Virginia Evans - Jenny Daaley

s
~ ~
Express Publishing
Contents
1 Present Simple, Adverbs of Frequency,
Question Words, Pronouns/Possessive
Adjectives.. ...... . ..... . . ... . . .• ... ..... . ... p. 5
2 Present Continuous, Present Simple vs
Present Continuous .... . . .. .. .. . .... .. . .. . . p. 16
3 Relative Pronouns and Adverbs.... .. ..... p. 26
Exploring Grammar (Units 1-3) ........ . p. 31
Revision (Units 1-3) .. ............ ...... .. . p. 32
4 Past Simple (regular and irregular
verbs), Used to - Would -
Be/Get used to .. .... ........ .. ......... .. .. p. 33
5 Time Clauses - Time Words ....... ... ... p. 38
Exploring Grammar (Units 4-5) ..... .. .. p. 41
Revision (Units 1-5) ............... ........ p. 42
6 Present Perfect .... ..... .... ...... .... ..... p. 43
7 Present Perfect Continuous ............. p. 47
8 Present Perfect vs Present Perfect
Continuous... ...... ...... ........ ........... p. 49
9 Present Perfect vs Past Simple.......... p. 52
Exploring Grammar (Units 6-9) ..... .... p. 56
Revision (Units 1-9) ................. .. .... p. 57
10 Past Continuous vs Past Simple .... ..... .. p. 58
11 Past Perfect - Past Perfect
Continuous ........ . .. .... .. .. .... .. .... .. .. . p. 61
Exploring Grammar (Units 10-11) ...... p. 64
Revision (Units 1-11) .... .. .... ....... .... p. 65
12 Will - Be going to - Present
Continuous - Present Simple ........ .. . p. 66
13 Conditionals - Types 0, I, 2 & 3 .. .. ... . p. 72
14 Wishes, Had better - Would rather .. .. p. 77
Exploring Grammar (Units 12-14) .. .. .. p. 81
Revision (Units 1-14) .......... .. ......... p. 82
15 Modal Verbs................ ... ...... .... .... p. 83
16 Reported Speech .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . p. 93
Exploring Grammar (Units 15-16) ...... p.101
Revision (Units 1-16) .... ... .. .. ........ .. p.102
17 Adjectives - Adverbs, Comparisons .... p. 103
18 Too - Enough .. .. .. ....... . .............. .. . p.112
19 Question Tags .. .. .. .... .... . ........... ..... p.114
20 Reflexive Pronouns ........ .. ............. p. 116
Exploring Grammar (Units 17-20) .... .. p.118
Revision (Units 1-20) .. .. ............ . .. .. p.119
21 AlAn - One/Ones, The Definite
Article 'The' ...... . ......... .. .......... .. .. p.120
22 The Passive .... ... .... .. .......... . ...... ... . p. 124
23 The Causative .. ... ........ ..... ........ .... p.129
Exploring Grammar (Units 21 -23) .. .. .. p.132
Revision (Units 1-23) .. .. ........... . ..... p. 133
24 Nouns (plural/singular) ................... p. 134
25 Countable/Uncountable Nouns, Some -
Any - No, A lot of - Much/Many -
A few/Few - A little/Little, Both/
Neither - All/None - Either ........... .. p.136
Exploring Grammar (Units 24-25) . ..... ... p. 144
Revision (Units 1-25) .. ....... .. .... .. .. .. p. 145
26 Infinitive/-ing form, Participles ......... p. 146
27 Prepositions of Movement, Place
'" Time ....................... .. .... .. . .. ..... p.155
28 Some/Any/No/Every + body (one)/
thing/where .. .... ..... .. .... .. .. .... .. ... .. p. 160
29 Clauses of Result, Exclamations .... . ... p. 162
Exploring Grammar (Units 26-29) .... ..... p. 164
Revision (Units 1-29) .............. .. .... . p.165
Phrasal Verbs .... ......... .... .. .. .... ...... p. 166
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with
Prepositions . ...... ......... . .. . ....... . ... . p.171
Irregular Verbs
Present Simple
Affirmative
Nesattve
Interroptlve
I run, He/ Shellt runs, We/You/ They run
I don't run, He/ She/ It doesn' t run, We/ You / They don't run
Do I run?, Does he/ she/ it run?, Do we/ you/ they run?
Short answers
Yes, I do. Yes, he/ she/ it does. Yes, we/ you/ they do.
No, I don't. No, he/ she/ it doesn't. No, we/ you/ they don' t .
Spelling: 3,d person singular
• Most verbs take -s in the third person
singular.
I cut - he cuts
• Verbs ending in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -0
take -es.
I kiss - he kisses, I fish - he fishes ,
I match - he matches, I mix - he
mixes, I go - he goes
• Verbs ending in a consonant + y,
drop the -y and take -ies.
I try - he tries
• Verbs ending in a vowel + y take -5
only.
I pay - he pays
Pronunciation
-s/-es in the third person singular is
pronounced:
• /s/ in verbs ending in / f /, / k/ , / p/ or
/ t / sounds.
he sits
• il z/ in verbs ending in / s/, /1/, /tl/,
/dY or /z/ sounds.
he catches
• /z/ in verbs ending in all other
sounds.
he lives
TIme expressions used with the
present simple: always, usually,
etc, on Mondays/ Tuesdays, etc, in
the moming/ afternoon/ evening,
every day/ week, etc, at night / the
weekend, etc
Use
We use the present simple for:
• repeated actions.
She goes to work by bus.
• habits, routines.
They usually go shopping
on Saturdays.
• permanent states.
Mary lives in London.
She works at a bank.
• general truths or laws of nature.
The sun rises in the east.
• timetables.
The plane from Moscow arrives
at 6:30.
