi di 3(c ) a Note that in view of III the property II implies that (b c)a = ba ca. c. and for these systems the properties just mentioned must be additional assumptions. + In fact. 6. (Use the definition of addition of matrices in (52). Let a. y 1 l . aO = 0.. yb = a Thus our hypothesis that F is closed with respect to rational operations should be interpreted to mean that any two elements a and b of F determine b and a unique product ab in F such that (46) has a a unique sum a in F and solution (47) has a solution in F if b j 0. and c range over the set of all rational numbers and F consist of all matrices of the following types.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS The difference a tion x in (46) 57 6 is always defined in elementary algebra to be a solu F of the equation x +b= in a .) a N /a 2b\ '~ . + l)a = a = 1 0. set of all matrices of the following kind and d range over all rational numbers and i 2 form a quasifield which is not a /a \c = field. But there are mathematical systems called quasifMs in which the law ab = ba * + + + does not hold. it may be concluded that the rational numbers and 1 have the properties (48) for every a of a + = al = a . 6.
and of two bilinear forms under cogredient mappings. corre spondingly. When A = A the matrix A is skew. Summary of results.58 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 13. Moreover. . and these results may be seen to vary as * we change our assumptions on F. . The theory completed thus far on polynomials with constant coefficients and matrices with scalar elements may now be clarified by restating our principal results in terms of the concept of a field. the precise nature of F is again unimportant. . f 1 Then two corresponding quadratic forms x'Ax and x Bx f are equivalent in and only if A and B are congruent in F. of two bilinear forms. . Hence. the particular F chosen to contain the elements of the matrices If is relatively unimportant for the theory. We observe first that if f(x) and g(x) are nonzero polynomials in x with coefficients in a field coefficients in F. of F to the reader the explicit formulation of the definitions of equivalence in linear . we can obtain results only ratic The problem after rather complete specialization of F. we have shown that every symmetric matrix of rank r and elements in F is congruent in F to a diagonal matrix diag (a a a r 0. . Moreover. in F and 0} with a* ^ that correspondingly every quadratic form x'Ax is equivalent in F to F if . We leave two forms. . . two bilinear forms with coefficients in F are equivalent in F if and only if they have the same rank. then we call A and B congruent in F if there exists a nonsingular matrix P with elements in F such that PAP = B. . Let A = A' be a symmetric matrix with elements in F so that any matrix B congruent in F to A also is a symmetric matrix with elements in F. Then A and B a field are equivalent in F if and only if they have the same rank. of finding necessary and sufficient conditions for two quadforms with coefficients in a field F to be equivalent in F is one involving the nature of F in a fundamental way. In fact. . Similarly. F then they have a greatest common divisor d(x) with and d(x) = a(x)f(x) + b(x)g(x) for polynomials a(x). and no simple solution of this problem exists for F an arbitrary field. and every matrix B congruent in F to A is skew. A and B are square matrices with elements in a field F. two skew matrices with elements in F are congruent in F if and only if they have the same rank. b(x) with coefficients in F. Since the rank of a matrix (and of a corresponding bilinear form) is defined without reference to the nature of the field F containing its elements. We next assume that A and B are two m by n matrices with elements in F and say that A and B are equivalent in F if there exist nonsingular matrices P and Q with elements in F such that PAQ = B. where all the forms considered have elements in F. we say that the bilinear forms x'Ay and x'By are equivalent in F under cogredient transformations* if A and B are congruent in F.
Let F be the field of either Theorem 12 or CoroUary I. over an arbitrary state it. 0. . are congruent in F if and only if they have the same rank. (ay) . . = A' of rank r is congruent to ar .j = 1. 0} > F A A . 0. If these matrices were onerowed square matrices. . . For every .n) . . = a 6? for in F. so that A and B are m by n matrices. . . . = diag ^{ai. . Addition of matrices. Then two quadratic forms with coefficients in F are equivalent in F if and only if they have the same rank. . We then have the obvious consequences. . m and j We now let A = (ay) and B = (6</)? where i = 1. . 59 conditions are those given in Let F be a field with the property that for every a of F there exists a quantity b such that b 2 = a. . numbers if and only if they COROLLARY II. . Thus (51) will have major importance as a formula for representing matrix computations. 0}. = . then 5 is 0} and hence to A. x? + . . PA F P' = diag [I r . . = . 0}. . Hence every such form of rank r is equivalent in F to (49) 14. for and a. . 1. Two symmetric matrices whose elements are complex numhave bers are congruent in the field of all complex the same rank. ^ P  67 1 . . we should have the formula But it is also true that if the partitioning of any A and B is carried out so that the products in (51) have meaning and if we define the sum of two matrices appropriately. If also .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS The simplest Theorem 12. Its There is one other result on symmetric matrices which will be seen to have evident interest when we proof involves the computation of the product of two matrices field which have been partitioned into tworowed square matrices whose elements are rectangular matrices. . . Then two symmetric matrices with ele ments in . COROLLARY I. Then we define (52) S = A +B = SH (i = an 1. that is to say in F. also congruent in to diag {/ r B' has rank r. The converse follows B= from Theorem 2. then (51) will still hold.m. . Then if = diag {&rS 7* 6< . + &/ .2. . n. . + x? .
also holds. Observe. #2 has rows* and n rows and g columns. . then \A\ + \B\ are usually not equal. For this equation is clearly a consequence of the corresponding property is. We observe also that A + (~1A) = 0. . J5 4 has n t t rows rows . that (55) of (an + &</)<. A B 4 8 has m t s has n t columns. For example. . s and j = 1. t. . . . The elements If of our matrices are in a field F. Then (A + B)C = AC + BC . Clearly if We D is a matrix such that DA is defined. then A B\ and \A  and A and B are nrowed square mat + \ if A and B are equal. B = (&. C = (cjk) be any n by q matrix. that if n rices. and q g columns. Then so that AI = (a*/) but now with i = 1.Cjk have thug seen that addition of matrices has the properties (53) alfor addition of the elements of our matrices and that the assumed ways law (54). Our partitioning is now completely det columns. then A+ = A. we have Hence we have the properties also + by = 6/ + a/. and we thus assume that Bi is a matrix of t rows and g columns./) be an mbyn matrix./* = a^k + bi. however. AS has m s termined and necessarily A* has s rows and n rows and t columns. of F. an m by n matrix. and a^ C = (dj) is (bij + dj). We let A = (a.. Now (54) let is m by n zero matrix. .60 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES that We have thus defined addition for any two matrices of the same shape such A + B is the matrix whose elements are the sums of correspondingly placed elements in A and B. + c*/ = an + (a</ + 6. if (A+B) + C = A + the (B + C) . then similarly (56) we have D(A + B) = DA + DB > 1 . .) (53) A+B = B + A.*) be an n by q matrix. which we call the distributive law for matrix addition and multiplication. and A\ be an s by t matrix. (51) has meaning only if B\ has t rows. + \B\ = 2A while A + B\ = 2A = Let us now apply our definitions to derive (51).
For if AI and BI are congruent in F there exists a nonsingular matrix Pi such that PiAiP( = BI. Then P = diag {Pi. . B= JE?i. . AB = DJE.r } is nonsingular. 2. . D = 2 Ei  (fit. k = 1.. . Then Ho' F if A and B are congruent in and only if AI and BI are congruent in F. In matrix language we have used (58) and computed as the result of partition of matrices of matrices in (59) to give (51). Theorem 13. where we define Di. . . . obtain (51) from (57) by simply using the ranges 1. 2. . m . . . + Drf* . (^} . and then have used (57) and addition We shall now apply the process above to prove the following theorem on symmetric matrices mentioned above. I n . . may . ro. s .EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS and q g columns. 61 The element in the ith row and fcth column of AB may clearly be expressed as (i = 1. E = 2 (B. . B. (58) Di = . . . and A and B be the corresponding nrowed symmetric matrices <> of rank r. g and . B 4) Moreover. q for j separately. q) But this equation is equivalent to the matrix equation given by (57) A = (A D2 ) Z>2. .) . . Ho'S). Let Ai and BI be rrowed nonsingular symmetric matrices with elements in F. we . for i separately. as well as 1. + 1. . s 1. #2 by 2 . and com . and . g + . .
Conversely. But then  B 1 PA 1 1 P( J  5^ 0. symmetric matrix B and a skew matrix C. Hint: Put A == B (7 = 0'.p(Af( Af' \_(P l A P'J' ~MO P B l J^A^ P( P^ PtA must be nonsingular since \Bi\ = and A l are congruent in F. Computed + Bif A a) B= 2. Verify that (A + B)' = A' + B' for any m by n matrices A and B. compute A'. g may be written as a nonsingular form g Q in r variables. and finally the original forms / and g are equivalent in F if and only if / and g Q are equivalent in F. Theorem same index. then / may be written as a nonsingular form / in r variables. and we have l p *\ P'* t PA p. if putation by the use of (51) gives PAP' a nonsingular matrix P we may write I PAP = B for 7 Pi p *} \p* p*)' shall where Pi is an rrowed square matrix. and Hence ORAL EXERCISES 1. + rices Real quadratic forms. 3.. if / and g are quadratic forms with coefficients in F so that / and g are equivalent only if they have the same rank r. of a Show that every nrowed square matrix A is expressible uniquely as the sum C with B = B'. numbers quadratic forms with real coefficients are equivalent in if and only if they have both the same rank and the . 14. We now call the number of positive a the index i of / and prove 15. We shall close our study of symmetric matand hence of quadratic forms with coefficients in F as well by consider= x'Ax ing the case where F is the field of all real numbers.62 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = B. and solve. Two the field of all real . Let then / = a x xf + have rank r so that we may take / + arxl for real a^ ^ 0. A! l PJ PJ The result above thus states that.
. propose to show that s = t. . Now. 1. . Moreover. . . dt+i. t . Conversely. We have now shown that two quadratic forms with real coefficients and if the same rank are equivalent in the field of all complex numbers but that. \ numbers p {PT with (61) 1 > ^ P7 1 } > such that p* = diy and if P is the nonsingular matrix diag then PAP is the matrix diag {1. that = n. . + ul) ^ 0. . . . they are inequivalent in the field of all real numbers. . But clearly ft = (ttf +1 + . t elements 1 and (x\ r t elements 1. . x n). . We Hence. . we obtain as a result (y\ + = . . Put Xi = x2 = . 1. let s > t. +d and in yn (i = 1. in . t. . . These are exist real linear homogeneous equations v\. +1 .. + cky. Thus. The remaining n certain /(O. . . as = t = 1. .+ *2) .(J +l + . . . + yj) = yn (yj +1 + + yj). a contradiction. that by Section 14 there is no loss of generality we assume that/ = x'Ax where A is a nonsingular diagonal matrix. . . . . / . . . = f(x l9 . . / is equivalent in F to + . there is clearly no loss of generality if we take A = is. . *) . . n) . . tO = t>f + . . . .. > t unknowns.+*). w l+1 . have rank r it is equivalent in F to (61) and = n and index s so that g is equiva F to (62) (*?+. = in s (t = 1. r d d r for positive d. 1} 1 . .. . . 0. 0.. . if 0has lent in the same rank and index as/. first. . . . and we have the result h + . Then there exist real diag {di. We shall next study in some detail the important special case t = r of our discussion. . = in (63) and consider the (64) resulting t equations AMI t + . . . . + *?)  (* +1 + . . . . . . and there numbers v9 not all zero and satisfying these equations. . . + 0J > 0. numbers . Our hypothesis that the form / defined by (61) and the form g defined by (62) are equivalent in the real field implies that there exist real numbers d^ such that if we substitute the linear forms (63) Xi = dnyi + . . . There is clearly no loss of generality if we assume that s ^ t and show that if s > t we arrive at a contradiction.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS * 63 if For proof we observe. . n. +3 . Uj for j equations of (63) then determine the values of x. . let g hence to /. their indices are distinct. . = xt = y.
is positive semidefinite. positive definite.. cn) dr = 0. . real quadratic form f(xi. . . = + + . . yi+i r. for all real ci not all zero. .64 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A symmetric matrix A and the corresponding quadratic form / if = x'Ax are called semidefinite of rank r A air is congruent in \ <> F to a matrix . . there exist unique solutions y. and we obtain g from / by putting Xj = in / for j 9^ i*. . 0. j/J. . . > is = 1 and all other have n. . of A and whose corresponding columns are in the corresponding columns of A. . .. Then A and / are nega and only if A and / are positive. . if /(ci. Hence. . . r = < = d\ + = and y/ = + . Conversely. Theorem . . if /(ci. . We call A and/ definite F is if = n. . every principal is positive definite. in F. y t t = 0. = t l. if / <> . . c n ) = 0. . cn ) Now if < r. Every principal submatrix of a positive semidefinite matrix submatrix of a positive definite matrix For a principal submatrix B of a symmetric matrix A is defined as any im th rows mrowed symmetric submatrix whose rows are in the tith. . . + . then we put y r+ \ c n not all zero such that /(ci. . . = . iff + if cn) d\ y\ 2/ n /(ci. f . If f(xi. the form/ is positive definite. . . we may take a = 1 and call A and / and call A and / negative. then g ^ Clearly. . + > We have proved x n ) is positive semidefinite for all real Ci. . that A is both semidefinite and nonsingular. Conversely. for all real c* not all zero. If Ci. equivalent to a form a(x\ is. . for y\ . cn ) > . . . is positive definite if and only . A and only if f (ci. d% . x n ) is any real quadratic form. If the field of all real positive or take a tive = 1 numbers. d. . we have/ < < 0. /(ci. for a 5^ . . . = . cn ) ^ Theorem 16. . . As a consequence of this result we shall prove 15. + + if !/f (y\+i we put Xi ing system if in (63). . . . < . . Thus we may and shall re our attention to positive symmetric matrices and positive quadratic forms without loss of generality. = dj of the resultof linear equations. . For otherwise / = If y\ + . if f (ci. ./(ci. . cn ) . cn) < then . we have / for all dj not all zero and hence for all c not all zero. . . . cn are any real numbers and and only if the all zero. z m ) so that g = x Q Bx Q is the quadratic form with B as matrix. . Put XQ = (x^. . t . . for all values of the x ik and for all z = a. . and the dj may readily be seen to be all zero c = d ++!/?) are . . . Thus / is semidefinite if r if it is + + xj). we have seen that there exists a nonsingular transformation (63) with real d^ such that / = y\ strict .
and we partition QQ' so an rrowed principal submatrix of QQ'. Let A be an by n matrix of rank r and with real elements. is congruent to the positive semidefinite matrix C of rank r and hence has the property of our theorem. respectively. The converse of Theorem 16 is also true. Sec . We shall use the result just obtained to prove Theorem Then AA' For we is 17. a positive definite symmetric matrix. / = g ik A all zero and for the x ik not all zero. write m may p AA P (I' (o <>\o Q > o) 00' QQ where P is and is Then QQ' that Qi Q are nonsingular matrices of m and n rows.EQUIVALENCE OF MATRICES AND OF FORMS hence 65 B is and B is Xj above is positive definite positive semidefinite by Theorem 15. EXERCISE What tion 11? are the ranks and indices of the real symmetric matrices of Ex. If = for x not all and hence for the then singular. a positive semidefinite real symmetric matrix of rank r. 2. a contradiction. zero. By Theorem 16 the ma trix Qi is positive definite. and we refer the reader to the author's Modern Higher Algebra for its proof.
A subset L of V n is called a linear subspace of V n if bv is in L for every a and b of F. and we have w + = . zero. . the quantities Ci.CHAPTER The (d. over F. 1 Then u of F. 6 in F and all vectors w. w of Fn The vector which we designate all by (4) O. u+(u) u = u . . . and (5) of Vn to the reader. . Linear spaces over a field. . . We assume the laws of combination of such sequences of Section 1. . The entire set V n will then be called the ndimensional linear space . (4). of all sequences (1) U = . . set . Linear subspaces. We the verification of the properties 2. The (2) properties of a field (u F may u be easily seen to imply that + v) +w= . Cn) may be thought of as a geometric ndimensional space. c n the coordinates of u. = 1 u . v. + amum .8 and call u a point or vector. and w^ in L. +v=v+u a(w (3) a(bu) = (o6)w (a + V)u = + bu . Then it is clear that L contains all linear combinations au + (6) u = a in F. aiUi + . for . (3). w = first . where (5) u = ( Ci. Note that the zero vector. + (v + w) aw . of Vn We suppose also that the quantities Ci are in a fixed field F and call c the ith coordinate of u. u . . Vn . and we leave (2). + v) = aw + aw for all a. of (5) is the quantity and the second zero is the shall use the properties just noted somewhat later in an abstract definition of the mathematical concept of linear space. every u and v of L. cn ).is that vector of whose coordinates are u. IV LINEAR SPACES 1. . = Q.