• sports commentaries.
"He kicks the ball and passes it to ... "
• reviews.
Brad Pitt acts superbly in this film.
• narrations.
"The prince asks her to follow
him ... "
5
6
Present Simple
1
Fill in the third person singular
form of the verbs below. 2
Write the third person singular of the verbs in the correct
box, as in the example. Then read the verbs aloud.
1 finish ~ finishes • want • miss • know • go • wake • see • start
2 want .. .. .................
• wish • drink • sleep • speak • travel • kick • help
3 work .....................
• stand • live • kiss • catch • finish • chat
4 miss .....................
5 play .....................
Isl
... wants, ... ... .................... ............ .............. ....... .
6 fly .....................
7 dance ............... ......
.. misses, ....... ............ ................... ..... ....... .... , .... .
Irzl
8 catch .....................
9 go ........ ... ..........
Izl
~ knows, ..... . . .. ........ . .. . .. ... ... . ........ . .................... .
10 t ry ........... ..........
3
This is the bedroom of twin sisters, Georgia and Katie. Ask and answer questions about the twins' habits
and hobbies, as in the example.
~ Does Georgia like dancing? ~ Yes, she does. 6 ....... Georgia like eating fruit? ................... ..
2 ....... the twins watch TV in bed? ................. . 7 ....... t he twins go to school? ...................... .
3 ....... Katie play football? ......................... .. 8 ....... Georgia play the piano? .................... ..
4 ....... the twins have a tidy room? ............... .. 9 .. .. ... Katie like taking photographs? ............ ..
5 ....... Katie like reading books? .... . ............... .
Present Simple
'!!!!"
4 Read the examples. Match the tenses in bold to their uses. Make one more sentence for each use.
[ill] She works as a bank clerk.
[ill He usually eats out on Sundays.
[IT] The Earth goes round the sun.
ffiJ
She calls her friends every day.
[IT] Hens lay eggs.
cm
The plane to London takes off at 6:00 am.
[iD Johnson crosses and passes the ball to Walcott .
[IT] Angelina Jolie acts superbly in Tomb Raider .
cm
When Little Red Riding Hood sees the wolf,
she gets scared.
5
Complete the exchanges with the present
simple of the verbs in brackets.
A: ~ Do you want (you/want) to go to the
theatre?
B: I'm sorry, but I ................................ .... .. .
(not/like) the theatre. I think it's boring.
2 A: Your father .................................. .. .... .
(not/know) about his surprise birthday party
tonight , right?
B: No, he ...... .... ............................ (think)
we are taking him to a restaurant.
3 A: Sarah .............................. .... .... (catch)
the bus to school every day.
B: Why? ........................ .... .... .... (shellive)
far from her school?
4 A: Peter ................................................
(chat) with Kathy on the phone every day!
B: Yes. They ...........................................
(not/live) near each other, so it's the only way
to stay in touch.
5 A: Where ....................... .... ..... .... .. ..... ....
(you/hang out) with your friends?
B: We usually ............... .................... .......
(go) to the park.
6 A: What time .......... ............. .... .. ..... ..... ...
(the trainlleave)?
B: At six o'clock. We need to hurry.
a permanent state
b review
c timetable
d narrations
e sports commentary
f general truth
g law of nature
h repeated action
routine
6
a) Put the verbs in brackets into the present
simple. What does Emma do?
Emma 1) ~ lives (live) in London. She 2) .... ........ ..
(love) the hustle and bustle of the city centre and the
exciting nightlffe. Emma 3) ...... ..... .......... (work) in one
of London's most famous hotels near Oxford Street.
She 4) ....................... (start) work at 9:30 am every
day. Each morning, she 5) ...................... (catch) the
8:30 am train from her house to the city centre. Emma
6) ..... ..................... (help) guests check in and she
7) ....................... (answer) any questions they have.
She really 8) .. .................... (love) her job because
she 9) ........... .......... (meet) new people every day.
Emma 10) ....................... (finish) work at 6 pm. In the
evenings, she 11) ..................... (meet) her friends and
they 12) .............. ...... . (go) to the cinema or the
theatre .
b) In pairs ask and answer, as in the example.
~ A: Where does Emma live?
B: She lives in London. Does she like London? ete
7
8
Present Simple
7
Complete the sentences in such a way as to
make the statements true. Use don' t/doesn ' t
where necessary.
1 Potatoes ~ don't grow (grow) on trees.
2 Polar bears .. .... .. .... .... .. .. .... .. (live) i n Africa.
3 Yogurt ........ .. .......... .. ...... (come) from milk.
4 Water ............ .. ........ .. ........ .. . (boil) at O"c,
5 Rain .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... (fall) from clouds.
6 Gi raffes ...... .... .... .. ................. (eat) leaves.
7 Dolphins .... .. .. .. ........ .. .. .. .. .. . (walk) on land.
SCows .... ............ . .. ...... .. .... .... .. .. (lay) eggs.
8
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
simple.
Tom 1) ~ is (be) at a soccer training camp in
'1 Th' 2) (give) him the
Brazl . IS camp ..... .. ..... .. .. .
chance to play with some of the top Brazili an youth
players. He and hi s team 3) ....... .... ... ... (have) two
group training sessions - one in the morning and
one in the afternoon. They al so 4) ...... .. ......... (get)
instructions from some of Brazil ' s best coaches! In
. h 5) (watch) 1V or they
the evening, t ey .. .... ...... .. .. .
6) .. .. .. ...... .. ... (play) board games. At the weekend,
they 7) .... .. ........... (compete) with football teams
from around the country. Tom 8) .......... .. ...... ..