Llm. e n span Vn The space spanned by the zero vector consists of the zero vector alone .. + . ui. Our definition of a linear space L which is a V n implies that every subspace L contains the zero vector. . Vn = e\F + L spanned by + .. . Um are not linearly independent in F. If Ui. .. there is no other such expres sion of is ai um are linearly independent if it Thus. . It is clear that. F andui.. . Um . then = Oui . But we may actually show a finite number of vectors of Vn has a that every subspace basis in the above sense. . . u m a basis over F of L and indicate (8) L = UiF + . + (am b m )um a< &< {ui. that the definition of linear indeIt is evident that . . . . In what . . . . + . .. . um is span the space (7) L and so defined. if ui. If Oum.is the vector whose jth coordinate is unity and whose other coordinates are zero. . am um = biui . . . . . then ei.. If now any finite num. Um are now seen to be linearly independent in . . aiUi + . . . + Conversely. . . . um are a set of linearly independent vectors (of Vn over F). subspace of . DEFINITION. if . u m in } the form (6) is unique. m . . shall say that . we shall indicate. . if and only if true that a linear combination ami (J^um = = = a 2 = . . . . Then we shall by writing call Ui. + . . um are linearly independent and + 6mum then = (ai . . to this definition. Linear independence. L = L is expressible . F expression of every u . . in the form We . for the time being. . . Hence the zero vector of {MI.LINEAR SPACES 67 (6) of We observe that the set of all linear combinations ber of given vectors. independence as the spe cial case u = u . Observe. shall write is L a linear subspace L of Vn according we shall say that u\. u^. in the form (6). a = } . when we call L a linear space over F that L is a linear subspace over F of some V n over F. + ui. . We now make the . and may be lows called the zero space and designated by L = {0}. {ui.bi)ui + . . + u mF . um over . we shall restrict } 3. = . . . u m are linearly independent in F or that ui. first. eJF. (6) in at least this one way. For this property clearly implies linear 0. and only if the they are linearly dependent in F.!!*}. of L = . fol our attention to the nonzero subspaces L of Vn and. . = . . . if e. . . am 0. . this LetL . & as desired.. Ui. we if shall say that A set of vectors Ui. . . um be linearly inde pendent in F. . . + 0. . .
a) MI 6) * = = = = = = (1. L a) ui 6) c) It = (1. ur be linearly independent vectors of Vn and u ^ be urj u are linearly independent in F or another vector. u^ HZ are linearly dependent we write uz = xu\ + yui and solve for x and y. Determine whether or not the spaces spanned by the following spanned by the corresponding vi. d) u. 3. x 2 ui = (0. . 4) > /) (1.68 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES and thus that u 5^ 0. . = = = (3. 2. (1. 1. u2 = t*2 (2. Show and is L that the space L = {MI. we may choose some largest number r of vectors in this set which are linearly independent in F and we will then have the property that all remaining vectors in the set are pendence in case 1 is m= that au = . . (7. 6 2 c 2 ). 3) . 1) . . 2. 1 < r < m. We state this result as . tion of these two quantities has the form (0. = = (2. ^3} spanned by the following sets of vectors Hint: In every case one of the vectors. easy to show then that L contains e 2 = (0. } . 2) . 5. . 1. 1. 1) ui tii (1. Ut coincide with those v2 . c*). (1. 2) mI* (0. u3 = (1. . 1) . u 3 contains u* XsUi = (0. . 3. . .  linear combinations with coefficients in F of these r. 3) m 7/3 (1. w2 u. . 0) = (5. say and Ui are linearly independent. = (1. . (1. 6) . (2. . Some linear combina. . u = ( a Oi)ui + + ( a^ an )ur is in [u^ if ui. 2) = . has a basis consisting of certain r of these vectors. 1. u. . 1. . 1. Hint: It u\ easy to see whether some two of the vectors. 6) Ul tii (3. To see if ui. (0. 1. Mm are any m distinct nonzero vectors. (2. u2 = (1. u3 = u. = Fs. ) 2. 0. Determine which of the following is sets of three vectors form a basis of the subspace they span. . u. Theorem Then L 1.0. 0. 3) 2. Let L be spanned by distinct nonzero vectors Ui. 1.. . . say ui. then aiUi + a>iUi + = ar = 0. . . 3. . 3. 3) . 2. w2 . 2) (4. 1) (1. . 3. . 1. u* = = = (1. . 0) and e\ = (1. . 1). . 2. 63. 2) . 1. It follows that. . Hint: Li = . 23)  . 5. . u. 1. 0). 8) (0. 1. Then either u\ + arur + a Qu = for a* not all zero. a contradiction. 2. . u. is 7s. d) and L contains e 3 = (0. 1. 3. 1. But then + OrUr = 0. u* 11. . 1. 3. 1. from which a\ = l l u r }. sets of vectors If wi. 3. only if a = Then let ui. um . has first coordinate not zero. u = 3 (0. EXERCISES 1. 1. 1. 9) 0) c) (1. 6) . If a . 0. 3) . 1) 1. 5. 1) . m . 2. 1) .. 4) 3.
4. 1) i(l. = 1. #2X3 ^ 0. 6) in =(1. 1. . 1. 3) U! (1. . 4. 6) = (7. rn) . 2. 6. 3) (3. 1.2. 1. 0. 9) *= . 13. If P = (pki) is any q by m matrix. m=(3. 2. = (6. = (3. We have now shown that every row of PA is in the row space of A. . v. . 2. 8) *= (1.0. t>2 02} . 10. 1) t*=(l. e) 2.1) (0. /) Wl = (1. x3 ou of the equations . + fcth row and jth colcombination of the rows + . 0) 4. If P is nonsingu .1). . . . 6) (4. 2.0).1. 1) c) in = (1. in 2) . 1. (2. . = 3.LINEAR SPACES Lu 69 a? 2 . a) = ^3^1 + #4^2 such that the determinant x\x u. = = = = (1. . 1. 1) t> 2 . The row and column spaces of a matrix* We shall obtain the principal theorems on the elementary properties of linear spaces by connecting this theory with certain properties of matrices which we have already derived. n= (2. 4. 0. = {tfi. in=(l. 1. 2. 11. 0. . . 1. u. the element in the is that linear umn of of PA. the product PA is a q by n matrix. 1. Vl 1. It follows that the row space of PA is contained in that of A. = (2. ] row space of A.1. of ing V n over F.1). 4). .2). 2. 9) d) i(l. = . 8. Thus every m by n matrix defines a linear subspace of V nj every subspace of V n spanned by m vectors defines a corresponding m by n matrix.2). 0. . 4. 11.2). u2 (1. Ui = (aa. 1.0. ti. Hence Wi row of A whose coefficients form the kth row of P. 0. (2.4). Let us consider a set of (9) m vectors. . 6. there must exist solutions xi. tn=(7. 6.2. 2. . 3. . + #2^2.3). . . 1). a in ) (i = 1. 1. what we shall call the The jth coordinate (10) is pkiQit of the vector Wk = PklUl + PA . . (2. 4.2.3. + pkmOmh the that is. u. . Then we may regard w as being the tth row of the correspondum as being m by n matrix A = (a</) and the space L = [u\ y .
so + bkrvr for k = 1. But then g k) . now. . 7. . Let Abeanmbyn matrix of rank r. P. v\F + Define B = (bki) and obtain Wk as the fcth row of the r + 1 by n matrix BG. H is an m by r matrix. By Lemma 1 we have LEMMA The row spaces 2. . Let P be an mrowed nonsingular matrix. Thus we have LEMMA of 1. Any r + 1 vectors of the row space of A are linearly dependent in F. . b rv r sired fashion. . .x) clearly 61. . Thus. . . such that (11) PA = (\ . they are a basis of the row space of A. . . By Theorem 3. . we The determinant of the rrowed square matrix (12) P = (%) . such that the + l)rowed matrix D = (d for g. . k = 1.6 the elementary transformation theorem as the useful we used the matrix product equivalent of Theorem 2. and hence P is nonsingular. that Wk = bkiVi + = that Wk are any r + 1 vectors of the row space L + vr F of A.70 lar. + b rv r Hence the rows of G are linearly independent in F. of G and A coincide. zero rows. and by Lemma 2 there is . . . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES then the result just derived implies that the row space of A = P~ l (PA) is contained in the row space of PA and therefore that these two linear spaces are the same. and we shall now state this LEMMA 2. Assume. r + 1.4. P = 2 (0. + (r l)st row of D(BG) is the zero vector. &. + + = for bi in F not all zero. implies that there is no loss of generality if we permute its rows in any de Theorem . if b\v\ may assume for convenience that 61 9* 0. . . But this is impossible since biv\ + is the first row of PG. Then the row spates PA and A coincide. they span the row space of G and of A. . of G span the row space of PA. . . G is an r by n matrix. We use (11) and note that the rows of G differ from those of PA only in Then the rows 3. exists a nonsingular (r r + 1. respectively. We shall use this result in the proof of The r rows of G form a basis of the row space of A. AQ = (H 0) . . .) . = (fc. where G and H have rank r. Then PG is rrowed and of rank r. v r Our definition of G For we may designate the rows of G by v\. In the proof of Theorem 3. .6 the rank of BG is at most r. . . . . Then there exist nonsingular matrices P and Q of m and n rows.
. r D= (d gk ) such . After a permutation of the rows of A. of the nonsinguwr+i are linearly dependent in F. if u r are a basis of the row space of A. . = row . 0. . u\. L = UiF + By the proof of Theorem 1 the vector u is in \Ui. then Theorem 2 implies that s < r and similarly that r < s. 2 to obtain a nonsingular rrowed matrix s < r. m. Then u k = b k \ui + + b kr u r for b ki in F. . dr iUi . matrix P given by (B is Dif nonsingular. order of L over F. necessary. . If s < . and by Theorem 2 any n 1 vectors of eiF are linearly dependent in F. Thus any linear subspace L over F of n contains at most n linearly independent vectors. . . . r . + urF. r+iWr+i r lar matrix D and cannot all the dr +i tk form a be zero. . The matrix G of Lemma 2 may be taken to be a submatrix of A. . . exists a . . . The . It follows that s is the rank of G. u are linearly dependent in F for every M of L. r = s is unique. + drr u r u r are linearly indecontrary to our hypothesis that w 1. It follows that there . . . . . This proves Theorem 2. we may assume that ui. not zero. . Any two bases of L have the same number r < n of vectorsj and we shall call r the . We may now obtain the principal result on linear subspaces of F. + + Vn V maximum number r < n of linearly independent vectors HI. ur in L. . r . . iWi 71 + . This completes our proof. . . Theorem 4. For let A be an m by n matrix whose ith row is Ui and let r be the integer m of Theorem 1. But if also L = ViF + + v. The integer r of Theorem 1 is in fact the rank of the by n matrix whose ith row is Ui. pendent. . and k = r + 1. .F.LINEAR SPACES dr+i. . the vectors 101. . For Vn = + . e n F. . . u }. the rth row of D is . . We now apply Theorem 1 to obtain Theorem 3. and that w. Every linear subspace L over F of V n over F has a basis. . . + . . row of DG = 0. and it is clear that (14) G = Ur then PA = is we apply Lemma that the rth given by (11). . + d +i. the rank of A be s.
v 2 if of Ex. of the corresponding matrices A are equal to the order of the subspace Li. a linear subspace of Vm We of A. Thus we shall call the row space of A' the column space of A. 3. vectors v2 ] if u\. their transposes. 1 and 2 of Section 3 by the use of elementary transformations to compute the rank of the matrices whose rows are the given vectors. Show that then there exists a nonsingular matrix P such PA Give also a simple form of Ai.\ A. the basis to consist actually of rows of the corresponding matrix. Section Form the fourrowed matrices whose rows are the 3. i^} = L2 = {vi. It is call the order of the row and column spaces and column ranks of A. v\. Show thus that LI = [HI.) that the rows of A* are in the row space Show . for P. 2. . that the rank of the matrices formed from the first two rows of each A. 12 24 10 20 1 2301 2 1 1 1 231 47 21 11 1 231 0412 2122 3 3 1001 011 c) 2301 1 5100 1234 be a rectangular matrix of the form 121 35102 11 366 47036 4 1 7 15 16 4. Hint: Mi VO A. the row of is its row rank. Also A f Theorem 5. By Theorem 3 the rank A and A have the same rank and we have proved The row and column ranks of a matrix are equal to its rank. indeed. and only the ranks is. u^. Find a basis of the row space of each of the following matrices. 3. Solve Ex. respectively. Let A Mi Ui where A\ that is nonsingular. EXERCISES 1.72 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES are uniquely determined In closing this section we note that the rows of the transpose A* of A by the columns of A and are.
Then we call (15) a onetoone correspondence on G to G'. 4 be either symmetric or skew. G and G' are the and (16) are. In elementary algebra and analysis the sys tems G and G' are usually taken to be the field of all real or all complex numbers and (15) is then given by a formula y = /Or). The concept of equivalence. In discussing the properties of mathematiand linear spaces over cal systems such as fields F it becomes desirable quite frequently to identify in some fashion those systems behaving exactly the same with respect to the given set of definitive properties under conshall call such systems equivalent and shall now proceed to sideration. same system. also that. the matrix ^5 = 0. if the order of A\ is the rank of A. Then / is given by (15) g>g'=f(g) (read g corresponds to g'} such that every element g of G determines a unique corresponding element g' of (?'. This concept may be seen to be sufficiently general as to permit its extension in many directions. a correspondence such that every element g of G is the corresponding element f(g) of one and only one g of G. But the basic idea there is that given above of a correspondence (15) on G to (?'. We define this concept in terms of that of function. however. in general. it is f more convenient in general situations to say that the range of the dependent variable. Note.LINEAR SPACES 5. 73 Let the matrix of Ex. How/ is a function on G to G or that / is a correspondence on G to G'. Show that the choice of P then implies that Show 6. and we may thus call (15) a onetoone correspondand G' and indicate this by writing f g+ if ><?'. that. Let G and (?' be two systems and define a singlevalued function to G'. distinct. the functions (15) Thus we may let G be the field of all real . / on G In elementary mathematics it is customary to call G the range of the independent variable and G f ever. which now on G ence between (17) G to G. It is clear that (15) then (15) is r Suppose now that f defines a second onetoone correspondence (16) M= is 0'<7.
) We then call G and G' equivalent if there exists a onetoone correspondence between them which is preserved under the operations of their definition. have thus introduced two instances of V V and V what is o are equiva We a very im portant concept in all algebra.74 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES numbers and (15) be the function x 2x. A. (gh)' = g'h' for every g and h of F. closed with respect to certain operations. The reader should observe that under our definition every mathematical system G is equivalent to itself and that if G is equivalent to a system G'. proceed to use the concept just given in constructing the fundamental definition of this section. (au) = au for every u and v of and a of F. that of equivalence. then G is equivalent to G". Verify the statement that the field of all rational functions with rational coeffifield of all cients of the complex number V2 is equivalent to the matrices 'CD for rational * a and 6 under the correspondence A < > a + We of u' for the arbitrary vector of use the notation Vo instead of to avoid confusion in the consequent usage as well as for the transpose of u. so that (16) is the function x \x. Then we shall call V a general linear space over F. These systems consist of sets of elements #. if G and G' are distinct it is not particularly important whether we use (15) or (16) to define our correspondence. We now see that we have defined two fields F and F' to be equivalent if there exists a onetoone correspondence (15) between them such that (g + h)' = g' + h'. Finally. We linear spaces. G' of the same kind such as two fields or two linear spaces over a fixed field F. Of course. if G' is equivalent to G". then we shall say that lent over F. we might have g + h in G for every g and h in G and also g' + h' in G' for every g' and h' in G'. Let us consider two mathematical systems (?. Let F be a fixed field and V and au are unique elements of consist of a set of elements such that u +v V for every u and If v of is V and a of F. . then G' is equivalent to G. and there is a onetoone correspondence u < that (u 7 a second* such space UQ between V and V such + 0)0 =u <> + ^o . . for example. V V . (Thus. Let us then pass to the second case which we require for our further discussion of . EXERCISES 1.
(4). then the properties (2). + . a) a and 6. (4). = ua and u v to be in V for every u. proof of Theorem over 6. define au it a of F. Cn) . v. where the equivalence between (19) CiVi V and V n is < > given by . we prefer instead to define V by its equivalence to Vn This preference then requires the (somewhat trivial) Conversely. and (5) hold be may and every u of V is uniquely expressible in the form (18) for d in F. Thus we justify the use of the proving that term linear subspace L of order r over F by L is indeed what we have called a linear space of order r over F . (3). F forms Verify the statement that the set of a field equivalent to F. 6.LINEAR SPACES 2. and (5) hold for every u. v of V and shown very easily that. of V and a. Verify the statement that the mathematical system consisting of all tworowed square matrices with elements in F and defined with respect to addition and multiplication is equivalent to the set of all matrices fa n ai 2 an a* 021 a a. field of 75 is Verify the statement that the field of complex numbers matrices equivalent to the b\ (a \b for real 3. . all scalar matrices with elements in a field 4. . Clearly. if V is a linear space of order n over F. if (2). . + Cn t>n . w. O22 under the correspondence indicated by the notation. Linear spaces of finite order. . . We shall restrict all further study of to be a linear spaces to linear spaces of order n over F. every quantity of V is uniquely expressible in the form (18) Citfi + . . Every linear subspace L of order r over F of Vn is equivalent F to V r. Moreover. + Cn V n + (ft. . our definition implies that every two linear spaces of the F V F V same order n over F are equivalent over F. . Our definition also implies that. then V is equivalent over F to V n However. b in F. Then . Then we define is equivalent over to linear space of order n over a given field F if n over F. (3).
The set of all m by n matrices with elements in F. + u F is uniquely expressible in the form U = CiUi (20) + . All polynomials in independent variables x (in x and y together). . _ ^2. and the coefficient matrix A= (aij) is defined. . All polynomials in x = coefficients in F. . Then the number of the vk which are linearly independent in F is the rank of the matrix A.. +a in un . + CrU r for d in F. L = M if and only if m = n. linear spaces of order . contained in the space of For proof we merely observe that every vector L = uiF + . m EXERCISES 1. n. F the field of all . . Theorem 3 should now be interpreted for arbitrary and we have a result which we state as Theorem 7. v m form a basis of L over F if and only if Vi. in x and y. The set of all nrowed diagonal matrices. ... a) All polynomials in 6) Find bases for the following linear spaces of polynomials with x of degree at most three. first row are zero. Thus u in L uniquely determines the d in F and conversely.. finite Verify the statement that the following sets of matrices are linear spaces of order over F and find a basis for each. and y and degree at most two 2 c) t* + t and y = J 8 + and degree at most two numbers. a onetoone correspondence between it that defines an equivalence of r. . . .in Vi F for which = anUi + . Moreover. . . . Moreover. The set of all mbyn matrices whose elements not in the The set of all nrowed scalar matrices. . a) b) c) d) 2. vm be in L so that there exist quantities a. . with d) All polynomials in e) F the field of all rational All polynomials in a primitive cube root of unity with rational numbers. It follows that (21) is w>(ci. Let L = UiF + + unF and Vi. . . = n and A is nonsingular. .<v) r V and V and it is trivial to verify L and V We have now seen that every linear space L of order n over F may be regarded as a linear subspace of a space M of order m over F for any m > n.76 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Vn r . .
all 3. 77 numbers + F m g) The polynomials of (/) but with F the field of all real numbers. + vmF. . . . In this case the order of L LI is the sum . B. . Let A = diag {1.LINEAR SPACES the field of all rational 1) with /) All polynomials in w = u(i = and i* = v? that 2. AB. . . threerowed diagonal matrices. i. . w q ] of L will be called the sum of vm w\. {wi. 1 (0 \0 2 01. vm } and L 2 = Addition of linear subspaces. Show if that 7. . if . 5. . then the v> and w. the subspace Lo = {wi.Li} . . If LI = (vi. w q ) are linear subspaces over F of a space L of order n over F. AB form a basis of the set of all tworowed square mat rices 5. in both LI and L 2 is that LI and (23) L 2 are complementary subspaces Lo of their . . . + and +bw = + OmVm + Jwi + a\v\ + = + (bq)w is in both LI + amvm (bi)wi + q . 2}. . . Li and (22) If the L 2 and will be designated generally by Lo= only vector which is {Li. and Lo has order m + If LI and Lo are linear subspaces of L and if L contains LI. . A. Conversely. of the orders of LI 2 and L 2 and in fact . . L = wiF + + w F. 1. For only if it is clear that aiVi . . B AB A J5 2 form . . are linearly dependent in F and do = 0. if /O 0\ A = then 7. . . . . necessarily t> <? do form a basis of Lo. A 2 . 1. A 2 . we shall say sum and write  L! + L. w F. the zero vector. a basis of the set of all threerowed square matrices. I/ 2 2 A. . Hint: Prove are a basis. 7. = viF + v F m + + WiF + . q q if . Show that 7. A. . . v . 1. then Lo = v^ = + + . q . are not all zero and therefore that the vectors and Wj spanning L if not form a basis of L . . . q and L 2 Thus v ^ t\ implies that the a* and 6. w. we shall show that. . . Show that. . we may ask . . . A* form a basis of the set of 4. .
1. 2.% in . . . . Let LI of order over F be a linear subspace of L of order n m over F. (5.1. . Let the following vectors U{ span Li. . . instead. Then the matrix ft is nonsingular. L 2. .0). 2) .1. 2) . 4. u3 . . (4. . . . . 1. 2. vectors We put L = Vn vi. But then A = is nonsingular. and A = AoQ"" 1 is obtained by permuting the columns of A$. (4. it is clear that the rows of are certain of the vectors e which we defined in Section 2. 2. 2. u. u n in rem 1. (1. 1) . 1) 1) .78 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . = * \ %= . The result above may be proved by the method we used to prove Theovm u\. 0. c) . . .0). 1. theory. . %= i* (2.. 2. Then G has rank m. 1. fin (4.0. . 1. GQ = where ft is nonsingular. H EXERCISES 1. L 2} to Li and f to La. vm of LI. 1) (1. (?.(!. Moreover. 3. 1.1). = = (1. . and there exists a nonsingular matrix Q such that the columns of GQ (ft are a permutation of those of ft) . the rows of A span V n and the rows of H span the space L 2 which we have been seeking.= (1. (2. . 1. 2. whether a linear subspace L 2 of L exists such that L = LI + L 2 The existence of such a space is clearly a corollary of Theorem 8. Let LI be the row space of each of the by n matrices of Section 4. let G be the mbyn matrix whose rows are the basal . proof using i. . where we apply this method to the set u let L = uiF + F. us a matrix + n However. 1) (2.(!. *s = (0. 1. 0. 1. Use the method above to find a basis of the corresponding V n consisting of a basis of m Li and of a complementary space 2.1. 1) 4. 3) (3. .4. Find a complement in { Li. 0.0). 1) (!. 6. 3. Ex. give. 0.(l. 3. v span Li.2.0) 3. 2) * 3) 2.* = = /. 3. . Then there exists a linear subspace L2 of L such that LI and L2 are complementary subspaces of L.2.
Then (28) A = (i = 1. m) for b k j in F. + b kr Ur = . + (fc  r + 1. Then. . . . +a in xn = c (i = 1. (27) implies that (30) Ck fk(di. . . . there exist quantities Ci. . u r are linearly independent in F. If the system (26) . dn) = = Then . (27) /* = 6*1/1 + . and . . . . . . 1. A = (a. The set of all linear forms in x\. . w) ./) of coefficients of (26). . r + . . . . We may assume without loss of generality that the equations (26) have been labeled so that /i. . . . . we see by Theorem 7 that F and the remaining m certain r of the forms / are linearly independent in r forms are linear combinations of these r. . 79 Systems with coefficients in of linear equations. + b krfr (k = r + 1. . consistent. . + a in x n of a system (26) a t iXi + . . . dn ) = bklCi + . m) . . of if linear equations in r is the rank of the m n unknowns. di. . d n in F such that/i(di. and (k uk = is bkiUi + . m) . m by n matrix are such forms and are in L. . . . . . . . . + x nF of order The left members . . . F is a linear space (24) L = n over F. . where (29) ui. . . . . . . . . . xiF + . . .LINEAR SPACES 8. . fr are linearly independent in F. m) . (25) fi = fi(xi. xn) = d + .
be linearly independent. . . + + We now see that the system (26) is consistent if and only if A* has the same rank r as A. . m) . (b k iU* + These replace the submatrix A of A * by . c (i = 1. so that the rank of A* is most But A* has A as a submatrix. . if any c* 5^ 0. . . clearly. . . . . .80 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES A* of the system (26) to be the Define the augmented matrix matrix u* m by n (31) A* u (OH. and (32) see that (29) and (30) imply that 6*11* ul = at + r. ur u* are clearly linearly independent. . . m) . then m r of the equations (26) may be regarded as . matrix A* of rank r. . . (S)A* by o UT and replace (34) (G \0 Cl \ 1 C. Conversely. the has a nonzero (r l)rowed minor. and we choose wi. . if A* does have the same rank as A. . r)rowed and onecolumned matrix C 2 has c/bo = c* bkrCr) as its elements. This is impossible if A* is . we have already shown that. A* . ./ where the (m (ftjfcici + . +b kr u* r (k = r + 1. But. + . has to rank r. Moreover. . . . if A * has the same rank r as A t . ain . . (33) m. . . m. then u* We then have (29) and may apply elementary row transformations of type 1 to A* which add b kr u*) to ul for k r + 1.
. if we choose the notation of the x so that G = (Gi. . yn). then (38) Q r where FI and X\ have columns. Before solving (35) we prove be LEMMA 4. = (X G(+Xt G' 1 i so that . where Qi is an r by r matrix of rank r. . serve that. From xQ' this we obtain Q' = (! ^J. . . cr ) . . . v = (ci. Thus we have Q = The system (37) may now 0)t/' be written as y (I T = t/. 2/n arbitrary. It thus remains to show that any system of r equations in xi. . . We may write x = (xi. (36) Let G an r by n matrix of rank r. .. . . . . = xQ' = ( yi . . solution yi = c for i = 1. . r) and 2/ r +i. . . x n ) and see that such a system may be regarded as a matrix equation (35) Gx' = t/ . the solution of (35) is then given by z = y(Q')~ l for yi = Ci(i = 1. But then y = xQ' a nonsingular linear transformation and the t/ are x n Evidently.   .. diag {H. . x n with matrix of rank r has solutions. Obis . . For Lemma 2 states that G = (H 0)Qi.LINEAR SPACES 81 linear combinations of the remaining r equations and are satisfied by the solutions of these equations.. (37) has the linearly independent linear forms in Xi. 7 n _ r }. Then G= (I F 0)Q for a nonsingular nrowed matrix Q. . 62) with Gi an rrowed nonsingular matrix. r. . . Then singular and is nrowed and nonso is H H is nonsingular. . (35) (7 r 0)Q 2 = (H 0). (36) for Q2 = Q 2 Qi. .
. Then we shall call S a linear mapping L on the space and describe (42) as the property that S is M Suppose now that so that we are given not only the spaces Then a (43) linear = viF + um F and L and but fixed bases mapping S uniquely determines u$ in M. . be linear spaces of respective orders and n over Let L and consider a correspondence on L to M. + M M . as well. . and (40) may be regarded as a correspondence u > uA defined by A whereby every u of Vm determines a unique vector uA of F n We now proceed to formulate .1) of x' = tion. . The system of equations a linear mapping was expressed in (3. X. x r as linear functions of Xr+i. . A and A. . + uf = anVi + . a and 6 of F. For exercises on linear equations we Theory of Equations. (3.' in this equaThen we see that a linear mapping may be expressed as a matrix Linear mappings and linear transformations. refer the reader to the First Course in 9. . to u upper S) wherein every vector u of Suppose also that L determines a unique (au + 6tto) 5 = au8 + bu for every of the space linear. where (41) A is an m by n matrix and u = (pi. . xw) . equation (40) v = uA. so that S is the function u*us u goes us M . this concept abstractly. . Designate the correspondence more M m F and by the symbol S: (read in (42) 5. . . . u and U Q of L.82 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES (35) is given and our solution of (39) by l X l . ym) . . . . . . + ain vn (i = 1. . . v = (xi. v n F. xn . . u is a vector of Vm over F v is a vector of V n over F. . Let us interchange the roles of m and n. . .(Y . . .( But then we have solved the for xi.32) as a matrix equation y'A'. m) . . Clearly. . and hence u\F L= + .
respectively. by (47) 4 0) = ii yi . we see that S is the linear mapping if M Vn and put (46) u . . = u s in = we assume temporarily that L = Vm and (40) and (41). if A is an m by n matrix and we define uf by (43) for the given elements an of A. Thus S determines also an m by n matrix A = (a ).1) on the space Vn . . may A. then the property that S is linear uniquely determines the mapping S. This is true since every u of L is uniquely expressible in the form (44) u = in yiUi + . Thus every linear mapping which is a change of be regarded as a linear mapping of the space Vm Let us next observe the effect on the matrix defined by a linear mapping of a change of bases of the linear spaces.LINEAR SPACES for 7 83 an in F. for 2/< F and (42) implies that (45) us It follows that to every linear and M mapping S of L on M and 0wen bases of L We there corresponds a unique by n matrix A and conversely. But. shall call A the matrix of S with respect to the given bases of L and M. conversely. . + ymum .us = uA for the given matrix variable as in (3. Define new bases of L and M . w We now observe that where  1 But v then.
.. . Since we are now considering only a single space. If L = F n such a Since M M M . . Then P = (pki) and Q = (qu) are we may also write the second set of equations of (47) in the form (48) v. u n of L of order n over F and of a second basis v n of L. we see that changes of basis in L and replace A by an equivalent matrix. correspondence is given by u us = uA . n. u n of L to be the matrix A determined by (43) with Ui = Vi. . Then we define the matrix A of a linear transformation $ on L with respect to a fixed basis ui. . respectively. . and Q" 1 are arbitrary nonsingular matrices of m and n rows. as we saw in (3. . . m and I = 1.84 for k SB 1. . . Let us restrict our attention to the case where v = u^ v\. we have (49) where b k = Spkidarji. . . apply the linearity of S to (47) and obtain wW Substituting (43) and (48). 1 ) singular linear transformation defines a onetoone correspondence of L and itself. . . nonsingular and. We have defined thereby a onetoone correspondence between the set of all nrowed square matrices with elements in F and the set of all linear transformations on L of order n over F.33). Thus any two equivalent m by n matrices define the same mapping of L on If L and are the same space we shall henceforth call a linear mapping S of L on L a linear transformation of L. . Since we may then solve for u Clearly. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . . = 11 where JB = (r/j) = Q" We 1 . the only possible meaning of the Ui and v. . we should and do call S a nonsingular linear transformation if A is = u8A~ we see that a nonnonsingular.in (43) can be that of a fixed basis u\. .Hence the matrix B S with respect to our new bases is given by i = (bki) of the linear mapping (50) B = PAQr P 1 . . . . .
. 1. formation on pass to study those properties of a linear transnot depend on the basis of L over F we need only study those properties of square matrices A which are unchanged when we L which do l . L defines a linear transformation of of basis as being induced we put Thus we may regard a change L when by a nonsingu lar linear transformation.LINEAR SPACES 85 We now observe the effect on 0) A of a change of basis of L. Define of all vectors (points) tions. Find the vectors of 7 4 into which (2. 2 u = d) 3x1 6)  2x1 + 2zi + 40:1X2 10xix 8 4x? + Hxl = 6x^2 (47) of  18x2X3 + 1 * Observe that a change of bases uf wj 0> . (0. x%. I 1 F4 defined for the following mat 3. 1. rices Let S be the linear mapping (46) of 73 on A. Apply both S and to the vectors of Ex. Show A /4 a) 3 5\ A = V 3 5 20 6) A = 2 117 3. We use (47) but note that ut formation by (51) It is = v+ and i4 = *40) so that we have P = Q. and let C be one or the other of the curves whose coordinates satisfy the following equa(x\. 0. /S for the matrices of Ex. . x$) Find the equation of the curves C s into which each S carries each C. PAP~ We shall call two matrices A and B similar if (51) holds and shall obtain necessary for a nonsingular matrix in our next chapter. (1. rices S" 1 that the linear transformations (46) of V* defined for the following matare nonsingular and find their inverse transformations. S. similar and be tions that P and sufficient condi A B EXERCISES 1. Hence a change of basis* of L with matrix P replaces the matrix A of a linear trans B = PAPnow clear that in order to 1 . 0) of F3 are mapped by 3 3 2 1 1\ a) A = I 261 1 5\ 21 b) A = I /2 1 3 4 2 0\ 2 4) \l I/ \ 3/ 0\ c) A = /2 \1 2 1 32 1 I/ d) A = /2 I 010 1 1 01 I/ \l 2. 4). 0).
/(w) 5 have f(u) = /(w ) only if 6 = 1 for every i. We call matrices A clearly. those We is an orthogonal matrix. Write B = AA' . f(u s s ) pfl satisfying (53) AA' = I is orthogonal matrices and have shown that S orthogonal if and only if its matrix A uniquely only in terms of a fixed Euclidean geometry the only changes of basis allowed are those obtained by an orthogonal linear transformation. f(u) = uu'. c/ = for j ^ p and and see that/(w ) 2Ci6i. the norm of u (square of the length of u) to be the value f(u) = /(ci.. * . then BB' and (PAP')(PA'P') A .. that (/ A be a skew matrix such that / + A is nonsinguis + A)""^/ A) orthogonal. all = /(w) only if other c/ = 0.. The final topic of our study of linear spaces will be a brief introduction to those linear transformations permitted in what is called Euclidean geometry. that is. have seen that S determines basis of Fn Now in .+4. S on V n which are said We propose to study those linear transformations to be length preserving and define this concept as the property that f(u) 8 f(u ) for every u of n Such transformations S will be called orthogonal. . We . sional linear space of vectors u = (ci.PAA'P' = I . Let then Vn be the ndimenc n ) over a field F.(ft. Show that every orthogonal tworowed matrix / A has the form a =1 V (b .86 10. f(us ) = 2 + 26 b pq = for a p 5^ g. for which the matrix P of (51) is orthogonal. . B = / is the identity matrix. = V . B is also orthogonal. define . But then PP = 1 7. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Orthogonal linear transformations. = us (us )' = uAAV. P' = P 1 .c/.. cn) of the quadratic (52) form /fe. We may by square Then. us = uA for an nrowed define S matrix A. EXERCISES 1. from which f(u) = 2. . What Show are the possible values of the determinant of an orthogonal matrix? 2. . Then take c p c q = 1.^^ + .. . so that if S is a linear transformation with orthogonal matrix and we replace A by PAP"" 1 = B. Let I be the identity matrix. lar. 3.) = = 2c?. P'P = /. Put c p = 1..
fawj 0(L) and a and 6 are in F. we ^i + ^2 is in 0(L). 7. onal (that us = wA if . while. wW = uAA't.022 AA' 4. 1N i \ a) OJ 6) M /3 4> \ (4 3J C> x A (l \ l) /3 (2 Orthogonal spaces. in a geometric sense. y z sin ft t/ 3/0 cos h.) and 0. + Then 0(L) in is a linear subspace of if Vn which we shall call the space orthogonal in Vn to L. 1 t an are 1. of 0(L) is n In fact we shall prove Theorem 10. perpendicular) if uv' any orthogonal matrix and we define a linear transformation S of Vn by us = uA. and of the t such that 0?i s* + 2 7* 0. We now Theorem 9. We shall call two vectors u and v of V n orthog= 0. conversely. 0(L) and only if uv' = . = + a are derived from 6. i = XQ y . . Show that the corresponding = + orthogonal and that every real orthogonal tworowed matrix matrix of a rotation or its product by the matrix matrix is either the Evo of a reflection x 5. Wi and have 0(01^ prove + bw 2 )' = atwj + w 2 are = 0. = yQ . The equations h are x = is z cos h for rotation of axes in a real Euclidean plane through an angle sin h. we define the set to the be set of all vectors w in Vn such that tw' = for every v of L. Now an. Hint: put du = Compute l PAP = D = j\ (d*. + .' =u f = 0. . Find a real orthogonal matrix P for each of the following symmetric matrices 1 A such that PAP' is a diagonal matrix.LINEAR SPACES where a 87 = 2 s(s + t* * 2 J 2 )~ 1/2 . clearly. first note that the elements of GH' are the products t^toj . Then O(L) is the = (0 InmXQ')" 1 o/ rank n m. Let L be a linear m. Thus orthogonal transformations on V n preserve orthogonality of vectors of V n If L = viF v m F is a linear subspace of F. 6 = 2 Z(s + J 2 2 )*/ . Then. we have 11. tr 8 wA . if A is is. )(s + )" = The values 021 = form above. Let L be the row that subspace of order m of Vn . TVien the order G= (I m row space of H For proof we space of the m by n matrix G of ran/c m so 0)Q for a nonsingular nrowed matrix Q. For. Hint: The result s is trivial if a 2 + #12= 1 so + 6 = (s + 2 that 2 = J 2 range over all quantities in F A is a diagonal matrix.
dm ) has elements in F and G is an m by n matrix of where d = (di. 2. then vv = 1 + i2 = 0. 1.88 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Vi of the rows (I m 0)[(0 . . We let HO be = the g (I m = by n matrix whose kth row is y*. 1. (1. But so that m nonzero rows. we may prove Theorem 11. the row space of H is 0(L). But GH = f /nm)]. q row space m. since if F is the field of all complex numbers and + = (1.0). However. u. of the homogeneous linear system Gx = 1 0. w = vF. D has at most n = n n m. n. 0) ui in 1. Then V n = L + 0(L). Hence 0(L) is contained in L and 0(L) = L. This is not true in general. The sum of the orders of L and 0(L) is . 1. v f . 7 EXERCISE Let L be the space over the field of all real numbers spanned by the following vectors u*. Let F be a field whose quantities are real numbers. 2. u3 (3. 0. Then Gw' = Theorem 3.2. . i 2 L = = 1. 2. 3) . and. 1) (2.17 the matrix GG' has rank m and is nonsingular. 3) u. while also Gw = GG'd By rank m whose row space is L. Hence let w be in both L and 0(L) so that w = dG. and D must have rank Di = 0. Let then 0(L) = yiF of + H. = 1. q Note that the row space of H is the set of all solutions x xn) (xi. of G by the transposes of the rows Wj of H. 2. (0. 1. and we have GH' Q The of the n rank matrix 0)Q#Q. d = 0. i). This that proves q ra. 2. For by Theorem 9 it suffices to prove that the only vector w in L and 0(L) is the zero vector. 0) . 1. 0. 1. f f . GG'd' = as desired. in = (0. 1) . u. . . . clearly. . = = = (1. 1) (1. whether V n = L 0(L). 2. and it is natural to ask whether or not they are complementary in V n that is. then GH' = 0. . + y F of order q over F so that 0(L) contains the Evidently H has rank n m. 0) d) (1. and we must have g > n . < . only if d = 0. 0. Find a basis of the space 0(L) in the corresponding a) Vn . . . 3. u3 . 4. 1) ^ fl. in (1. 1) 6) Ul c) = (1. by q is g since Q is nonsingular.