(learn) a lot of things at thi s training camp. He
9) .... ... .. .. .... .. (love) playing football and he
10) .. .. .. ...... .. ... (enjoy) being there so much that he
11) ........ .. .... .... .. ... (not/want) to leave!
9
Read the fact file about Nathan. Write
questions and answers, as in the example.
Name:
Age: 35
.. c.c·· .... · .. · ...... ·· .. · .. · .. .... · ...... 1
Home:
Job: .. . r.ep'J. r.t.e." J':'!e. Po. ily../I'(!I':'L .
Free time surfs the .Yel. meels
activities: friends, plays golf
Favourite
clothes: . j e . a . . r z ~ .. a..n."...r:.s.h..ir.!s .......... .
Nathan/ live/ Edinburgh?
~ A: Does Nathan live in Edinburgh?
B: No, he doesn't . He lives in London.
2 he/ be/ 30 years old?
3 he/ work/ The Daily News?
4 he/ play tennis/ in free time?
5 he/ li ke/ weari ng suits?
1 O
Use the phrases to ask and answer questions
about Ted, as in the example.
what time/ Ted/ get up? (7:30)
~ What time does Ted get up?
He gets up at 7:30.
2 he/ have breakfast/every morning? (yes)
3 what time/ he catch the train to work? (8:15)
4 he/ ever / stay late/ at work? (yes)
5 he/ work/ on Saturdays? (no)
6 what/he/ do/ in his free time? (hang out with
friends)
11
Write five sentences, either general truths
or laws of nature. Your partner guesses
which of your sentences are correct.
~ A: Elephants eat meat.
B: Wrong! Elephants don't eat meat. They eat
grass.
1
Adverbs of Frequency
Use
Adverbs of frequency show us how often something happens. They
answer the question How often ... ? We often use adverbs of
frequency with the present simple.
"How often does Sally walk to school?"
" Always. She always walks to school. "
Adverbs of Frequency
always 100%
usually 75%
often 50%
sometimes 20%
rarely / seldom 10%
never 0%
We use adverbs of frequency:
• before the main verb.
Ken never goes to the cinema on his own.
• after the auxiliary verbs be, have and
Alex and Sue often
study in the library.
do, and modal verbs such as can, will , must, etc.
Her children are always so polite and well-behaved!
Dr Smith doesn't usually see patients on Sundays.
We must always obey the lows.
Note: The adverbs rarely, seldom and never have a negative meaning and they
are never used with the word not.
Tania rarely stays up after midnight. (NOT: Tania GgesA't rerell' stay ... J
Peter is a vegetarian, he never eats meat .
(NOT: .. . he gg@&R 't ,:JE?VE?r eat ... )
Make sentences, as in the example. Use the
adverbs of frequency from the key.
7 We/ visit/our cousins (.)
8 Phillip/ doesn't send / emails/ his friends ( ••• )
KEY
sometimes
••
always
usually
often
•••••
••••
•••
rarely/seldom •
never 0
Alice/get good grades/ school ( ••••• )
~ Alice always gets good grades at school.
2 Mrs Peters/ can/ find/ place to park her car/ outside
her house (0)
3 Jenny/ play basketball / Sundays ( ••• )
4 Alex/is/late/school ( •• )
5 They/go/ shopping/ Saturdays ( •••• )
6 you/ get up/ 8:00 am in the morning? ( ••••• )
• • •• • •••••• • • •• • •••• r • •• •• • ••••• • • • • • • • •••• •• ••• •• • • •••••• • •
2
Put the adverbs of frequency in the correct
place in the sentences.
He takes us out to dinner. (often)
~ He often takes us out to dinner.
2 Does Sam ride his bike to school? (usually)
3 We don't enjoy the peace and quiet of the
countryside. (always)
4 My parents work at the weekend. (never)
5 I meet my friends at an Internet cafe.
(sometimes)
6 Jim goes to the theatre. (seldom)
7 Our teacher doesn't give us homework. (always)
8 He is late for work. (sometimes)
9
10
Adverbs of Frequency
3
Tick (,I) the appropriate Bap in the sentences
below to show the correct position of the
adverb of frequency, as in the eXilmple.
1 Alan can ~ ,I score .. ... a Boal when we play
football. (never)
2 Do they ... .. BO .... . jOBging in the morning?
(always)
3 Chris ... .. goes ... .. to the supermarket on
Saturday. (rarely)
4 Does Liana ..... finish work .. ... at 3 0' clock?
(usually)
5 The postman ... .. doesn't . .... come in the
morning. (always)
6 My mother .. ... has ... " a snack at noon. (often)
7 Our cat ... " likes ..... to sleep on our bed.
(sometimes)
8 Aunt Mary ..... can ..... understand how to use a
computer! (never)
4
Put the words into the correct order to form
sentences.
1 practice / Jack/ football/ misses/ never
~ Jack never misses football practice.
2 you/often/films/watch/do?
3 to/does/father / drive/ my / always/ work/ not
4 outlGeorge/ late/ sometimes/ stays
5 breakfast / she/ coffee/ has/ atlseldom
6 my/ forgetlto/always/setll/alarm clock
7 rarely / six/ the/ John/ up/ morni ng/ atl gets/ in
8 Sundays/ not/ wake/ early / on/ they/ up/ usually / do
5
Write true sentences about yourself or your
family, usinB adverbs of frequency.
1 ~ I always have breakfast in the morning.
2 ............... ........................ at the weekend.
3 . ... ..•. .... . . " ..........•.... .. . .. . ". in the evening.
4 ......................... .... . .. ........ .. .. on Sundays.
5 . . . .. ..•... . ............ .....• " .. •... ". in the summer.
6
Ask your partner about his/her habits. Use
adverbs of frequency. Tell the class.
How often do you ..• ?