. . fr } for monic polynomials = fi(x) such that fi di in x. As we stated in that section. Hence we see that are equivalent in F[x] only if they have the same rank.CHAPTER V POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS 1. that is. Then a ^ must be a constant polynomial. we may assume that f\ is monic and is the element in the first row and column of a matrix C = (c ) equivalent in F[x] to A. A and B We may then prove LEMMA lent 1 . . a may be any nonzero quantity of F.  X) fi = diag (fi. Every nonzero matrix to A of rank r with elements in F[x] is equiva in F[x] 1 (S where GI vides fi+i. Matrices with polynomial elements.4. 89 . . But those of type 3 are restricted so that the quantity a in F[x] shall have an inverse in F[x]. We shall consider m by n matrices with elements in F[x] and define elementary transformations of three types on such matrices as in Section 2. Let Fix] F be a field and designate by (1) (read: F bracket x) the set of all polynomials in x with coefficients in F. /i For the elements of all matrices equivalent in Fix] to A are polynomials and in the set of all such polynomials there is a nonzero polynomial = /i(#) of lowest degree. The field F(x) of all rational functions of x with coefficients in F contains Flx] and it is thus clear that if A and B are equiva m } lent in F[x] they are also equivalent in F(x). We now let A and B be by n matrices with elements in F[x] and call A and B equivalent in F[x] if there exists a sequence of elementary transformations carrying A into B. we assume that in the elementary transformations of type 2 the quantities c are permitted to be any quantities of F[x\. By the Division . Using elementary transformations of types 3 and 1.
Then we add the first row of A i to its second row so that the submatrix in the first two rows and columns of the result is ft (5) ( \fi We then add a* times the first column to the second column to obtain a matrix equivalent in F[x] to Ai and with corresponding submatrix //. du = f\. Similarly. Then either A2 = may apply the same process to A After a finite number of such steps ultimately show that A is equivalent in F[x] to a matrix (2) of we we our lemma 0. so that these minors are also . observe now that the elements of every <rowed minor of a matrix ti = 0. = (da) with dn = for i 7* 1. we I'th pass to a matrix equivalent in F[x] to A with as the element in its is thus implies that r< in F[x] to a matrix zero. where s< and ti are in F[x] and the degree of ti is less than the degree of /i. or such that the set of every / = all /<(x) is all monic and is a polynomial of least degree in elements of matrices equivalent in F[x] to (4) Write /i+i = fiSi + ti. D column. row arid first we see that every du is divisible by /i and hence that A is equivalent in F[x] to a matrix (3) Vo where A 2 has w 1 rows and n 1 2. columns. (6) \f< definition of /t thus implies that Our We / divides />i as described. But if first +r for g< q> and r< in we add times the row Ti of C to its ith row. A with elements in F[x] are polynomials in z.90 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES = qifi Algorithm for polynomials we may write CH F[x] and r of degree less than the degree of f\. Our definition of /i have now shown A equivalent we Moreover.
. Hence dk divides every Mk+i so that dk divides dk+i. 91 By Section 2. or the sum the of a 2rowed A. . i r) .POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS polynomials in x. .c. . divisible by 0/+i for j 1 = 1. /*. . every Crowed minor of B is either a Crowed minor of minor of A by a quantity a of F. We may state this result as LEMMA 2. . . it also divides every 2rowed minor of all m by n matrices B equivalent in F[x] to A. . Every (k + l)rowed minor Mk+i of A may be expanded according to a row and is then a linear combination. We (7) thus have d k = /i . . = g r We call g the jth invariant factor of A and see that if we /r_i 02. it has the same greatest common diand hence the same g. /i = 1 we have the formula define d It is = > 3 (8) gf = (j = 1. . . (o then. Then d t is also the greatest common divisor of the irowed minors of every matrix B equivalent in F[x] to A. But A is also equivalent in F[x] to B and therefore the Crowed minors of equivalent matrices have the same common divisors. We ob MI + fMz where MI and Afa are serve also that in (2) the only nonzero fcrowed minors are the fcrowed minors diag divides /. Moreover. whence A. with coefficients in F[x]. is 2). of fcrowed minors of A. if the converse holds. of all fcrowed minors of (2) is /i .  . We mentary transformations of type 0i. . to (2) and see that A apply elehas invariant r. Let Abe an m by n matrix with elements in F[x] and d t be the greatest common divisor of all irowed minors of A. while.7 if B is obtained from A by an elementary then transformation./.+ \fi we <i* and since clearly every / . is now . factors 0.J for ii<z 2 < v see that the g. . of (8).. . product Crowed minors of A and/ is a polynomial of F[x].d. . then A is equivalent in F[x] to w If. B is equivalent in F[x] to (9) and to A. t customary to relabel the polynomials / and thus to write fr = gi. *i *> visors d k equivalent in F[z] to 4. We have proved .. If d in F[x] then divides every Crowed minor of A. fk. r if 1.
As in our theory of the equivalence of matrices on a field we may obtain a theory of equivalence in F[x] using matrix products instead of elementary . Two F[x] if and only m by n matrices with elements in F[x] are equivalent in if they have the same invariant factors. The invariant factors of a matrix A with elements in F[x] and rank r are certain i . We call two m by n matrices A and B with elements in F[x] equivalent in F[x] if there exist elementary matrices P and Q such that PAQ = B. transformations. r If g k (x) = 1. . their determinants differ only by a factor in F. . 1 1  =  / 1 1. r. Hence.= PI" adj P if P is in F. Then. 0i. so that a and 6 are nonzero But if P has elements in F[x]  so does adj P. in F) and not zero. . transformation matrix is in F. 1. . a = \P\ and b = \P~ l the quantities a and 6 are in F[x]. the products P&A. In closing let us note a rather simple polynomial property of invariant factors. But. . AQo are the matrices resulting from lent in F[x] to identity matrices the application of the corresponding elementary transformations to A. . the determinant of any elementary and B are square matrices with elements in F[x] and are equivalent in F[x]. . Let us then call those gt(x) ^ 1 the nontrivial invariant factors . . . Then we again have the result that A and B are equivalent in F[x] if and only if they have the same invariant factors. if \A and \B\ are monic polynomials. . Qi(x) such that Qi+i(x) divides gi(x) for = .92 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Theorem 1. in particular. ab quantities of F. . Thus we have proved that a square matrix P with polynomial elements is elementary if and only if its determinant is a constant (that We now is. Moreover. For under our first definition P and Q are equiva and hence may be expressed as products of elementary transformation matrices. of rank r with invariant factors gi. if A \ \ that when A is a nonsingular matrix with . then g&x) = 1 for larger j = k + 1. PAQ must have the same invariant factors as A. then the equivalence of A and B in F[x] implies that \A . gn as invariant factors its determinant It is if the product g\ gn clear now that a square matrix is . both P and P.have elements 1 in F[x}. We thus define a matrix P = to be an elementary matrix if if \. invariant factors of P are all unity. Every m by n matrix . P with elements in F[x] is elementary and thus the and only if P is equivalent in F[x] to the identity matrix. . g r is equivalent in F[x] to (9). and we have the result desired. We may now redefine equivalence. monic polynomials 1. The converse is proved similarly. Hence. Hence so will P.\B\ and. . observe that. . in fact. if PO and Q are elementary transformation matrices.
a) I x3 + 3x 2  3x  1 x3  x2 + 4x  2 /x 2 d) x 2 +x +x 1 x x x2 1 + 2x x2 \x 2 2x 2 + 1\ +x + 2/ 1 2. Describe a process for reducing a matrix A with elements in F[x] to an equivaHow. . Determine the invariant factors of the matrices of by the use of (8). i Thus exists an integer t g i+ i(x) = . 3 to carry this preliminary diagonal matrix into the' form (9)? 5. Let A be an m by n matrix whose elements are in F[x]... Use elementary transformations to carry the following matrices into the (9). of an and a*. Hint: Use the g. Express the following matrices as polynomials in x whose coefficients are matrices with constant elements.in its ith row and jth column. 6. . then. Reduce the matrices of Ex.d.c. /x(xl) b) \ x(x /x 2 c) + x2 x 2 \ x + l) \ + l)j V + 2*  3/ lent diagonal matrix.. 1 to the form (9) by the use Ex.. . = such that gi(x) has positive degree for = 1. form \ a) (x \Q 4. 1 the trivial invariant factors of A. process of Section 1. Q = a>kj> 3.6 with/ = an.c.d. EXERCISES 1. 1 of elementary trans formations.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS of 93 there A } the remaining g^x) = 1. may we use the process of Ex. Describe a process by means of which we may use elementary row transformations involving only the fth and kth rows of A to replace A by a matrix with the g. g r (x) = ..
+2 divisors. . c. We shall call the rs polynomials the elementary divisors of A. that every g<(x) divides 0i(x). r"i . . e\j = ^ for i = 2. . . x2 Let x + 1 ~x 2 Elementary K be the field of all complex numbers so that ci) ei . number of invariant factors of A.) . . . and thus C\C\\ v^iuy of a matrix A clear n(r\ &%{) r is the r. Those for which e^ nontrivial elementary divisors of > will be called the A. to the form x 2. where Ci. . . .Vti l ^i) fr c v * Vi cy / TV ^ e^ e^ 1 i. . (r {*' /. rj . Since 0+i(x) divides 0(x). . INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Use elementary transformations to reduce the following matrices (9). g\(x) = (x . are the distinct complex roots of the first invariant factor it is with elements in K[x].94 7. (x e c. . Here .
_i = diag {0_i. d\ = A A . = (z c/) for n^ > 0.c. . complex numbers the corresponding elementary divisors /. .) / with Let us then order the t exponents n. Then. . . . Conversely. .} equivalent diag {gf. q = ti t tSj and our set of polynomials may be extended to a set of + + ^ exactly ts HH = #ij 0. . first has prescribed invariant factors and hence prescribed it is desirable to obtain a matrix of a form exhibiting the elementary divisors explicitly. But then A = diag {^i. diag 1}. c. in to that A. . Let us prove f s be monic polynomials of F[x] which are rela2./i/2 is the only nontrivial invariant factor of 2 is equivalent in F[x] to diag (fif 2 2.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS 95 The invariant factors of A clearly determine its elementary divisors Cj where r is the uniquely as certain rs powers // of linear functions x rank of A. ./. we have r ^ t. By Theorem 2 the matrix Ai = diag {/. let us consider a set of q polynomials each a power with positive integral exponent of a monic linear factor with a complex root. . .. where 0. !.. Define gi(x) as in (10) for i = 1. .. in Then the pairs. . .d. to be integers e^ satisfying t and ^ ^ Ctj ^ 0. A . If A has rank r. ._i} A = diag {/i. 1}. In fact. . 02j ^ ._i is prime to / in to is equivalent to is F[x] diag {g. 1. !. We shall do this. A The distinct roots in our set hkj may tfyen n *> be labeled Ci. /. and we adjoin (r t)s new trivial elementary divisors // to obtain the complete set of r invariant factors 0. . c. . the g. . Let f i.. . . the elementary divisors of uniquely determine its invariant factors. A = diag {/i._i = diag {/i._i = /i . Then . . A whose nontrivial elementary divisors are the given hkj./2J is unity.. . . It is now evident that two by n matrices with elements in K[x] are equivalent in K[x] if and only if they have the same elementary divisors. n polynomials by adjoining t tj polynomials (x c.!}. Theorem . and our let tj polynomials have the form the .. . only nontrivial invariant factor of the matrix tively prime fs f B } is its determinant g = f i A = diag {fi.} is equiv alent in F[x] to diag {0 f _i.. ..!}. . But 0. t be the maximum tj.. . is 5. 1}.i. . is We see now that if gi(x) in F[x] to diag {0 t defined by (10) for distinct . . For each be number of hkj in our set./. . ._i. . However.. The /2 of result is trivial for s 2 = 1. A t } is equiv . . of the elements f\ and l. .. Then g is the only nontrivial invariant factor of A. . . obtain a set of polynomials gi(x) such that g%+i(x) divides g^(x) for i 2 1. /. ./} is equivalent . /* are relatively prime in pairs. .. the Qi(x) are the nontrivial invariant factors of a matrix . . Assume. If s = 2. then. / 1. . F[x] equivalent . and 1J.(z) of A. m The matrix (9) elementary divisors. 1. .. clearly. and s is the number of distinct roots of the invariant factors of A. Hence {</.. . . and our theorem Cjj is proved.
z 2z + x. The whose rank a) b) c) following polynomials are the nontrivial elementary divisors of a matrix is six.1). EXERCISES 1. x* z 7z + 2. d) x.  1). (ft We and hence the nontrivial inexamine the form of A to see that . z> (x3). x  1 2. Let tegers ni Ci. (x (*3). (x  3).1)*. . . + 2 I) . (x  2). . (x 2  2 2 . *'. (x x 4). form /(x  1) \ /x 3 \ o)( \ x2 x /x a c) 0) I/ (xl) 6)(0x + l \0 \ x + 2/ 0) (0 \0 x + I/ . . 2 3 2 2  3z +2 2 (*  l)^. Then the matrix A = has the fi diag {fi. (x + 1).1). x x* + x. g tj . 2). The are a) V) c) What its following polynomials are the nontrivial invariant factors of a matrix. x. x 2x* + x* + x. What are its invariant factors? (x (x  1)'. . . c r be complex numbers and fi= (x n Ci) i/or in ^ 0. (x x*.2. . . x'. . . . /) x. + 1)2. e)  1). (x (x 2)'. 2x + 1). . 5s + 9z + 2x* + x\ + z + 2x* + 5 2 8 x* 2 3 2 .f r j as its elementary divisors. . . . we have proved Theorem 3. (x + x' x* 1)S Find elementary transformations which carry the following matrices into the (9). x(x I) (x 4z + 5z .  (x  5) (x + 1)'. **. (x (* . (x x. 3. . (x 1). 1}. 1. (*3). . 31 a. nontrivial elementary divisors? x6 6 d) e) x* + x + x*. (x + 1) 2). I) (x  1). x. alent in F[x] to diag [g^ variant factors of A are 0i.96 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES . (x x. . (x .
Q(x). m with henceforth restrict our attention to nrowed square matrices with elements in F[x] and thus to the set of all polynomials in x with coefficients nrowed square matrices having elements in F. then q(x) t. 97 in F[x] a. let and J?o be give it in some detail. Let the elements a*. Moreover. while if s t. Define Ak = (a^) and obtain an expression of A in the form (12) f(x) = A Qx> + . g(x) have deand leading coefficient B such that AoB 5^ 0. then q(x) and us While the proof is very much the same as that in Theorem 1. Matric polynomials. nomial f(x) ly is If all the A k in (11) are zero matrices.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS 3./. . Then B^ 1 exists. of an m by n matrix A be and let s be a positive integer not less than the degree of any of the Then every a# has s as a virtual degree and we may write Oif (11) for a$ in F. The degree of f (x) + g(x) is not greater than the degree of gree 4. the poly the zero polynomial. Let f (x) have degree n and leading coefficient Ao. R(x) such that r(x) and R(x) have virtual degree (13) and f (x) = q(x)g(x) + r(x) = = Q(x) g(x)Q(x) + R(x) ^ . if s < t. and such that the leading t 1 Then there exist unique polynomials q(x). we say that/(x) has degree s and leading coefficient Ao if ^o ^ 0. + A. Let us call these polynomials nit rowed matric polynomials. 3. for s by n matrices A k Thus f(x) is a polynomial in x of virtual degree m 6y n matrix coefficients Ak and virtual leading coefficient AQ> Moreover. Q(x) have degree s = 0. and we again designate by 0. Then the degree of f (x)g(x) is m + n and the leading coefficient of f (x)g(x) is AoB LEMMA m .1. t Let f (x) and g(x) be nrowed matric polynomials of respective coefficient of g(x) is nonsingular. r(x). and if q\(x)g(x) has virtual deq^x) = A^B^x'"' the polynomial fi(x) = f(x) ^ . in Chapter I we use Lemma 4 in the derivation of the Division Algorithm for matric polynomials which we state as As Theorem degrees s 4. In order to be able to multiply as well as to add our matrices we shall . We assume first that s ^ t and let A the respective leading coefficients of /(#) and g(x). Evidentf (x) we have LEMMA or g(x). .
This proves the uniqueness of g(x) and r(z). division of f (x) by xl C are fn(C) .98 gree 5 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 1. = q$(x)g(x} + q(x) 0. and (15) f L (C) = CAo +0^1 + . Similarly. Let us regard the first equation of (13) as the right division of f(x) by g(x). Theorem 5. if C is an nrowed square matrix and/(x) the polynomial /(C) might mean any one of A Q C 2 = A . This implies a finite process by means of which we begin with i * t and leading coefficient a polynomial /i(x) of virtual degree s 1 i and then form /i+i(x) = fi(x) q i+ i(x)g(x) of virtual degree s A^ for <7t+i(x) = A^jB^x*""*""'. and its C 0. //(x) of virtual degree t q(x)  0. for ex ample. But leading coefficient is = r(x) r (x) is t then by Lemma 4 the degree of [qo(x) ft. and otherwise with q(x) of degree s If also /(x) leading coefficient r (x) for #o(#) A B^ and r(x) the //(x) above. the theorem in Remainder Theorem for matric polyusual form is ambiguous since. the degree of this polynomial is h jg 0. so that J?(x) = in (13). of Q(x) and 12 (x) as left quotient and remainder. 1. and these matrices might all be different. respectively. It is natural now to try to prove a nomials. we call (/(x) a left divisor of 0(x) if /(x) = gr(x)Q(x). . x2 . . = x 2A = xA x. Then we shall speak correspondingly of q(x) and r(x) as right quotient and remainder. However. . If r(x) = 0. Then the right and left remainders on and fi/C).+ 1 . 1 . g(x)]0(x) ^ ^ + a contradiction. r(x) = /(x) Q if s 1 < The process terminates when we obtain an Thus we have the first equation of (13) with t and t. we have /(#) = q(x)g(x). C be annrowed square matrix with elements in F. The existence and uniqueness of Q(x) and R(x) is proved in exactly the same way except that we begin by forming /(x) whereas its virtual degree is t 1. Also C Bo 5^ since B is nonsingular. and 0(x) is a ngrfa divisor of /(x). We shall do this and obtain a Remainder Theorem which we state as CA 2 Let f(x) be an nrowed square matric polynomial (12). CAoC. +CA_ + A. Thus we must first define what we shall mean by/(<7). Define fn(C) (read: f right of C). the second as the left division of f(x) by g(x). and fL (C) (14) (read: f left of C) by f R (C) = A C + A^*.