• wash the dishes • listen to music
• cook dinner • watch TV
• play sports • go to the cinema
• see your friends • eat chocolat e
• buy magazines • go shopping
• use a computer • eat out
~ Mary sometimes washes the dishes.
She rarely cooks dinner.
7
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use no more than
three words.
The Smiths always get up late a ~ thE: weekend.
~ The Smiths never get up early at the weekend.
2 What's your father's job?
What . .. ................ .... ........ .. . .............. do?
3 Brian doesn' t ever forget to feed his cat .
Brian always ........ " .................. " .. . . .. . " . .. .
his cat.
4 Rose and Jack don't travel abroad very often.
Rose and Jack rarely ................... ......... " ... .
abroad.
8 Correct the mistakes.
1 Tina ~ her hair every day.
~ Tina washes her hair every day.
2 Do you watch TV always in the evenings?
3 lan don't know anything about t he party.
4 Betty doesn't likes fish.
5 Does she work late? Yes, she do.
6 Do they lives in Madrid?
7 Tom doesn't sleep early usually.
8 Jim rarely is late for work.
Question Words
We use the following question words to ask about people,
places, things, etc.
1
• People: who/whose
Who delivers the post to the office?
The postman does.
Whose car is that? Jim's.
• Things: what/which
What is used alone or before a noun to ask about
things. What books do you l i ke? Science fiction.
(What? - There are many books to choose from.)
Which is used alone, or before nouns, one/ones
or of, to ask about people, animals or things.
Which is normally used when there is only a
limited choice of answers. Whi ch T-shirt is yours,
the blue one or the red one? The blue one. (Which
of the two? - limited choice)
• Place: where
Where is he taki ng us for di nner ?
To a new restaurant by the sea.
• Time: when/how long (ago)/how often/
what time
When does the play start?
At 8:00 pm, I t hink.
How long are you staying?
One more hour.
How often do you go surfing?
Every weekend in the summer months.
What time do your English lessons start?
At 4:00pm.
Choose the correct item.
...... do we need to make a cake?
A Where ® What CHow
2 .... .. stars in The Pirates of the Caribbean?
A Who B When C Why
3 ...... is your school from your house?
A How much B How long C How far
4 ..... . does Sue always carry an umbrella with her?
A Which B Why C Who
5 .• .. . . is that pen?
A Whose B Who C What
Where is Susan? She 's in the kitchen.
What is she doing? She's making a salad.
• Quantity: how much
How much sugar do you put in your coffee?
Not much.
• Number: how many
How many people are at this party?
About a hundred!
• Manner: how
How is Alex getting to Italy?
By plane.
• Reason: why
Why is Helen so sad?
Because she misses her friends.
• Age: how old
How old is your brother?
Thirty·seven.
• Distance: how far
How far is your house from the beach?
About half a mile.
6 ...... does Ken hang out with his friends?
A Whose B What C Where
7 ...... do they eat out?
A How often B How many C How long
8 ...... do the summer holidays begin?
A Whose B Who C When
9 How . ..... times do I need to tell you?
A much B many Clang
10 ...... does Sylvia travel abroad?
A How long B How of ten C How far
11
12
Question Words
2
Write questions to which the words in bold are
the answers.
Pierre is 1) 30 years old. He
comes from 2) Paris, France.
but he now lives in london.
3) because he has a very good job
there as 4) a computer programmer. His work is
very close to his house. so 5) he walks to the
office every day. Pierre likes doing many things
but his favourite hobby is 6) bungee jumping.
He is a member of the UK Bungee Club, and
7) every second Saturday they go to Berkshire to
practise their favourite sport . Pierre also jogs
8) for 30 minutes before he goes to work every
morning. His favourite singer is 9) Britney Spears
and his birthday is on 10) 16
th
August.
1 How ~ old is Pierre?
2 Where ................................. . ............... ?
3 Why ............................. . ...... . ............... ?
4 ....................... . ............................. . .... ?
5 ............. . . ...... ....... . ............................. ?
6 ...... . ............................ ....... ................ ?
7 ............... .. ......................................... ?
8 ...... . ....... ... .............................. ........... ?
9 ...... .. .................................................. ?
10 ............. ..... .. ........ ........... . ..... ........ ..... ?
3
Fill in: where, how old, what, who, how long,
why, how many, when, how, whose, how much,
how often, what time, how far or which.
1 ~ Which bag is yours? The brown one.
2 ................... is your dog's name? Rex.
3 ................... does your dad wash his car?
Every Sunday.
4 ................... phone number is this?
It's John Smith's.
5 ................... does Hel en come back from work?
At six.
6 .... ..... ...... .... is it to the station?
About five minutes' walk.
7 ................... lemons do we need to make
lemonade? Ten are enough.
8 ........ ...... ..... can I find information about
lions? On the Internet.
9 ............. .... .. is our new geography teacher? Mrs
Collins.
10 .................. is David?
He's twenty-three.
11 ................... can we get to the museum? Take
the number 23 bus.
12 ................... does it take Christina to drive to
work? Almost half an hour.
13 .. .. .. ... .......... do you need a new TV? Because
myoid one doesn't work.
14 ................... is your mother 's birthday?
On 20
th
July.
15 ........ .. .............. milk do we need?
Two bottles.
4
Complete the sentences with the correct
question word(s).
1 A: ~ Where are my books?
B: On the table.
2 A: ................ do you take your dog for a wal k?
B: Twice a day.
3 A: ............... does Stephen do in his free time?
B: He reads books.
4 A: ............... is it from here to the stadium?
B: About two kilometres.
5 A: ..................... is your grandmother?
B: She's eighty-two.
6 A: ................ do you make model aeroplanes?
B: It's easy. Follow t he instructions on the box!
7 A: .. ............. is your house from the bus stop?
B: 10 minutes on foot .
8 A: ......................... does Pete live?
B: In Barcelona.
5
Fill in the gaps with the correct
question word(s). Then choose the
correct answer to each question.
~ Where is England?
A In western Europe
B In northern Europe
© In north-western Europe
2 .. . ..... . .... . is the capital of England?
A Edinburgh
B London
( Liverpool
3 .... .... . . .. .. is the Queen of England?
A Queen Elizabeth 11
B Queen Sophia
( Queen Mary
4 . .. ...... . . .. . many official languages
are there in England?
A One B Two (Four
5 ... .. ... ... ... is the currency of England?
A Euros B Pounds ( Dollars
6 Fill in: what or which.
1 ...... .. . colour hair has she got?
Brown.
2 ... .. ... . shall we do this weekend?
Let's go to the beach.
3 . .... . ... shoes do you like, the
brown ones or the black ones? The
brown ones.
4 .. . .. . •.. is your bike? The blue one.
5 . . ... . . .. is the capital of Egypt? (airo.
6 .. .. .. .. . is your jacket? The red one.
Question Words
.--.!!"
7 Fill in: what (x2), who, how (x2), how old.
A: Good morning, sir. 1) ~ How can I help you?
B: Good morning. I ' m looking for a birthday present for my son.
A: Certainly. 2) . ... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . are you looking for?
B: A pair of trainers. Can you suggest a brand?
A: Of course. 3) ... . .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. . ...... is your son?
B: Fifteen.
A: Well, Nike and Adidas are very popular with teens. 4) .. .... ..... . .
sport does your son play?
B: Football.
A: And 5) .... . ........ . .. . . ..... . . . is his favourite football player?
B: It's Fabio (annavaro.
A: Well, Cannavaro wears Nike. Let's look at Nike.
B: OK.
A: 6) ...... ........ . .. .. .. .. .. . about these red Nike shoes?
B: Yes. They look great. I'll take them.
Speaking
In pairs, ask and answer questions to complete the
questionnaire about your partner.
We want to keep giving you the best service we can! Help us by
taking a moment to tiff in our questionnaire,
Gender: M 0 F 0
Age: 10-15 0 16-20 0 21-25 0 Over 25 0
Occupation: ...... ,"" " ' " .... .. .. .... .. .. ..
I buy COs: every week 0 every month 0
once/twice a year 0
I like reading music magazines because:
- I prefer to buy music: online 0 at a shop 0
- I like listening to: pop 0 rock 0 jazz 0
Thtlnk '()u for helpin usl
~ A: How old are you?
B: I'm ... etc
I
13
14
Pronouns/Possessive Adjectives
Personal Subject Pronouns
Singular Plural
we
you you
he
she they
it
Object Pronouns
Singular Plural
me us
you you
him
her them
it
Possessive Adjectives
Singular Plural
my our
your your
his
her their
its
Possessive Pronouns
Singular
mine
yours
his
hers

Plural
ours
yours
theirs
We use personal subject
pronouns before verbs as
subjects, instead of the name
of a person or a noun.
Where's Ben? He's outside.
(NOT: 8eR is outside.)
We use object pronouns after
verbs or prepositions as objects.
I know Sue and Kelly very well .
I meet them at the park every
weekend.
• Possessive adjectives show:
This is Bill . He is five years old. David and
Laura are his parents. They are teachers.
Bill has got a ball. It's his ball. It is white.
a) that something belongs to somebody.
b) the relationship between two or more
people.
He is our grandfather.
• Possessive adjectives are followed by
nouns.
This is my car.
Possessive pronouns show that something belongs
to somebody. Possessive pronouns are not followed
by nouns.
Compare: That is their bike. (possessive adjective)
That bike is theirs. (possessive pronoun)
Note: There is no possessive pronoun for ' it' .
Note: its = possessive adjective it's = it is or it has
We want to buy that house but its
bedrooms are too small .
It's (It is) very cold today.
It's (It has) got four legs.
Pronouns/Possessive Adjectives
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Complete t he sentences with personal or
possessive pronouns. Write 5 (subject pronoun),
o (object pronoun) or P (possessive pronoun).
Look at Emma, doesn't ~ she look
happy t oday? ~ S
My sist er and I love it when our mum
makes pancakes f or ...........
Thi s isn't my skirt. It 's Ann's. Thi s skirt
is .. ...... .. .
I can't fi nd my keys. I don't remember
where I put .......... .
Do you see that girl over t here? .. .......
is my sister.
I'm baking a cake for them because
.. .. ...... love my cakes.
I' m phoni ng you because .. .. ...... need
t o tell you somethi ng i mportant !
This is her car. Thi s car is ... .. ......
2 Fill in the correct subject or object pronoun.
1 A: Can you and Emma take Ben with you?
B: Yes, of course ~ we can t ake ~ him with
~ us.
2 A: Do you li ke seafood, Nathan?
B: Yes, .... .. .. . like .. .. .. .. . a lot!
3 A: Does Sally li ke vegetables?
B: No, ......... doesn' t like .. .... . .. very much.
4 A: Do you see Katie and Rachel of ten, Claire?
B: Yes. . . ... .... see ... . ... .. al most every day
because .. . ... .. . all go to the same school.
5 A: Do you know much about Greek and Roman
hist ory?
B: Actually, ......... am learning about ... ... .. in
my hi st ory class at the moment !
6 A: Where's Tom? . ..... .. . isn' t in hi s room.
B: ......... went out with Laura ......... will be
back in an hour.
7 A: Do you list en to rap music?
B: Yes, .. . .... .. li st en to . ... .. .. . all t he time.
......... think ..... ... .'s fantastic.