The second part implies that of our proved similarly.CD. that is. and only if f(C) = 0. . . . + C. This statement is correct. The C)._i and have *(*) = q(x)(xl  C) = Then. if q(x)  x so that h(x) unless = x8  Cx. . if /(re) has x C is a root of f(x). of the result just proved for matric polynomials which we state as As a consequence we have the Factor Theorem C as a right divisor if Theorem 6. if /#(C) = 0. then h R (D) = D2 . We then 1 and r(x) r(x) where q(x) has degree s wish to draw our conclusion from /(C) = qR (C)(C C) + B. D' . we q(x)(xl results on the left follow =  Our principal use of the result above is precisely what is usually called C as a factor. + (C_i  C. . but let us examine it more closely.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS field 99 C and have }(x) = q(x)g(x) + = B has elements in F. if (Co* + da' + . We write q(x) = 4 with g(x) To make our proof we use Theorem as in the case of polynomials with coefficients in a = xl Cox*~ l + . . The matric polynomial f (x) has xl C as a left divisor if and only if f/. + C.DC * D .C_i q*(D)(DI  C) = C D + (CiD 1  CoD'C) + . D is any nrowed square matrix with elements in F..C) implies that h R (D) = qR (D)(D *  C). it has xl For Theorem 5 implies that. we have = CoZ> h R (D) while + (Ci  CoC)!) 1 + ._!x)  (CoC*' + . then in (12) the polynomial r(x) = 0. then h(x) = q(x)(xl . f(x) if D and C are commu h(x) +B C) +B = B.(C) = 0. . . it is nontrivial that /(C) = and follows only from the study above where we showed that if D is any square matrix such that DC = CD. and these matrices are equal tative. . = fe(C)(CJ  f(x) C) = 0._ 2 C)D . . . However. f(x) = q(x)(xl  C).CD E. then the trivial part of Theorem 5. + C_!C) . in general* They is are equal if D = /(C) = theorem hR (C) +B = qR (C)(C  if and only = and thus C. Conversely.g. if have seen that/fi (C) similarly. q M (D)(D  C)  DC = CD.
If f(x) is nrowed scalar matrix coefficients A^. all the poly . We call f(x) monic if a = 1. For obvi where / ously this case of Theorem 4 is now the result of multiplying nomials of Theorem 1. l) O/ 6)C=(l \0 I/ (7=121 \0 I/ The characteristic matrix and function. the nrowed identity matrix.100 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES EXERCISES 1.. 2z 4  x* + 2 x + x 8 1 X t __ O'rS iJU ff JU \jJ(/ Q/2 2 _l " (1 + 3 0*2 /v. If now g(x) is also a scalar polynomial. Q(x).)I .(C) by the use of the division process as well as by substitution /O 1 0\ /O 2 0\ c) /I 2 0\ a)C=(0 \2 4. Use /(#) of Ex. r(x).. l(c) and if find /ft(C) and/z. and (12) with (16) a matric polynomial shall call/(x) a /(x) is = (a<& + . the quotients q(x) and Q(x) in (13) are the same scalar polynomials and also r(x) = R(x) is scalar. then we scalar polynomial Thus A k = a k l for the a^ in F.2 y? x  1 x i 2 5 2^2 T 3 2. Express the following matrices as polynomials /(x) and g(x) with matric coeffi cients and compute q(x).2 4 x 3a.1 by the nrowed identity matrix.+ a. R(x) of (13).
A) are the cof actors of the elements of (in general. We now apply (3. g(A) = 0.(A) are equal for every scalar polynomial /(x).POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS If 101 any nrowed square matrix. then q(x) We now define the minimum function of a square matrix A to be the monic scalar polynomial of made above then implies least degree with A as a root. q(x). of the elements of B(x) is unity so that if B(x) = Q(x)q(x) for a monic scalar polynomial = 1. A) is clearly the polynomial d n i(x) defined f or xl A and d n (x)= \xl A \. Every square matrix is a root of its characteristic equation. . is a matric polynomial. + a. and the corresponding equation /(x) = A to obtain the characteristic equation of A. Hence B(x) A were defined in (8)._iA + aj . The invariant factors of xl = = and by (19) \xl (xl A)B(x)d n _i(x). But then adj (x/ A) =d n _i(x)B(x). clearly. and adj (xl By the argument above we have Theorem 7. The remark just Theorem trix of A. A) is a matric polynomial A.27) to xl (19) (xl  A)[adj (xl  A)] = [adj (xl  A)](xl  A) = x/. We now say that either the polynomial /(x) as a root /(A) only if /(x) has xl if = or the equation /(x) = has 0. Observe also that the g. Hence.or a lefthand factor.A Then xl the elements of adj (xl  /. where B(x) is an nrowed square matrix with elements in F[x\.d. By Theorem 6 the matrix A is a root of /(x) if and A as either a right.c. the scalar poly f(x) = \xl  A\ I the characteristic function of A. A We shall call the matrix xl  A the characteristic matrix of A. By the gi(x)di(x)I A\I uniqueness of quotient in Theorem 4 we have of the elements of adj (xl (20) The g. the de terminant \xl nomial (18) A the characteristic determinant of A. nonscalar). the polynomials //?(A) and/i. 8.d. g(x) = 0i(x)7 = (xl  A)J5(x) . . Let gi(x) be the first invariant factor of the characteristic ma Then g(x) = gi(x)I is the minimum function of A. .c. and we shall designate their common value by is A (17) /(A) = aoA + .
and zero. . as we have already ob served in an earlier discussion. then ~ A~~ does not exist. A"* it is = o^ (A^ l + M. In closing this section we note that (x we  write f(x) = \xl n  A\ / = + aa". so that \A\ (23) = (l) nan  It follows that. But then. If. r  \ (21) P(x) (si  A) . Since A 9* 0.r(z) = 0. . Moreover. A A~ = A. \A \ ^ 2 0. from which g(x) = h(x) as desired.A. q(x) = 1. + a*) /. and since g(x) and h(x) are monic so is q(x). then . . we have m > 1. (22) c \xIA\ \Q(x)\ in F. and we have proved product by I o/ tfta product of the invariant factors of the characteristic matrix of A. . A are the field of all complex numbers. . . and d  = Hence cd = 1. By Theorem 6 we have h(x) = (xl A)Q(x). d = gl .. It follows that Theorem jPAe characteristic function of a square matrix A is /&# every root of \xl in fact taining g\(x). and G = A m + m~ + + and hence l obvious that l . Q(x) = diag {jfi.102 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES is For if h(x) the minimum function of A we may write g(x) = and h(x)q(x) + r(x) for scalar polynomials h(x) r(x) such that the degree of r(x) is less than that of h(x).+ 1 .and0(A) = Osothatr(A) = 0. The uniqueness in Theorem 4 then A)Q(x)q(x) states that B(x) = Q(x)q(x). + an! /) . . if \A\ =0. .. . This result implies that \xl A\ is the product of g\(x) by divisors gi(x) of g\(x}. polynomials (x \xl A\. . the elementary divisors of xl Then whose is the are the c/)*w product c. then/(0) = A if 7 \ = (l) A /. A 7* and gi(x) = x m + bixm + + m the polynomial gf(a:) = g\(x)I can be the minimum function of A only if ~ b m = 0.+ l 1 . gn ] for elementary matrices P(x) and Q(x). and by (20) we have g(x) = = (xl (x/ 4)5(z).gn for c = P (a:) 9. But&(A) = 0. fc . distinct roots of g\(x) as well as of teristic roots F is a root of But A in any field K conwe have already seen that if F is \ xl  A if . We see now that xl A is a monic polynomial of degree n and is not = m = n in (9). Hence g(x) = h(x)q(x). . \ They are called the charac of A. l M 2 . . 6m _i/ (24) is a nonzero matrix with the property AG = GA = . then.
6.= B 1 . Show that f(x) is any polynomial and we define first (x) = f(x)I t any t. Verify this for the 5. We have defined two nrowed square matrices A and a nonsingular B with elements in a field F to be similar in F if there exists matrix P with elements in F such that PAP. P is elementary. are the minimum functions . if For PAP. 6) a) (o 3. is let g(x)I m^ n gi(x)I m and Qi(x)I n be the . Similarity of square matrices. . Hint: Prove by induc Let A have the form of Ex. What. . ^ . A%\. The principal result on the similarity of square matrices is then given by Theorem 10. /O (6 1\ e> /2 (4 3\ l) /o 0\ 6J > 2J {^4i. gi(x). respective minimum and A* Prove that g(x) is the least common multiple of g\(x) 5. Compute the characteristic functions of the following matrices. Two matrices are similar in F if and only if their characteristic matrices have the same invariant factors. 103 When is the minimum function of a matrix linear? of the following matrices? 2.= 1 B.B = xl . 4. Apply Ex.A)P~ == xPIP~ . 4 in the case where A\ nonsingular and A = z 0..B. A is in F. .fn (A 2 )}. then/m+nCA) k tion that A = diag [Af. 3 and functions of A. Hence xl l l . It may + ( be shown that the characteristic function f(x) = x n n~* n l)*atX ( l) a n of an nrowed square matrix a\x n~ l + + + A has the property that di is the matrices of Ex.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS EXERCISES 1. Let for A = diag A^} where 4i and if A 2 are square matrices of m in F[x] and n rows f t respectively. . sum of all irowed principal minors of A. /2 (l 3\ . A\. then \P\ P(xl But P has elements in F. then. 7. 6. = diag {fm(Ai).
A is \ n and hence that n  is the de gree of the ith nontrivial invariant factor gt(x) the property g (x) t xl A =  implies that 2 .PAP" = B 1 as desired. Conversely. = xl B for elementary matrices P(x) (26) and We define P = PL (B) Theorem 5 and have P(x) Q = Qa (B) as in (27) = (xl  B)P*(x) +P  . Obviously.A) Q =  xl  We now [P(z)]1 use (25) and the fact that P(x) and Q(x) are elementary to write = C(x). . . B . . By Lemma 4 the degree in x of the right member of (29) is at least two unless R(x) = 0. .I (28)  B) . if Observe that the degree of xl . ^ n = t . (25) xl A and xl P(x)[xl B have the same invariant factors. P (xl ^ A) 7. P7Q = j Q = P.104 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES B are equivalent in F[x] let and xl and have the same invariant factors. P  But then from and P and thus (29) (xl  A) = (s/  J3)[Z)(a. +n = t n .) P*(x)(xl A)] (x/  J5) P (si  A) Q = (x7  (x)C(x) D(x)Q Q (x) Pt(x)(xIA)Q Q (x). this is an important restriction on the possible degrees of the invariant factors of the characteristic matrix of an nrowed square matrix. It follows that PAQ = B. tti ^ n2 ^ . so that  A]Q(x) Q(x). = C(x)(a. Q(x) = Qo()(x7  B) + Q . . But the degree in x of the left member of (29) is at most one.  Q = xl 1 . Q(x)~ 1 = D(x) for matrix polynomials C(x) and D(x) such that (28) (J  A)Q(x) (27) . . Then P(x)[(xl  A)]Q(x) = (xl B)P(x)(xI  P (xl  4) Q (z)(z7  B) +P (xl . (31) HI +n + . . where R= fl(a?) =P +  R(x) (30) = 0.
. Characteristic .. 1 B 4. .... x 62 1 x 61 . then A\x and Q with are equivalent in F[x] if and only if there exist nonsingular matrices elements in + + F such that in (25). . !. .. BT^ Show that the hypothesis that A\ is nonsingular in Ex. 3.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS EXERCISES 1. yet P and Q do not exist. . Hint: Take P A = Ar ^. 3 is essential by proving / and B\x that Aix J are equivalent hi F[x]. . B is equivalent in xl nt For then xl . 1 x 1 . are the nontrivial invariant factors of a matrix xl A and n is g t (x) the degree of 0(z). 105 What are all possible types of invariant factors of the characteristic matrices of square matrices 2. . . t ] F[x] to diag {G i... and Bz are nrowed A 2 and E\x B2 square matrices such that A\ and B\ are nonsingular.!}.. A^ Bi. and we conhas the same invariant factors as xl A Thus the problem . 2. B t ] will be similar in F to A if Bi is an nrowed square matrix such that the only nontrivial invariant factor of the characteristic matrix of Bi is g>(x). having 1. Let g(x) = xn (32) 010 00 000 1 (bix* 1 + . B = diag {xl ni BI.. if B 6. where Gi = . . + bn ) and bn Then g(x)I For x (33) b n _i b n and the is both the characteristic minimum function of A. l matrices with prescribed invariant factors. f clude that xl B diag {#. 3. . or 4 rows? Give the possible elementary divisors of such matrices. g(x) is the only nontrivial invariant factor of xl A. then by Theorem 1 the nrowed square matrix . B = diag {Bi. PA& = Bi and PA Q = B2 2 . . Use the proof of Theorem 10 to show that if AI. .... . . If g\(x).(?}. of constructing an nrowed square matrix whose characteristic matrix has prescribed invariant factors is completely solved by the result we state as A Theorem 9.
desired. x in the first row and column of (33). t . !.106 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES & n of (33) is an (n The complementary submatrix of the element 1)1 and its derowed square triangular matrix with diagonal elements all ~ terminant is (I)"1 Thus the cofactor of 6n is (l) n+ 1 (l) n 1 = 1 and hence dn \(x) = 1. The whose construction of square matrices characteristic matrices simple solution. acteristic matrix xl c n But equivalent in F[x] to diag {/. For xl n The c) complementary minor of the element in the \xl A\ = (x A is a triangular matrix with diagonal nth row and first column of xl n elements all unity. .!}. .. . This is true if n = 1. so that Let it be true for matrices A n _i of the form (33) and of n 1 n~2 = . .. .. we construct matrices Aj of the form (34) for c = c.. . + &ni) is the cofactor of the element . This proves our theorem. t . dni(x) = 1. . . . ./* as . .. its bn = g(x) as desired. B }. . The matrix A = diag {Ai. It remains to prove that dn (x) = \xl A\ = g(x). .. \ \xl A ni\ first z"" (bix + ... Let c be a complex number. . .. and \xl 1 rows.. . ... Thus if Ci.. c 1 A with complex number elements have prescribed elementary divisors has a see that the argument preceding Theorem 9 A be the nrowed square matrix c 1 (34) 000 000 . . and dn (x) = (x c) is the only nontrivial . and its charrows. c 1 c A is (x c) n Then the only nontrivial invariant factor of xl A is a triangular matrix with diagonal elements all x c. t t ) . A = x bi.. and we shall reduces the solution to the proof of Theorem 10. .!} such that / = (x then xl A is equivalent in F[x] to diag {/i. t tegers. and with rc A ] then has n rows./. We now expand (33) according to n~ l n~ 2 column and obtain \xl + + 6ni)] (b\x A\ = x[x . .!. since then A = A\ = (61). where Bi = xl ni Ai is A = diag {Bi. and by Theorem 3 the nontrivial elementary divisors of xl A are /i. invariant factor of A. n are positive inc are complex numbers and ni.
however. B = diag {Bi. 107 Compute the invariant factors and elementary divisors of the characteristic matrices of the following matrices. . > c defines a and the correspondence c < selfequivalence or automorphism This of K. automorphism of K leaves the elements of its subfield R unaltered. that jR. now the ith nontrivial ele 7.9. a subfield of K. Bi of the form (34). a = a for every real a. where R is the is field of all real numbers. is. a fact verified in Section 6. b in R. . is where Bi has the form (32). topics of the theory of their exposition matrices other than those to we have and we leave more advanced texts. We then may call it an automorphism over . The quantities of the field K of all complex numbers have the form c = a + bi (a. 2 with the characteristic function of Bi mentary divisor of A. Additional topics. There are many important discussed.POLYNOMIALS WITH MATRIC COEFFICIENTS EXERCISES 1. . 1. i2 = 1) . 3. Find a matrix respectively. B t] similar in to each of the matrices of Ex. Bi Solve Ex. The complex conc jugate of c = a bi . and the characteristic function the ith nontrivial invariant factor of A. . 6 2 2 5 19\ 1 5 1 2 312 F 1 05 9^ of 2. Let us mention some of these topics here.
for every A.108 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES a. Two matrices A and B are said to be conjunctive in K if there exists a nonsingular matrix P with elements in K such that 7 . (J)' =A 7 . B. Two symmetric matrices A and B with elements in a field F are said to be orthogonally equivalent in F if there exists an orthogonal matrix P with elements in F such that PAP' = B. D be matrices of the same numbers of rows and columns. Moreover. * In this connection see Exs. D congruent pairs D for a nonsingular matrix P. But PP' = P'P = / so that B = PAP~ l is both similar and congruent to A. D are nrowed square y matrices. where P is a unitary matrix. Then we say that two Hermitian matrices A and B are unitary equivalent if PAP7 #. B C. skewHermitian We A if JF = A. we f call C and PBP = will A. 3 and 4 of Section 5. Then we call the pairs A. Let A. if A. WS The results of this theory are almost exactly the same as those of the theory of congruent matrices. a unitary matrix. in fact. Analogously. we define A to be the It is then m by n matrix whose element in its ith row and jth column is a simple matter to verify that Z5 = IS . let us mention the topic of the equivalence and congruence of pairs of matrices. Both of these concepts may also be shown to be special cases of a more general concept. B equivalent* pairs if there exist nonsingular square matrices P and Q such that simultaneously PAQ = C and PBQ = D. B and C. R= ()* . If A is any m by n matrix with elements a a in K. and it is./. B and C. and nonsingular C. Finally. then (JHB)' = now define a matrix to be Hermitian if JF = A. if simultaneously PAP' = References to treatments of the topics mentioned above as well as others be found in the final bibliographical section of Chapter VI. Similarly. B. possible to obtain a general theory including both of the theories above as special cases. we call a matrix P with complex elements such that PP 7 = P 7 ? = /. C. We shall not state any of the results here. .
and we are ready now to begin the study of abstract algebra. The product ab is in G. ever.CHAPTER VI FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. Our first new concept is that of a set G of elements closed with respect to a single operation. respect to multiplication if for every a. The associative law a (be) = (ab)c holds. Howtained. b. b. linear space. There exist solutions x and y in G of the equations . and equivalence. correspondence. c. . we believe it desirable to precede the serious study of material such as that of the first two chapters of the Modern Higher Algebra by a brief Modern Higher discussion of this subject matter. ax = b ya = b . Groups. without proofs (or exercises). It should be clear that if we do not state the nature either of the elements of G or of the operation. desired. III. The objective of our exposition has now been atFor our study of matrices with constant elements led us naturally to introduce the concepts of field. c of A G is said to form a group with G I. and we wish to define the concept that G forms a group with respect to this operation. If we wish later to consider special sets of elements with specified operations we shall then replace "product" in our definition make the knowledge of how these concepts by the operation . as presented in the usual course on the theory of equations. The reader is already familiar with the groups (with respect to ordinary multiplication) of all nonzero rational numbers. it will not matter if we indicate the operation as multiplication. of elements a. and the abstract approach of the author's Algebra. II. all nonzero real numbers. 109 . shall give this discussion here and shall therewith not only leave our readers with an acquaintance with the basic concepts of algebraic theory but with a We may lead into those branches of mathematics called the Theory of Numbers and the Theory of Algebraic Numbers. Thus we shall set DEFINITION. These pages were written in order to bridge the gap between the intuitive functiontheoretic study of algebra. .
every element a of (2) G has a = 1 unique inverse a" in G such that aar 1 ar l a = e .110 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES all and. Then the (3) solutions of the equations of Axiom III are the unique elements x = ar l b . of elements in a group G is called its order. of all field. Then H forms a group with respect to the same operation as does G. or it is a a finite group of order n. subgroup of a group. and we call G LEMMA 1. subfield of a field. This finite and we call G an infinite group. The equivalence of two groups is defined as an instance of the general definition of equivalence which we gave in Section 4. The reader may verify that an example of a finite nonabelian group * A The proof is given in Chapter VI of my Modern Higher Algebra.g. The concept of equivalence of two mathematical systems of the same kind as well as the concept of subsystem (e. The products ab = ba . simple example of a finite abelian group is the set of all nth roots of unity. groups G such that for every a and 6 of G we These are have all examples of IV. A set H of elements of a group G is called a subgroup of G if the of product any two elements of H is in H. linear subspace over F of a linear space over F) are two concepts of evident funda mental importance which are given in algebraic theory whenever any new mathematical system is defined. nonzero elements of any field. H contains the identity element of G and the inverse element h~ l of every h of H. For finite groups we have the important result which we shall state without proof. Such groups are tiplication. Moreover.. with respect to matrix mulnrowed square matrices with elements in a nonsingular e called its identity element . called commutative or abelian groups. Every group G contains a unique element such that for every a of G (1) ae = ea = a . The number either infinity.5. . indeed. * number is number n. is An example of a nondbelian (noncommutative) group the group. Then the order of H divides the order of G. Let H be a subgroup of a finite group G.
2. a'TO 1 1 the identity element of [a].)' i. . .FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS is 111 given by the quaternion group of order 8 whose elements are the tworowed matrices with complex elements. a. Thus n = mq. . and we may apply Lemma 1. set of all powers a = G e. . of an element a of a group forms a subgroup of G which we shall desig nate by (6) [a] and shall call the cyclic group generated by a. . The order m is of an element of a finite group G divides the order of G. that is. the order of the subgroup [a]. or order ra. Then the order of a is the least integer t such that a* = e. Additive groups. AB. f T ' A / 0\ (4) Mo. Tften an = e /or et. the elements of any linear space. a m = e. Moreover. a n = m ) q = eq = e. groups with respect to the operation of addition as defined for each of these mathematical systems. or 1 a2 cr2 . . (7) a2 .en/ a of G. Let e 66 2/ie identity element of a group G o/ order n. B. But the elements of any field. and [a] consists of the m powers e. Its order is called the order of the element a and it can be shown that either a has finite all the powers (5) are distinct and a has distinct infinite order. D B /O 1\ o)' (i [AB. . In any field and in the set of all nrowed square matThus we have said that the set of all nonzero elements of a field and the set of all nonsingular nrowed square matrices form multiplicative groups. all form additive groups. . a. it can be shown that a* = e if where e is m and only since if m divides m (a t. . The (5) A. We therefore have LEMMA (8) 2. The reader will observe that the axioms for an additive abelian group G are those axioms . rices there are two operations. the set of all m by n matrices with elements in a field.
y + = a = b . that is. . 2 (2 a). the product of a mands. where. .112 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES for addition which we gave in Section 3. Additive groups are normally assumed to be abelian. by a. a. 2a. . 3. F is an instance of certain type of mathematical system called a Many other systems which are known to the reader are rings and we the shall make ring is an additive abelian group of at least two distinct elements such that. c) III. a. we have x y and designate their common value by Thus we define the operation of subtraction in terms of that of addi In a cyclic additive group (11) 0. a. b. . The in a + ( a) = ( a) +a = 0. II. the element verse with respect to addition of a is is usually called its zero + = a = + a. m ( a). of R. (b + c)a = ba + ca hold. if [a] is infinite. associative law a(bc) distributive laws = (ab)c holds. The set consisting of all nrowed square matrices with elements in a field ring. . then it may be seen that n a = q a for any integers n and q if and only if n and q are by the . and we Here m a does not mean . Thus a and is such that designated as the solutions of the additive formula tion (9) a +x= b . The product ab The is in R. The identity element of an additive group such that a element. . clearly. The a(b + = ab + ac. for every a. (m 1) a. . that is. When G b tion. positive integer If [a] is m + + a finite equal. (m a) = . abelian. However.12 for a field. . c. Rings. of the equations of our group (10) Axiom III are z is = (a) + 6. the use of addition to designate the operation with respect to which a group G is defined is usually taken to connote the fact that G is abelian. if [a] the elements are always designated a. define ( m = is ra) a any (m positive integer a). A I. the elements of [a] are 0. and m is least positive integer such that the sum of m summands all equal to a is zero. but means the sum a a with m sumgroup of order m. DEFINITION. y 6 + (a). .
A ring may also contain divisors of zero. They may be found in the first chapter of the Modern Higher Algebra.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS We leave 113 to the reader the explicit formulation of the definitions of sab ring and equivalence of rings. Abstract fields. If R is any ring. A ring is said to possess a unity element e if e in R has the property = ea = ae = a for every a of R. the set of all ordinary integers is a ring. let c and d range . the ring of all nrowed square matrices has already been seen to have such elements as well as the other properties just mentioned. that is. In nonzero elements of this ring are divisors of zero. all rices with elements in a field F is a noncommutative ring. However. The unity element of the set of nrowed square matrices is the nrowed identity matrix. and the unity element was always the number 1 in the other rings we have studied. The reader should also verify that all nonmodular are rings. Observe that by making the hypothesis that R contains at least two fields The elements we exclude the mathematical system consisting of zero alone from the systems we have called rings. The set of all is nrowed square matrices not a division ring. b are in R. 4. the set of all tworowed square matrices of the form /O (12) r\ \o with r rational o. However. we shall designate by R* * the set of all nonzero elements of R. The element 1 e then has the properties of the ordinary number and all is usually designated by that symbol. elements a 9* 0. may easily be seen to be a ring without a unity element. Then we shall call R a division ring if R* is a multiplicative group. Rings may now be seen to be mathematical systems R whose elements have ya all the ordinary properties of numbers except that possibly the prodab ucts and ba might be different elements of R. In particular. zero element of a ring R is its identity element with respect to addition. the ring of all nrowed square matfact. c ^ such that ac = 0. This occurs clearly if and only if the equations ax = 6. The ring of all integers is a commutative ring. the equations ax = b of b might not have solutions in R if a ^ 0. ya = b have solutions in R* for every a and 6 of R*. A ring R is said to be commutative if ab = ba for every a and 6 of R.
. Less trivial examples are the set x q ] of all polynomials in F[x] of all polynomials in x. q . A = ft \a * c is a noncommutative division ring. . . noting nonsingular since A 9^ implies that dd > 0. it generates an additive cyclic subgroup [1]. prime. . If this cyclic group has may be shown to be equivalent to the set of all ordinary integers. . It is usually called the ring of real quaternions. DEFINITION. x and coefficients (in F. then the sum a + is 1 p summands such fields equal to the product (1 all +1+ may F is + + + + 1)0 = 0. group. We now define fields in general. commutative ring with a unity element and withIntegral domains. out divisors of zero is called an integral domain. under rational operations. We . p  1 . and it we have the property that the sum with p summands is zero.A. the set of all ordinary 1. . the unity eley ment 5. where p 1 is . be a finite group. every subfield of F contains the subfield generated by F and. 1. . Until the present we have restricted the term "field" to mean a field containing the field of all rational numbers. is closed with respect to rational operations. both .BjAB of (4) as a basis over that field. 5 and d be the complex conjugate of Q of all tworowed matrices c and d. +1+ . element identity element of the multiplicative group F* is then the unity 1 of F. call F modular fields of characteristic p. and [1] then of F equivalent to the field of all rational numbers. The ring Q is a linear space of it order 4 over the field of all real numbers and has the matrices I. cases) . The reader should verify in particular that every c 7* A ^ = cc is or d j and \A\ + this. in a field . the order of this group. . The whole set F is an additive group with identity element and 1 infinite order. Any field forms a somewhat of F A trivial example of an integral domain. It easily be shown that the characteristic of subfields of a field the same as that of in fact. and . A field is a ring F such that F* is a multiplicative abelian The 0. . The group [1] might. Its elements are then But F the sums (14) 1 = 0. It is easy to show that p is a a with a follows that if a is in F. 2.114 over all INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES the set Then (13) complex numbers. We a subfield generates call all such fields nonmodular fields. . however. . the set F[XI.
of J is an a ^ Every associate of a prime is a prime. If u in J divides its unity element in J.c. . 115 The set of all integers may be extended to the field of all rational numbers by adjoining quotients a/6.c. The problem of determining a common divisor) of two elements a and b of a unique factorization domain is solvable in terms of the factorization of a and 6. b and 6 are associated and only if 6 = bu for a unit Moreover. s of a and b are associates. some When . whenever also = We may #. fact. b divides a so does every associate of b.c. quantity p of an integral domain J is called a prime or irreducible quanis not a unit of J and the only divisors of tity of J if p p in J are units and A ^ associates of p. Let us then formulate the problem regarding g. 's.d. Thus we are led to one of the most important problems about an inte gral domain.c. . of two elements a and b not both zero of J to be a common divisor d of a and b such that every common divisor of a and 6 divides d. which is neither a prime nor a unit of A composite quantity J. as well as the Xij . . . J such that is be. true that qi qa for primes then necessarily s = r and the qi are associates of the p/ in these properties hold we may call J a unique factorization integral domain.d. pr also ask if it is for a finite number a of primes . Then all g. p of J. clearly Thus u is a also a unit. . that of determining its units. In a similar fashion we adjoin in J to imbed any integral domain J in a field. It is natural then to ask whether or not every composite a of (15) J may be written in the form a = pi . u. The reader is familiar with the fact that the set of all ordinary integers is such an integral domain. We call a and b relatively prime if their only common divisors are units of J.d. quotients a/6 for a and b ^ When we studied polynomials in Chapter I we studied questions about divisibility and greatest common divisor. then u is called a unit of J. (greatest author's Modern Higher Algebra.d. corresponding property for the set of all polynomials in x n with coefficients in a field F are derived in Chapter II of the g. We may also study such questions about arbitrary integral domains. Every unit of J divides every a of J. unit of J if it has an inverse The inverse of a unit Two quantities b and 6 Then if are said to be associated if if each divides the other. may be found by a Euclidean process.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS integers. Let us then formulate such a study.. . we saw that in the case of the set F[x] the g. Then we say that a is divisible by b (or that b divides a = a) if there exists an element c in 1. We define a g.c. However. This order. . Let J be an integral domain and a and 6 be in J.d. 6/^0. .
and if H many elements mi. We may then define for every a of R. if a c in Af. When J? is a commutative ring. a 6. (read: M M + Let us now define the sum and product of residue (18) classes by g +b= a +b . It consists of all finite sums of elements of the form amb = {m} consists of all for a and 6 in R.c. we write {H} = {mi. contains g R if h. m show that {H} is an ideal. they have the unity element of J as a g. . and finally whether or not may be found by the use of a Euclidean Division Algorithm. of a and b. we must ask whether there exist x and y in J such that d is = ax + by d common divisor and hence a g. products for the corresponding ideal.c. ag. A subset and a of R. This term is { de1 } . H is any set of elements of a ring J?. t . am for a in R.d. We now see that one of the questions regarding an integral domain J is the question as to whether every a and b of J have a g. If ma of any element m of M and any element a of 1? are in M. g b = a b . This M The ring R itself is an ideal of R called the unit ideal. we may designate by {H\ the set sums of elements of the form xmy for x and y in #. . be an ideal of R and define Let M (17) o s 6 (M) what we a congruent b modulo M) if a b is in M.d.d. We put into the shall call a residue class g of class every b in R such that a = 6 (M). consists of only one element m of R we write consisting of all finite in H. rived from the fact that in the case where R has a unity quantity R = Evidently {0} is the zero ideal. . It is easy to . 6 c is It follows that c) (6 (a and b are the same resig due class) if and only if b is in g. . of a ring R is called an Ideals and residue class rings.116 that INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES is. Clearly a = b (M) if and only if b 33 a (Af). If H consists of finitely m of jR. Moreover. . m/}. ga. . or may be seen to be a subring of R with the property that the products ideal of M M M M M am. .c. for every g and h of Then either consists of zero alone and will be called the zero ideal of R. then (a 6 is in and b 6) = = a in M. Moreover. y (16) M= {m} most important type of an ideal is called a principal ideal.
Let a and b ^ be integers. . 2. etc. then ai + b\ = a + b.5. this ring. a = bqi + n with whereas r n < b This is possible only if r\ = r and q\ = q..2&. We now * leave for the reader the application of the Euclidean process. Then let (g 1) 6 be the least multiple of 6 which exceeds a so that . 6. class is call call divisorless if is field. our definitions of sum and product of residue classes are unique. the multiples (19) 0. and have g\b\ = <?6.g\b\ = r such that < r < \b\. are clearly a set of integers one of which exceeds* any given integer a. This coincidence occurs in most of the topics of mathematics (in particular the Theory of Algebraic Numbers) where ideals are studied.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS may be = 06. and we first shall prove that has the property of unique factoriare those ordinary integers u such 1 and 1 are the only units of E. aifri It verified readily that It follows that if 117 a\ = g. 1. Then it is easy to show that if is not R the set of all the residue classes forms a ring with respect to the operations just defined. a = bq + r. 26. When all class. and their associates 5.. The ring of ordinary integers. 7. Every integer a is associated with 3. The process yields We use the concept of magnitude of integers throughout our study of the ring E. q and r such that integers 0<r< 1 1 . its absolute value a  \ ^0. E that uv = 1 for an integer But then Thus the primes of E are the ordinary positive prime integers 2. put 1)6 > a. We observe that the units of v. shall designate henceforth E. We note now that if b is any integer not zero. We . etc..    \ have thus proved the Division Algorithm for E. It easily seen to be an inte gral domain. 61 =b . The set by it of all ordinary integers is a ring is which we zation.. We call this ring the residue class or difference ring (read: R minus M R M M = R the residue classes are the zero and we have not called set a M an integral domain. 6. Then there exist unique 6 a = bq + r. If also < r\ < \b\. then b(q q\) = n r is divisible by 6. we the When the residue ring R ideal M a prime ideal of R. 3. to which we used to prove Theorem our present case. a result we state as Theorem 1.(g + + We q = giib > Qj q = g otherwise. in finite number of elements since it may be shown that any integral domain with a finite number of elements is a field. We Ma ideal of R R M M has only a a These concepts coincide the case where R M). a g\b\ <a. 5.
. Then p divides g or h. For if a = 6c. For let a and b be prime to m and d be the g. . Theorem and b such (20) is Let f and g be nonzero integers. for positive . it does . . primes qi . is sometimes called the Fundain the form Every composite integer a is expressible a = pi. But if the divisor pi of qi q8 is not equal to gi. For if p does not divide gr. l stages the sequence of decreasing positive integers a .c. af + bg is the a and and Then d unique positive g. forj = 1. But then a divisor c > 1 of d divides a or b as well as m contrary to hypothesis. Theorem Let m be an integer. .118 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES 2. Let f. . of p and g is either 1 or an associate of p. . and p\ = Then either we may arrange the q* so that gi pi.  > . (21). the sign is . as > must terminate. and by Theorem 3 if d is prime to a it divides 6. If also a = qi .p r . If a it . . For by Theorem 2 we have af + bg gh = 1. . the g. . and we have gi. a = p\Oz for \a^\ < \a\. and there exists a least divisor Pi But then pi is a positive prime. . Then the set of integers prime to m is closed with respect to multiplication. Then f divides h. If Oz is a prime. we write a 2 = pz with p 2 a positive prime and have (21) for r = 2. uniquely apart from the order of the positive prime factors pi. Then there exist integers a that d positive divisor of both f g. If a6 is not prime to m we have d > 1.. The latter is impossible. pr = uniquely determined by a. > . .. of ab and m. We may now conclude our proof of what mental Theorem of Arithmetic. .d. g. . = g. is composite. h be integers such that f divides gh and is prime to g. Let p be a prime divisor of gh. a 2 . a 2 = p 2a 3 and a = pip 2 a 3 f r a s < aa After a finite number of > 1 of a. But by hypothesis = /g. every divisor of b or of c is a divisor of a. g. . of f The result above implies Theorem 3. . Theorem (21) 6. g. afh + fy/A = h.. . Otherwise a* is composite and has a prime divisor p% by the proof above. .c. Theorem We also have 5. q. + bq)f is divisible by /. We A = (ah then have 4. has divisors b such that 1 < b < a.d. . or pi ^ g/ s. and therefore p is prime to g.c.d. pr .
we ultimately obtain r = s. ^ r. For by Theorem 2 there exist integers c and d such that If a (23) If 6 is in a. have proved 7. . . 1. > 1. classes m I . .. ?. d > 1.. If m is a composite integer cd where and Theorem 7 implies Theorem 8. . and we may take p 2 = q*. . But a = to classes a in a abelian form multiplicative group. . m 1. then m> c. . . p2 . the elements of the residue class a are prime to m. . . then * We may order the p so that pi ^ p 2 ^ ^ p and similarly assume that ^ ^ 7. be 6 + m(d m E c qc) = ac ac + md = + m(qc + d qc) c = 1. The residue {m} defined for a prime m d. the p = qi for an appropriate ordering* of the q^ 8. and therefore and are relatively prime. classes of E modulo {m} are now the 0. 119 not divide qi and by Theorem 4 must divide q z q 8 By our hypothesis it does not divide # 2 and must divide g 3 qa This finite process leads to . Thus the elements of the residue . . E {m} has divisors of zero and is not an integral domain. that every element of M in /i + r is in . r. = a + mq. . m> and d are both not the zero class. then b 1. TTie ideals of E are principal ideals {m} is We m a positive integer. Then of all integers divisible integers E in {m} is a ring whose zero 1 by m and whose unity element the class is 1. . If h is in M. we may use Theorem 1 to write h < r < m. The ideals of the ring of integers. p r = ?*. . whose remainder Theorem m on division by all is an integer prime to m. . But C'd = cd = m = Q. . and the proof just completed may be repeated. . Let the least positive integer in Then contains every element qm of the principal ideal {m}. = & for i = 1. 1. and thus Theorem The residue (22) in {m}.. p. . r <?i . For if a is any integer. Then a r is in {m} . . . ac + md = 1 . Proceeding similarly.. Then we obtain r = 5. a = we have a = mq + r for r = 0. Thus pi = gi. class ring Edefined for {m} m> 1 element is is the class 1 of all are given by (22). But mq and h are r where mq set . Our definition of m implies that r = . E of all integers and m be mq = M be a nonzero ideal of the M M M M.. . If m is a prime. . a contradiction.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS . 02 and c { .