3
Fill in t he correct possessiv'e adjective!
pronoun.
A: Do you know Patt y? She's ~ my si st er.
B: You have a very prett y sister !
2 A: Is t his book Philip's?
B: Yes, .. .. .... . name i s on t he first. page.
3 A: Why does Chri stina need a new phone?
B: Because .. .. . .... old one doesn't. work any
more.
4 A: Where do you and your wif e usually go on
holiday?
B: To .. ....... house in the countryside.
5 A: My grandparents live on t he same street as
you.
B: Is t he house wit h the lovely garden ..... .. .. "
4 Fill in: its or i t's.
1 I' m staying at home t oday as ~ it 's cold outside.
2 Let 's eat here ..... . my favourite rest aurant.
3 Budapest is famous f or beaut iful
buildi ngs.
4 Their house has ........ own swimming pool.
5 .... .. .. a nice day t oday! Let 's go for a walk.
6 Isn' t Nicola's pet rabbi t beautiful! ... ...... fur i s
so white.
Speaking
Imagine you are a magazine reporter
interviewi ng a famous person. In pai rs, ask and
answer questions about his!her daily routine.
Use the question words: what, when, how,
where, etc.
~ A: What time do you get up?
B: I usually get up at 8:00 am.
Writing
Use t he answers from t he Speaking activity to
write a short article about the famous person's
daily routine.
~ Antonio Banderas usually gets up at ...
15
16
Present Continuous
Form subject + to be + verb -ing
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
I'm talking, He's/She'sllt's talking, We're/You're/They're talking
I'm not talking, He/She/It isn't talking, We/You/They aren't talking
Am I talking?, Is he/she/it talking?, Are we/you/they talking?
Short Answers
Spelling
Yes, I am.
No, I'm not.
• Most verbs add -ing to the base form
of the main verb.
eat - eating, work - working,
sleep - sleeping
• Verbs ending in -e drop the -e and
take -i ng.
take - taking, drive - driving
• Verbs ending in a vowel and a
consonant, double the consonant
and add -ing.
plan - planning, shop - shopping
• Verbs ending in -ie change the -ie to
-y and add -ing.
die - dying
Time expressions used with the
present continuous: now, at the
moment, at present, these days,
tomorrow, next week, etc
Yes, he/she/it is. Yes, we/you/they are.
No, he/she/it isn't. No, we/you/they aren' t.
Use
We use the present continuous:
• for actions taking place now, at the moment of
speaking, or for temporary actions, that is actions
that are going on around now, but not at the actual
moment of speaking.
Jane is studying for her exams
this week. (temporary action)
Now, she is sending an email to
her penfriend. (action happening
now)
• for fixed arrangements in the near
future.
They are leaving for London in an
hour by train.
• for changing or developing
situations.
More and more animals are
l osing their habitat due to
" deforestation.
• with always for actions which
happen very often, usually to
express annoyance, irritation or
anger.
He is a/ways biting his nails.
(annoyance)
1
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
continuous. Which sentence describes:
• a temporary action • an action happening now
• a changing situation • a fi xed arrangement
• annoyance
1 Tom ~ is washing (wash) his car in the drive
now.
2 I ........................ .. .... .. .. .. ...... (not/study)
hard this month.
3 .. .. ........ .. ................. .... .... .. .. (Mum/cook)
dinner?
4 The children .............................. .. .. .. .... ..
(play) football in t he garden.
5
(you/watch) TV?
6 The Earth .................. ...... ...... .. .. ..... (get)
hotter and hotter.
7 ~ u . .. . .... ... ...... ... . .. .... . .. .. ... ... .. . .. . . .. .. .. . . .
(always/read) my newspaper.
S Cathy ........................ (have) a party today.
9 ................................. (they/fly) to Athens
tomorrow?
10 You .. .. .. .................. .......... .. .... .. .... .. .... .
(always/interrupt) me when I' m talking.
Present Continuous
2
Put the words in the correct order to make
sentences.
chi ldren / pizza / are / eating / the?
~ Are the children eating pizza?
2 seeing/ tonight /l/am/ friends/ my
3 notl comi ng/ Kate/ tonightl is/ us/ with
4 he/ whatlis/ reading?
5 Peter / studying/ not / now l is
6 are/ atlnow / supermarketlthey / shopping/ the
7 itl getting/ and / is/warmer/ warmer
S forgetting/you/ always/ the bill/are/ to pay
9 bigger / growing/ cities/ are/ and/ bigger
10 next Saturday/ married/ are/ they/ getting
3 Look at the pi cture and correct the sentences, as in the example. Use the phrases below •
• watch TV • chat on the phone • eat a sandwich • drink a cup of tea • make model planes
Mrs Jones is cooking. ~ No, she isn't. She's chatting on the phone.
2 Jack and John are doing their homework ....................................... .. .......... .. ............................ .
3 Grandmother is sleeping ... ...................................... . ......... . ................................................ ..
4 Mary is list ening to music ............................................... .......... : .................. .. .......... .. .......... .
5 Mr Jones is reading a newspaper ..... .. ...... .. ............................ .. ...... . , .. .... ........ ...... .. .......... .. .... ..
17
18
Present Continuous
4
Read Derek's agenda. In pairs ask and answer
questions, as in the example.
10:00 am
1:00 pm
4:00 pm
6:00 pm
see dentist
go to the
supermarket
watch a
basketball game
go to karate lesson
play tennis with
John
6
Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.
Use the verbs: do, study, go, have, play.
Tony.
Meet me outside
cinema at 7:30 today.
Dad,
I' m at supermarket
wit h Mum.