. Hence if (24) and (25) c 3= = c 6. Then ap = a (mod p) for every integer a. = d (mod m) hold. p 1.2. Thus f(p) = p 1 l p = a a Theorem 10 aP~ 1 is divisible by p. we will have g + c 6 d.. The * ring E {p} defined by a positive prime p is a field* P whose field This field is equivalent to the subfield generated by its unity quantity of any of characteristic p. We next have the Theorem (28) 11.. (26) we have a +cs6+d (mod m) . prime to w. Thus the rules (26) for combining congruences are equivalent to the in defini tions of addition and multiplication E {m}. But then a = 6 + das well as g == c and if we also have d. a m is We have M M M bers to write (24) (read: a a b (mod m) a congruent 6 modulo m) if a 6 is divisible by m. and a is 1 and by one of the residue classes 1. . and Theorem 8 states that E {w} is a proved Theorem 9. Thus it is customary in the Theory of Numthat is. For /(m) is clearly the order of the multiplicative group defined in Theo rem 8. Otherwise a is prime to p. pbea prime. Our result then follows from Lemma 2. We next state the numbertheoretic consequence of Theorem 8 and Lemma 2 which is called Euler's Theorem 10. We observe now that a = 6 (M) for = {m} means that a b = mq. For (28) holds if a is divisible by p.120 INTRODUCTION TO* ALGEBRAIC THEORIES every a not in field. Let Fermat Theorem. An ideal of E is a prime ideal if and only ifM.. = {p} for is a divisorless ideal. Then if a is prime to m we have af s 1 (mod m) . a positive prime p. a(o^~ is also di1) visible by p. ac = 6d (mod m) . Let f (m) be the to m> (27) and prime Theorem and which we state as number of positive integers not greater than m. b is divisible by m.
cofc + cjc + c 2 = c^ 1 is in F. ft = r^y* I since r is 4n. then 1.(P + 1)(P . However. we say K is a field of degree n over F. cubic. We call K a quad= 2. The quantities of K are then uniquely expressible in the form fc = c\ + c 2 u 2 for ci and c 2 in F. r. If fc is not in F. . fc. fc is a root = in F. if k is in F. In particular. ^ + 1 There is a number of other results on congruences which are corollaries of theorems on rings and fields.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS nonzero elements form an abelian group 121 1. . Then 1) = = in the field E F is a subfield of a field that K which is + . primitive. u are linearly dependent in F we for a 2 7* 0. We then have Theorem integer t (29) 12. . 9. fc2 are 2 = for c ci. . fc is a root of a monic polynomial of degree two. The theory of linear spaces of Chapter IV implies that Ui may be taken to be any nonzero element of K. We now say that a quantity u in K generates K over F if 1. Then u generates K over F if and only if u is not in F. {p}. u are a basis of K over F. ratic. called a primitive root modulo p. u= have ai + a zu = o^ a\ is in F.1). of the monic polynomial (x fc) then Co T^ 0. element (30) fc of a quadratic field f(x. If a linear space u\F u n F over F. . . or 5. The elements p of P* are the distinct roots of the equation I and are not all roots of any equation of lower degree. we shall not mention them here. rf a complete set of nonzero residue classes modulo {p Such an integer r is P* of order ~~ xp l = . u 2 over F. For if 1. and we let r be a primitive root modulo + !)(  p. quartic. If c 0. Then if n = 1. The elements k of a quadratic field have the property that 1. Hence we may take Ui to be the unity element 1 of F. Thus evgry ) . c 2 not all zero and linearly dependent in F. fc do not form a basis of X over F. fc) is a root of an equation = x2  T(k)x + N(k) = with (31) T(fc) and N(k) in F. Let p be a prime of the form 4n + ! Then there exists an such that t 2 +1a ( (mod p) . Quadratic extensions of a field. Then it may be shown that P* is a cyclic " r p 2 are multiplicative group [r] where r is an integer such that 1. 4. } . Clearly. the field K is F. For p t* 1 = = r i. t*  1 as desired. . and fc is in F k = fc 1 + Ow 2 if and only if c 2 = 0. 3. However. t = rn. then Ci cannot be zero. u* if u generates K over F we have  bu +c= . or quintic field over F according as n Let n = 2 so that K has a basis u\ = 1. and k 2 with coefficients in F. l .
Define a correspondence S on K to X by k fci (32) = fci + to  fc s = ki + k us 2 . the automorphism group of K over F is the cyclic group [S] of order 2 and is the Galois group of K. fc But bu 5 fc . . if K were any field of degree n over F and F of S and T were automorphisms > over ing K. define ST as the result fc then k s > (fc s ) r It is easy to k ST of applythat the set of all (fc ) = 8 2 " K * K We u)] see k\ + now that if fc = = fci + + fc 2 u. (33) (fc + fc s ) = ks 2 + kj . that us is a root in K of the quadratic z equation x bx + = 0. and that branch of algebra called the Galois Theory is concerned with relative properties of K and G. (fci + fc 2 u)[fci f fc 2 (6 = fcifc 2 6 + fcu(6 u). distinct roots in a field (35) K. If fc = spondence 8 in F have we k + fco = (fci + fcs) + k$ + k^u fcs + kiu for fca and ki kfi s = 5 and we have fci + fcs + (fca + fcOu (fc 2 + fcOw. if (36) T(fc) = kk s . w2 = N(k) Hence . Hence if is a nonmodular quadratic field over F. Then (32) is a onetoone corres and itself if and only if u generates K over F. But b since u is not in F unless K is a modular field in which u + u = 0. Also fcfco = u. then fcfc^ = c. which is not possible automorphism. and only if (u s ) 2 = c bu s c. so that (fc + fc ) and of fc 2 K . c nomials in and we propose to find the value of T(K) and N(k) as polyand the coordinates fci and fc 2 in F of k = fci + fc2W. In either case unaltered and K F F of K. In the former case S is defines a selfequivalence of is called an automorphism over If $ > the identity correspondence fc < of the elements leaving fc. b. fcifcs + ks (fci&4 while kH = u = + kjc^u + + c) + + (fcifo + k^k^u3 + kJd(u8 But then fc 2 fc 4 (fcifcs fc 2 fc 4 (fcifc 4 fcifcs )*. (34) if 5 (fcfco) = is. In our present s 2 case u s = (u s ) s = (b u) = b (b u) = u so that S is the identity = = w u if and only if 2w 6. . the sum us = u or 6 u . we would s first k>k and show is a group G with respect to the operation just automorphisms over F of defined.122 for b INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES and c in F. for all in F where us is in K. But the quadratic equation can have only two of the roots is 6. In case G has order equal to the degree n of K over F it is called the Galois group of K over F.
. N(k) = k\ + ks) k\c + fakj) . ) The trace function is thus called a linear function and the norm function a multipli cative function. and the polynomial of (38) (30) is /(*. fc) = (x  fc)(x  . a is not the square root of any quantity of F. Thus every nonmodular quadratic field is the polynomials with coefficients in F in an algebraic root u of an 2 = a where a is and F is nonmodular. Then (37) has the simplified form given by c = + + (41) T(k) d? for = 2*i . This is 2 (x )x.) * " (. N(kk Q ) = N(k) T(aifc ai(fc N(k Q ) 2 fc ) for every ai and a 2 of F a fc s = (aifc and fc and fc of K. is a field. Since in F. given. we may show that (39) trace of k. the nonmodular field F and the equation x 2 defined. then if K is u with coefficients in F. fc(w) = ring F[u] of all 2 equation x any polynomial in F[x]. of all consist polynomials in u with coefficients d^O. For a 2 fc + 2 ) ajc + + ^Jc + = . we have u2 = d2 (u . s Note that Let us now assume that the field K is nonmodular so that K by the root u = F + uF where u equation (40) if satisfies (31). Let us then assume with6/2) out loss of generality that u is a root of (40) so that in (31) we have 6 = 0. whereas u is F and w For if The in F. T(ajc + a 2 fc ) = aiT(fc) + a 2 r(fc ) . K now u impossible in a field. 2 = & 2 /4 = a = (w u2 bu c 6 2 /4. Similarly.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS we have (37) 123 T(k) = 2fci +kb t . Now if a = not in d in F. we may write k(x) = ki(x ) + fci(a) + ki(a)u. it is actually the field F(u) of all K rational functions in Conversely. For we may take = a in F are < "(?. + d) (u d) = 0. and N(k) is called the norm of fc. The function T(k) is called the Moreover. Then K is also generated %b of the z2 = a (a in F) . fc 2 quantities of k(x) is + d^O. then JV(Jfc) = fc kk Q (kko) s = kk Q k s k$ = (kk )(k Q k$). a. N(k) = k\  k\a . s (hkj! = + asfco) = (ifc + a + + ks + 02(^0 + kfi) as ) desired.* N(kk Q ) 2 if fc is in F.
The Theory of Algebraic Numbers is concerned principally with the integral domain consisting of the elements of degree n over the field of all rational called algebraic integers in a field numbers. where the p< are distinct positive primes and r > I for a > 0. 2 generated by root u of u = a where a is rational and not a rational square. .124 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES identify F with the set of all tworowed scalar matrices with elements F (so as to make K contain F). Integers of quadratic fields. pr . 10. But F(u). (fti/if ) contrary hypothesis. 2ki k\ k\a K y K of K stating our final results as Theorem 13. . Hence K is the field F(u). That K ^ fc is that of F. We call k an integer of of if and only if of are k Thus is an T(k) N(k) (30) integers. The integers containing the ring E of all a quadratic field 'Kform an integral domain J ordinary integers. a = The quantities k of K have the form k = k\ + k^u where fci and k% are if the coefficients ordinary rational numbers. a 7^ d for any d of F. If ic field is we take 6 = generated by c" 1 in (43) we replace a by d.k\a = 2 2 = then we a to But For otherwise 2 7^ 0. Observe in closing that 2 if K= v is such that (43) fc 7^ is in F. be a quadratic field over the rational field so that is Let. Thus we may replace the defining quantity a in F by any multiple 62a for b 7^ in F. Write a K K K integers. . then a root of K F(v) for every v = bu z2 = b2 a . if and only if ki = k = ki + k*u and N(k) = k\ . Then J consists of all linear of combinations (45) Ci +cw 2 . then. Then every polynomial in u has the form = k = 0. unity element of over a nonmodular field fields K We F nonmodular is evident since the have thus constructed all quadratic is K in terms of equations x 2 = a for a in F. By the use of (43) we may multiply a by an integer and hence take a inte= c2d where d has no square factor and c and d are ordinary gral. while if 1 we interpret (44) as the case a negative and r = 0. Hence every quadrata root u of the quadratic equation (44) x2 = a = pi . k for of take K = F + uF and have fc~ = (fc? 2 u) kla)' every and in fc 1 fc l 1 K. integer shall determine and are both We all integers ordinary integers. It is also shown easily that if K is defined by a and K by a then K and KQ are fields equivalent over F if and only if a = 62a. We shall discuss somewhat briefly the case n = 2.
m = 0. 2w fc has the form (45) with Ci and c 2 in E.'or in either case 6 = = mi +mu+w 2 for w in (46). a contradiction. w = It + form. 61. If 6 = 2 and 61 is even. . Note that a ^ I. If k%a factor of 6 p were an odd prime 2 61. This completes the proof. Now . and 1. common denominator of fci and 2fci is fc 2 . Thus we have proved 1 that J consists of the elements (45) with w = u if a s= 2. b 2 in E and 6 2 the positive least 60. The elements of J are in the field K. while otherwise v? = a = 4m + 1 for an inte= J + i = 1. We write _ ^1 . remains to show that J is an integral domain. then we have shown that either fc fc = 61 + b 2u with b. kh are in J for every But the sum of fc and h of the form (45) is clearly of that fc and h of J. If b > 4 divides 2bi. T(w) (47) w = a + Qw.. the product is of the form 2 (45) if w2 is of that form. 62 = 2?w 2 1 for . then 4 would divide 6f. b\a. 4 divides b? and ba. and thus 2 divides 6 2 We have a contradiction and have proved that 6 = 1. and hence 2 ba). Since a has no square factors this is possible only if p divides 62.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS for Ci and 02 in E.c. bi. + + +m + if a = 1 (mod . But this condition holds since ii w = u then ger m. where 125 3 w = u if a = 2 (mod 4) or a = (mod 4) but (46) w = l+ i/ a = 1 (mod 4). ty2 . But then p would divide b?. Hence 6 is a power of 2. and 6 2 in 1. Hence 61 = 2wi f 1. then 2 divides bi. of bJ7 (6? . w* = m +w . if 6 2 were even. A/2  7 > 7 fv v __  1 00 00 for bo. However.d. 2. But m . (mod A/1 4) since 7 a has no square __ &2 factor. and thus it suffices to show that fc A. 4). integer. b 2 . 3 (mod 4). = 4[mf m>i ra 2 and 6f a(^ 2 l and b\a 2 )] ordinary integers a is divisible by 4 if and only if a = 1 (mod 4). Then k\ 1 is the g. an ba. 60 divides 2bi. so b\ it would divide 2bi only if it divided and p 2 would divide 6? b\a as well as  = that b 2 divides divides 6 2 contrary to the definition of 6 Similarly.w . #(tiO = i(l ~ a) = m. then 4 divides b\a. a contradiction.
+ CiC 4. and hence g ^ 4. 1. Then one of ci and c2 zero. the other or 1. 1 so that (49) becomes is 1 c\ + ci = 1 . However. Now a has no square factors. = 4 for # a and is and and this > 0. 4w2 = 9  8 = = 9 . 2ci 1. u. s w. r(*) N(k 5 = fc fci. the units of J are Then 1 = while c 2 = (52) 1. = N(k)=l. 1. s s 1. and we have shown that if a is negative this group a 3 1 finite 1. But we may regard u as the ordinary positive V2 a = 2. 2. and so is A for every integer L If h* t > 8 and have A'""* = 1. Hence we have proved that the units of J are 1. the only possible remaining cases are gr = 1. + c2 = 1 with any choice 1 gives of signs. But k is in Conversely. w . then (48) becomes N(k) so that 4N(k) = 4c? + 4cic + c\ +c 2 2)  (4m = c\ + l)c = 4. The If units of J form a is multiplicative group.126 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES units of The N(kh) (48) J are elements k such that kh = N(K)N(h) = 1. If g = 2 we have x\ + 1 1 only ^ #2 = 0. if (48) holds. Hence h is h for s 7* t. 3 (mod 4) so that fc = Ci + c 2 u. u2 = In the remaining case a 4. k has the property kk = 1 or 8 = s 1 = = Ar or tf Hence fc* and J when k is in J since T(k ) ) (*). If a s 2. 3. N(k) is 1 for h also in J. then h = + 2u has norm 9  group. 2 elm = But this is equivalent to (50) (2ci  ca = determine the units of J completely and simply in case a is 4 for For both (49) and (50) have the form x\ + x\g = 1. 0. 2^1 for every We may Now is a < let a save only a = 3. we may take a unit of J. = 3 we c2 use (50) and have (2ci +c 2 2) + 3cl = or 1 and if c2 ^ we must have c2 = or 1. (51) 1. w. Then an ordinary integer which divides unity. negative. 1. then (48) is equivalent to (49) c\ cia= 2 1. 1 if a = 1 (mod 4). w s . Thus (48) is a necessary and sufficient condition that k be a unit of /. = gives c\ for CL Clearly. c\ only if #2 1. and the units of J are u. 2 possible </ > ordinary integers x\ g = = 1.
s = Si = gh + r. Then/ =lg N(g) Division the of a ggc. If then \t s < t < s + \ then (<)< i while ifs + < and Hence there exist such that h% (s + 1) i.d. Let f and g ^ be in J. Then N(s) = + s u. and the Gauss integers comprise its integral domain J. We first prove Theorem 15. ordinary integers h\ <J<s+l  (54) ai^fcifti. r = si + s\ < 2 l = h sg so that fg~ = J. It may similarly be shown to be infinite for every positive a. we have = = = l with 2. results on primes and prime ideals in two special cases. We have deteru of J and shall now study its divisibility properties. We observe that the quotient h and the remainder r need not be unique in our present case. a<i Put sg = hi + hju. gh N(g) as de / = + sired. Every ideal of J is a principal ideal. Then the Gauss complex numbers are the elements of a quadratic field K of our study with tional x u 1. and For fg.1 is in K. The complex numbers of the form x + yi with raand y are called the Gauss complex numbers. *i<J. ft S2 = fe 2 ft2. fg~\ = k\ + k^u with rational fci and fc 2 Every rational number t lies in an interval s < t < s + 1 for an ordinary integer s. existence We shall use the Algorithm to prove + + 20u + Our proof will be different and simpler than that we gave in the case of polynomials and indicated in the case of integers but has the defect of being merely existential and not constructive. mined the units 1. Then there exist elements h and r in J such that (53) f = gh +r . ft "* > 5*~8 > 1. By there exists an m 7* M M . < N(r) < N(g).FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS and have h units of 127 > 1 5. tf (r) N(s)N(g) + < s. Hence the multiplicative group of the J is an infinite group. and those for which x and y are integers are called the Gauss integers. Gauss numbers. M are positive integers. We shall not study the units of quadratic fields further but shall pass on to some 11. and For the norms of the nonzero elements of in such that N(m) < N(f) for every / of M. For example. Our first result is the Division Algorithm which we state as Theorem 14. if / = 2 u and g = 1 u. N(l) Ar(u) = 1.