TOrLY
FOOTBALL
Come to my party
To: Tony
Date: Sunday 3rd March
Place: 7 Apple Street
Time: 8:30 - " " ~
From: Jane ~
----
LEARN
SPANISH
8:00 pm
meet Debbie for SAT 4:30
dirLner
- -----------_____ ... -1 1 Tony .................. ....................... Spanish.
- 2 He ... ... ... ............. .... .. ... . ...... ........ tothe
1 see/ dentist/Saturday/ 10:00 am?
~ A: Is Derek seeing the dentist on Saturday at
10:00 am?
B: No, he isn't. He's seeing the dentist on
Monday at 10:00 am.
2 go to /karate lesson/Monday/ 10:00 am?
3 go to/ supermarket/Saturday/ 1:00 pm?
4 play tennis/with John/ Monday/4: 00 pm?
5 watch/ basketball game/Saturday/6:00 pm?
6 meet/ Debbie/for dinner/Monday/ 8:00 pm?
5
Answer the questions in the negative, as in the
example. Use your own ideas.
Are you wri ting a letter?
~ No, I'm not. I'm doing my homework.
2 Is your friend having a party on Saturday?
3 Is your dad reading a book now?
4 Are your parents flying to Paris tomorrow?
5 Is your mother doing the washing-up now?
6 Are you seeing your friends tonight?
cinema tonight.
3 Tony and his mum .................................. ..
.... . ............ ................... the shopping now.
4 He .................. ................ football at 4:30.
5 Jane .................. .................... a birthday
party on Sunday.
7 Look at the pictures and find the differences.
• have a sandwich • work on laptop 0 read
magazine 0 talk on mobile 0 watch TV
o sunbathe 0 play board game • swim in pool
~ In picture A Claire is working on her laptop. In
picture B she is watching TV,
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
The present simple is used:
• for permanent states, repeated actions
or daily routines.
She works as a nurse.
(permanent state)
She looks after
patients.
(routine)
• for general truths and
laws of nature.
Hurricanes happen when
oceans get warm during
summer months.
(general turth)
• for timetables (trains,
planes, etc) and
programmes.
The plane to London takes
off at 8:00 am. (timetable)
• for sports commentaries,
reviews or narrations.
a) Lewis dribbles the ball
and passes it to Davis.
(sports commentary)
b) Laura Hunt acts
superbly in the film.
(review)
c) So, the prince tells
her ... (narration)
Time expressions used with the
present simple: always, usually,
etc, every day/week/ month/year,
etc, on Mondays/Tuesdays, etc, in
the morning / afternoon/evening, at
night/the weekend, etc
The present continuous is used:
• for actions happening now, at the moment of
speaking, or for temporary actions, that is
actions that are going on around now, but not
at the actual moment of speaking.
John is working hard t hese _===--
days. (temporary action /
action happening around
the time of speaking)
Right now he's sleeping.
(action happening around
the time of speaking)
• with always for actions which happen very
often, usually to express -"""'-
annoyance, irritation or
anger.
She's always talking
on the phone. (annoyance)
• for actions that we have already arranged to
do in the near future,
especially when the time
and place have been
decided.
Melanie is flying to Madrid
in an hour. (fixed
arrangement)
• for changing or developing
situations.
Polar ice caps are melting
due to global warming.
(changing situation)
TIme expressions used with the present
continuous: now, at the moment, these days,
at present, tonight , nowadays, still , etc
19
20
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
1
Look at the pictures and complete the sentences 1-6. Use the verbs below •
• make • play • wash • watch • water • cycle
1 It 's Sunday morning. Tom ~ ;s watering the
plants. He usually ~ waters t he plants every
Sunday morning.
2 It 's Saturday morning. Kellyand Peter .... .. .... ..
......................... .. .. . their dog. They usually
. ... ...... .. . ................. thei r dog at weekends.
3 It 's 6 o' clock in the evening and Jack ...... ... ..
dinner. He usually .. .. ........... dinner in the
eveni ngs.
4 It's 7 o'clock in the evening. The Smiths
....... .. .... .. ........ TV. They .. . .. .. .... . ......... ..
TV every evening.
5 It's Tuesday afternoon and Philip and Tom
.. ...... . ..... .. ............ tennis. They usually .... .
.. .............. .. .. .. tennis on Tuesday afternoons.
6 It's Sunday morning. Eric . .. .... .. ................ .
He usually .. .. .. .. ..... .. ......... .. at weekends.
2 Identi fy the tenses in bold, then match them to their description.
IT:I:EJ Kangaroos don' t live in France.
~ present simple
[IT] Alex and Melanie are flying to 3ris next
Saturday ....... ........... .. ...... .
[l[J The train to Manchester leaves at 7:00 pm.
GIJ Does Sally walk to school every day?
~ You' re always telling lies!
ru Frank is living in Rome at t he moment.
[ICJ Her French is getting better.
[IT] Daniel Radcliffe plays the part of Harry
Potter ...... .. ....... .. ........ ..
a sports commentary, review or narration
b repeated action
c fi xed arrangement in the near future
d temporary situation
e timetable or programme
f changing or developing situation
g expressing annoyance about a frequently
repeated action
h general truth or law of nature
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
3
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
simple or present continuous.
George ~ lives (live) in
Scotland but at the
moment he ~ is staying
(stay) in Spain.
2 Tony usually ............ .
(play) basketball with his friends at t he weekend,
but this Sunday they .. .... .... .. ...... .. .. .... .. . (go)
to the cinema.
3 Lesley often ............. (stay) at the office until
late in the evening, but today she ...... .. ...... ..
(leave) early.
4 Martha usually .. .... ........ .. .. . (drive) to work in
the morning, but today it ...... ...... ...... (snow)
so she .. ...... .... ...... ............ (take) the train.