Then there exist b and in J such that (55) is M M N(r) < . then N(d) = p = N(g)N(h) so that For if p is N unit. . then / = g h for nonunit g and h. Thus/ = mh. But must be zero. lid = = 1. For the set of all elements of the form xf + yg with x and y in J is an = {d} d in has the form (55) ideal of J. and we continue the proof of Theorem 6 M M . Then if p is a divisor of/ of least positive norm it is a prime divisor of /. then p = dk for N(d) > 1. c d = bf + eg a common divisor of f and g. Conversely. then / divides h. pr f of primes pi which are determined uniquely by apart from their order and unit multipliers. so is d d\ gh with N(g) ^ 1. and follows that r N(m). to obtain Theorem (56) 17. a divisorless ideal) if and only if Let us then determine the prime quantities d = di d*u of J. Every composite Gauss integer f is expressible as a product = pi . and also if p is a prime of J dividing g h. By Theorem 15 we have and divides / = 1 / + 00. A positive prime . of f and g. We see first s = s = d zu. TTms d is a g. in E. s s s s N(h) * 1. N(h ) = N(h).c. Theorem We now prove 18. c But = is a dd s can have at most two prime factors = pp Q for positive primes p and p . let d be a prime of J. (and. Every prime d of J is either associated with a positive prime of E or arises from the factorization in J of a positive s prime p = dd of E which is composite in J. M 0/+lginM. The above result then implies Theorem 16. and d is M + composite. then p divides g or h. d is a prime. N(g) < N(f). if / is a composite integer of J.128 INTRODUCTION TO. we have d = g h for N(g ) = N(g). N(p) = p* = N(d)N(k). N(k) > 1. p of E is either a prime of J or the product a prime of J.d. But then p = N(d). and g = The above result may now be seen to imply that if / divides gh and is prime to g. wA. in fact. Let f and g 6e nonzero elements of J. Moreover. . h is a (h) gh with N(g) > 1. N(d) = dds where d is a positive prime of E and is composite in J. ALGEBRAIC THEORIES and r in it Theorem 14 we have / = mh + r so is r = f /. We observe that Theorem 17 implies that an ideal M of J is a prime ideal = {d} for a prime d of J. For if d that if d is a prime of J. m and mh are in for h J and = {m}. Then c = N(d) c positive integer of E and is either a prime or is composite.
squares congruent 0. 2 2 = = = = f or x + i/w in J. Then we have Theorem 20. we = p2 have PQ = p. . If p divides b + u or 6 pfc 2 which is impossible. . If t is even. Write c = f2g where f and g are positive integers and g has no square factors. . Then cisa sum of two squares if and only if no prime factor of g has the form 4n + 3. . then 6 by p. We note that 2= 1 and that it remains to show that p + 1 = (l + w)(l w)is composite in = 4n + 1 is composite in J. . or 5 modulo 8 while 4n + 3 is congruent 3 or 7 modulo 8. Since p and po are both in E. . Thus the prime factors of c of the form 4n + 3 occur to even powers and are not factors of g. g = tf (di) N(d r ) = #(di N(di) p< 3. u) = b + 1 without dividing one of its factors 6 + u b (b + u)(b Hence p is not a prime of /. Hence. One of s and s + 1 2 (mod 4) (mod 8). is J prime in J. we may write x + yu d r for primes d in J. . p even. But p and p are positive and must be equal.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS of E. c = N(di) N(d r). gr . To prove have is this result we observe 4s 2 first that if is = + 1. . We use the result above to derive an interesting theorem of the Theory of Numbers. ifc . But a prime p of J cannot divide the product 2 u. if g = pi = for d r). and both of these integers would be divisors of p 2 But 2 2 = 4n + 3 then]V(g) = N(h) = p = x + y which is impossible. . We call a positive integer c a sum of two squares if c = x2 + y 2 for x and y in E. . This completes the proof. 2. Then (# + yu)(x yu) if and only if p divides either x + yu or x . Then N(di) = p is a prime of E if and only if p 7^ 4n + 3 and otherwise N(di) p?. 0. t* = + 4s + 1 = 4s(s + !) an odd integer of E we + !. We may = . } . 2 = 8r +1= 1 . 129 assume that p is associated with d and po with ds so that PQ PQ is associated with d and with p. A positive prime p of E is a prime of J if and only if p has the form t 4m + 2s t 3. we have d< in J. 1. . and 1 == u. N(d) Therefore d is associated with the prime p of E which is prime in J. . . . p r for positive primes p< of Snotof the form 4n + Conversely. We know 2 by Theorem 12 that there exists an integer b in E such that b + 1 is divisible u = p(fci + fc 2tO. = di For if c = x 2 + y 2 = (x + yu)(x yu). We now clearly complete our study of the primes of J by proving Theorem 19. we have t = 2 55 4 of Thus sum is a two to and t (mod 8). . . 4. If neither have N(g} > 1. . It follows that 2 p = 4n + 3 7* x* + y We now assume that p = gh for g and h in J and 2 = = nor h were a unit. we would have p A'Xp) N(g)N(h). For p is a prime of J and divides yu. z + t/ d r) and c JV(fc) N(fdi Note in closing that a positive prime p of the form 4n + 3 divides x* + y2 if and only if p divides both a: and y. .
7. d must be a unit Number8 pp.* y = 4n + y 12. But if g = gi + g*u. the ideal of J consisting of all elements of J of the form 3* + y(l + 2u) {d}. serve that 6 is bhz. Thus clearly + 2u y 2u are primes of J. 21. we have N(g) is = g\ + 5gl > 0. fc 2 = the form k\ if fc 2 J have + k^u for k\ and . k\ = bhi. g\ < I But^l = 1 impossible since g\ The units of J are 1. in the set E of all integers. . It follows that the odd prime divisors of z have the form 4n + 1. and therefore 2u as divisors of ring J {3} contains 1 + 2u and 1 We let M be (58) If this ideal The ring contains nonprincipal ideals one of which we shall exhibit. and 3 7 We see now that 21 = = (1 no two of them are associated. and we have factored 21 into prime factors in J in two distinct ways. every prime divisor p 3 of z divides both x and y. 7. y. 2u in J yet does divide their product. 1. were a principal ideal would exist a common divisor d of 3 and * 1 + 2u. 1 * 0.130 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES yu k zu). = N(g)N(h) for ordi nary integral proper divisors N(g) and N(h) of N(k). Moreover. We now prove 22. We shall close our ex position with a discussion of some properties of the ring 5. the elements of Oban integer of E which is a divisor in J of k\ + fc 2 w. 21. Evidently g 2 3.c. An integral domain with nonprincipal ideals. there (x. 1 + 2u. 49. Since these are nonassociated primes. 1 For further results see L. then. The norms of the integers of our theorem are 9. For if k is a composite of J we have = gh. 7. y = p& 2 for integers ki and p(ki follows. g\ + 5gl ^ 1. + 2w)(l 2w). unity.d. k 1 2u are primes of J no two N(k) of which are associated. 7. x = pfci. z are ordinary integers such that x = fc 2 of E. y in J) . = 3. then 6 must divide both k\ and fc 2 For k\ + k^u = b(hi + h^u). 2. Theorem The elements 3. 2. Dickson's Introduction to the Theory of 4042. Then let x y. the principal ideal {3} of J defined for the prime 3 is not a prime ideal. E. We may show readily also that x and y cannot both be even or be odd and that z must be odd. respectively. and the only positive proper divisors of these norms are 3. Since 5 = 3 (mod defined by a = u* = the field J of integers of K 4). that if x. It (57) z2 + 2 2/ = z2 . For 3 does not divide 1 + 2w and 1 J the residue class zero. z have g.
But 1 2w does not divide a contradiction. Both of these texts as well as Chapters III." in Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. For otherwise 3 2 = J and hence M M 1. (1 Then 1 = 36 + 2u)[fc(l  2u) + (1 + + 7c]. Dickson's Modern Algebraic Theories. See also pages 7476 and Chapter VI of L. We have shown that is not a principal ideal and does not contain Since contains 3 but not 1 it cannot contain 2. 2. M a divisorless ideal of J. and Chapter VI of J. IV. the elements of We have proved that J J M are the residue M equivalent to E is classes 0. 1 would be r in M. Let Since c M contains 3g contains 3q = the ordinary integers in M are by The ideal M contains 3 and + 2u and so contains = 0. clude. It may be shown that every ideal of J has a basis of two elements over E. (59) wi is = ft 3 . We shall conclude our text with the following brief bibliographical summary. XLIII (1938). This completes our discussion of ideals and of quadratic fields. Every integer of / has the form k = ki + k^u = ki + fc 2w 2 + fo.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1 131 or 1 216 7. 1. (60) h = ftiWi + w ft 2 We have thus proved that consists of all quantities of the form (60) for hi and ft 2 ordinary integers. We now proceed to prove that M + is a divisorless ideal of a prime ideal of J. 1. 386436. H. wz /& = Zu ft (1 + 2u) = ft 2 w  1 . 2u)c for b and c in J. and of the Modern Higher Algebra inof all the material of our course. 2.h 3fti 2 ft 2 w2 = hQ + h* in E and M. w 2 a basis of over E. of J. E. Note that 1 has a basis 1. Chapters IIV. is 3} and is a field. For a discussion V . u over E in this sense. If /i in in M . 1. 3<j + 0. M. The theory of orthogonal and unitary equivalence of symmetric matrices is contained with generalizations in Chapter of the Modern Higher Algebra and is further generalized and connected with ' V the theory of equivalence of pairs of matrices in the author's paper entitled 'Symmetric and Alternate Matrices in an Arbitrary Field. Write = 3c + r for c in E and r = 0. it be an integer of E in M so that c c = r. 2 such that 3 { = 0. then = + Aau for ft and m E. Thus we may call wi. Then k = cwi + fc 2w 2 + r = fci + fc 2 M M { } r (M). and \d} 7 = + (1 + 2u)7c is = = {!}. r where r = Hence divisible 1 3. Let us begin with references to standard topics on matrices not covered in our introductory exposition. Wedderburn's Lectures on Matrices. By the proof above + ^2 = for hi in E.
II. 1940). Hecke's Theorie der algebrdischen Zahlen. and its ideals on pages 10610 of H. C. The units of the ring of integers of a quadratic field are discussed on page 233 of R. No. trices see C. . Weyl's Algebraic Theory of Numbers (Princeton. The theory of rings as given here is contained in the detailed discussion of Chapters I and II of the Modern Higher Algebra. H. and the theory of ideals in Chapter XI. 110]). We close with a reference to the only recent book in English on algebraic number theory. See also the much more extensive treatment in Van der Waerden's Moderne Algebra. Volume III. 5 [pp. The Theory of Matrices ("Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete.132 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES without details but with complete references of many other topics on maMacDuffee." Vol. Fricke's Algebra.
113 Divisors of zero. 2. 31 Cofactor. 14 Characteristic : a polynomial. 98 Commutative : group. 115 : of a matrix. 2 Dependent vectors. 80 Automorphism. 107 identity. 49 rank of. 66 Correspondence. 101 of a field. 29 of a matrix. 73 Definite symmetric matrix. 110 matrices. 97 polynomials. 27 spaces. 131 Bilinear form. 67 Associative law. 2. 75 field of. 117 matric polynomials. 77 : Division algorithm for: Gauss numbers. 72 space.. 7. 60 Divisibility. 124 Associated quantities. 52 mappings. 51 quantities. 56 of Gauss. 57 Difference ring. 46 Algebraic integers... 20 rank. left. 44 trowed. 21 Complex conjugate. 14. 97 blocks. 27 equation. 116 Conjunctive matrices. 19 Augmented Basis. 23 Difference. 97 a term. 110 133 . 29 rank of. 1. 27 of a product. 54 types of. Diagonal : matrix. 51 : Column elements. 48 Degree of: matrix of. 72 Division.INDEX Abelian group. 59 Additive group. 114 Diag {Ai. 101 Closure. 37 ring. 115 Complex numbers. 6 zero polynomial. 127 Composite quantity. 8 Coefficient. 127 integers. 38 matrix. 122 Coordinate. 28 Cogredient elementary transformations. 4 Division ring. 108 Constant. 49 skew. 107. 110 inverse. 64 Bibliography. 117 Distributive law.. 113 Element : submatrix. 53 symmetric. 111 Adjoint matrix. 67 Determinant. 115 Congruent: matrices. 110 Addition of matrices. 113 Complementary minor. right. 26 order of. 23 matrix.
10 Euler's theorem. 36 . 17 product of. 8 Left division. 110 matrix. 15 independence. 114 of congruent. 82 cogredient. 117 principal. 101 Fundamental Theorem Galois group. 56. 94 matrix. 9 process. 110 combination. 49 Identity: forms. 13. 45 Irreducible quantities. Length preserving transformation. 17 groups. 74 subspace. 118 97 Leading form. 74 element. 17. 67 form. 10 Group.134 Element INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES continued unity. 117 Integral domains. 109 abelian. 110 zero element of. 110 cyclic. 110 Homogeneous polynomial. 73. 17. 1 complex numbers. 67 Integers: algebraic. 9 of Gauss numbers. 116 divisorless. 25 cogredient. 112 Elementary: divisors. 114 characteristic of. 46 matrix. 120 ordinary. 66. 121 generating quantity 121 mapping. 118 of polynomials. 116 unit. 127 General linear space. 120 Factor theorem. 110 linear spaces. 79 Equivalence. 91 Inverse element. 117 Elementary transformations. 98 virtual. 124 matrices. 74 Equivalence of: prime. 3. 30 Independent vectors. 112. 46 matrix of. 59 Euclid's process. 128 of integers. 116 zero. 52 matrices of. see also Bilinear forms Function. 83 nonsingular. 111 commutative. 114 Integral operations. 47. 38 Linear mappings. 3. 7 Ideal. 111 order of a. 51 inverse of. 5. 92 quadratic forms. 73 characteristic. 120 Field. 66. 71 Linear change of variables. 67 space. 116 bilinear forms. 15 dependence. 19. 110 additive. 110 : degree of. equivalence of. 7. 74 Greatest common divisor. 113 order of a subgroup of. 110 subgroup of. 99 Fermat theorem. 97 minimum. 36. 56 of. 24. 115 Forms. 122 of Arithmetic. 92 Groups. Linear: Gauss integers. Invariant factors. 113 zero. systems of. 43 Equations. 127 Gauss numbers. 89. 101 Leading coefficient.
49 characteristic. 84 unitary equivalent. 86 diagonal elements 23 vectors. Multiple roots. 71 Orthogonal: matrices. 108 square. 32 rectangular. 27 subspaces. 7. 37 symmetric. 103 linear transformation. 85. 80 of a bilinear form. monic. 1 of. 59 commutative. 100 13 . 6 97 constant.c. 71. 87 23 of. 51 Minimum function. 13 : orthogonally equivalent. 30 invariant factors inverse of a of. 5 coefficients of. 59. similar. 7 nonsingular. 23 identically equal. 2 factors of. 53. 5 nary qic 3. 5 mapping. 84 matrix. determinant diagonal. 30 congruent. 6 rank of. Hermitian. 92 equivalent pairs orthogonal. 66 Polynomials : associated. 111 a linear space. 86 135 of. 87 elementary. 43 elements of. 47. 3. 25.INDEX Linear space. 108 conjunctive. 108 identity. 123 of a vector. 101 of coefficients. 101 congruent pairs of. 83 of. 22 triangular. 55 in a field. 91 degree of. 20 30 skew. 86 characteristic function of a. 71 Linear transformations. 64 transpose of. transformations. 20 equal. 52. 52 scalar. 84 orthogonal. 29 unitary. 86 columns of. 5 g. 20 of. 21 Point. 36 34. 92 of an elementary transformation.d. 27 Monic polynomial. 89. 19 Order of: a group. Minors. 29 diagonal of. 101 Norm Norm quadratic form. 74 basis of. minimum 101 equal. 66. 108 7idimensional space. 9 homogeneous. 34 Matrix : adjoint of. 110 a group element. 2. 20 Mappings. rows skewHermitian. 67 order of. 47 Nonsingular rationally equivalent. 19 nic. Matrices: addition see Linear mappings of. 86 of. 29 augmented. 108 equivalent. 66 products of. of. 34 partitioning of. 108 zero. 21 principal diagonal of. 36. 45 function divisibility of. 108 mapping. 100 108 form.
115 prime. 49 Similar matrices. 62 negative. 113 residue class. left. 64 nonsingular. 46 bilinear form. 12 relatively prime. 62 Quadratic forms. 67 Subfield. 98 matrix. 110 Submatrix. 121 Quartic form. 23 Relatively prime: polynomials. see Linear space Spanning a space. 69 rank. 115 98 theorem. 98 Ring. 5 scalar. 57 right. 115 relatively prime. 115 composite. Row by Scalar: column rule. 32 product. 16 of. 87 Row. 124 Quadratic form. 115 congruent. 41 Scalars. 62 quaternions. 3 gary. 64 Prime to a polynomial. 57 Quaternary form. 72 space. 52 matrix. 11 Prime quantity. 6. 69. 16. 1 Positive form. 13 rationally irreducible. left. 72 right. 100 product. 115 Primitive root. 115 Remainder : Quadratic field. subgroup. 5 multiple. 54 definite. 6 quadratic form. 54 row space. 107 Semidefinite forms. 13 Quotient. 114 Quinary form. 116 Right division. 59 Quantities: associated. 98 Residue classes. 100 in several variables. 64 index of. 30 polynomial. 11 irreducible. 103 Skew forms. 113 difference. 117 Roots. 4. 5 Rotation of axes. 16 Rank a a a a a of: an adjoint matrix. 13 Quasifield. 121 Principal diagonal. 8 operations. matrices. 114 symmetric matrix. 85. 121 integers of. 117 division.136 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC THEORIES Rational: equivalence. 19 Selfequivalence. 8 Real: Polynomials continued products of. 64 Sequence: elements zero. 44 quadratic form. 53 Skew matrices. 21 complementary. 97 zero. 25 functions. equivalent. 13 Quaternions. 11 roots of. 64 Reflection. 21 . 11 quantities. 2. 6. 55 real. 72 Space. 37 Quartic field. 112 commutative. 87 virtual degree of.
change of. 115 Unity element. 84 Transpose. of. 112. 37 of a sum. 123 Virtual degree. 66 linearly independent. 54 Symmetric matrices. 30 Unary form. 87 66 97 definiteness of. 13 Unique factorization. 1 sequence. 77 Units. 66. 16 space. 62 element. 3. 118. 113 Variables. 115. 53 congruence of. 77 complementary. 67 . 113 137 ideal. 112 Vectors. 22 of a product. 2. 113 ideal. Zero: divisors of. 77 Subsystems. 113 Transformations. 13 Trace. 86 59 orthogonal. 64 Ternary forms. 52. 38 sum of.INDEX Subring. Unit 116 Subspaces. 97 Virtual leading coefficient. norm zero. 110 Subtraction. 6. 75. 67 Symmetric bilinear forms. 116 matrix. 127 polynomial.
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