5 Susan .. .. .... .. ...... .. ...... . (clean) her house on
Saturdays, but this Saturday she .. .. .. .... .... .. .. .
(vi sit) her grandmother.
6 Derek .... .. .......... ........ . (finish) work at 5:00
and .... .... ...... .... .. .. .. . (go) home, but tonight
he .......... .. .... .. .............. (have) di nner with
his friends.
4
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
of the present simple or present continuous.
A: ~ Are you working (you/work) this afternoon?
B: No, I ...... .. ............... (go) to the cinema.
........................... (you/want) t o come?
2 A: .. .... ...... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... . (Tommy/sleep) ?
B: No, he ...................... (play) in his room.
3 A: ........ .. .. .... .............. .. ...... .. .. (you/do)
anything tonight ?
B: Yes. I ............................ .... .... . (meet)
Carol for dinner at 8 o' clock.
4 A: Why .. .. .................................. .. ...... ..
(Tomllook) so ti red?
B: He .......................... (work) long hours.
5 A:
(Jane/talk) on the phone?
B: No, she ........ .... ...... .. ............... (help)
Mum in the kitchen. John ........ ...... .. .. .. ..
.............. (come) for dinner tonight.
6 A: How long ........................ .. .... . (it/take)
to get from here to Los Angeles by plane?
B: Two hours.
7 A: ...................... .. ........ .. ......... (you/go)
out tonight?
B: No. Steve ................ .. ...... .. ...... (come)
around.
8 A: We .................. .. .. .. ........ .. .......... (go)
on holiday next week.
B: That 's ni ce. Where .. ............ .. ............ ..
(you/go)?
5
Fill in with
the present
simple or
present
continuous.
Chloe: Hi , Emma!
Emma: Hello, Chloe. Where 1) " are you calling
(you/call) from?
Chloe: I 2) .............. (be) in Rome at the moment.
Emma: 3) .................................. .. (you/enjoy)
yourself?
Chloe: Yes, 14) ........ .. .... .. ........... (love) it here.
Emma: When 5) ............................. (you/come)
home?
Chloe: Next Monday and I 6) .. .. ...................... .. .
(need) you to do me a favour.
Emma: What is it?
Chloe: I 7) ................ .. ........ .. ..... (want) you to
pick me up from the airport .
Emma: Oh! You 8) ........................................ ..
(always/ask) me for favours! I 9) .. .......... ..
.................... .. .. . (get) tired of it.
Chloe: I know, I' m sorry! It's the last time. I promise.
Emma: All right . What time,10) ................ .. ...... .
................. (your plane/arri ve) in London?
Chloe: It 11) ................ .... ....... (leave) Rome at
11 o' clock and 12) .................. .. .......... ..
(land) in London at 2 o' clock.
Emma: OK. See you on Monday then.
Chloe: Thanks Emma! You ' re the best sister in the
world!
21
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
6
Read the following extracts and put the verbs
in brackets into the present simple or present
continuous. Then, say what use of these
A
tenses each extract shows.
These days, it
seems like our
environment
1) ~ is
changing
(change). Air
pollution levels 2) ......................... (rise) rapi dly, the
climate 3) ............. .. .... .. ... . (get) warmer every year,
I
more and more forests 4) ........................ ..
(disappear) because of fires and many wild
animals 5) ....................... (lose) their natural
habitats and 6) .................. .......... . (become) extinct.
1.--- -
B
This I) ..................... (be) a great action film! The
actors 2) ........................... (give) a brilliant performance.
The special effects and computer graphics 3) .................. .
(be) spectacular. The story 4) .............................. (begin)
when two young men 5) ................................ (discover)
a buried treasure ....
C
... Here 1) .
a chance for the
Newton Lakers to tie
the game. Gordon
2) . .. (have) the
ball and 3) .
(pass) it to Rogers.
Rogers 4) ...
(shoot) the ball and it
5) .. .... ...... .. ... .... (sail) through the
basket! And there 6) ........ .. . (go) the whistle.
Time out!
/.------- - - ---
22
7
Circle the mistake (A or B) and then correct it
as in the example.
~ have
1 We usually ha® g English lessons on Tuesdays.
A B
2 Most days, Kevin is getting a lift to school. Today
A
he's taking the bus.
B
3 I fly to Rome tonight. I'm leaving for the airport
A B
in an hour.
4 Are you cooking dinner every night or do you
A B
sometimes order a takeaway?
5 Mike comes to school at 8 o'clock every day but
A
today he is being early.
B
8
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
of the present continuous or present simple.
Dear Sarah,
I 1) ~ am writing (write) from
the wonderful city of London! Sally
and I 2) ...................... (stay) in a
nice hotel near the city centre. The
weather here 3) ................ (be)
great. The sun 4) ....................... .
(shine) . We 5) ........................ .
(spend) most of the day sightseeing around London:
Right noW we 6) ......................... (sit) at a cafe
in Leiceste'r Square. In ....................... (drink) a
delicious cappuccino and Sally 8) ........................ ..
(eat) a sandwich. This afternoon, we 9) ................ ..
(go) shopping in Oxford Street and then we
10) .......................... (visit) Buckingham Palace.
Tonight, we 11) .............................. (have) dinner
in Soho.
I 12) .......... .......... ......... (love) it here and
13) ................................... (not/want) to leave!
Love,
Mandy
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
9 Underline the correct item.
Peter and Nancy are going to the cinema every
Monday/tonight.
2 Usa has piano lessons on Tuesdays/now.
3 Does Lucy usually/at present wake up early at
the weekend?
4 Sometimes/At the moment he is working on the
computer.
5 Betty goes to the gym tomorrow/twice a week.
6 Helen always/at present starts work at 9 o'clock.
7 Tracey doesn't eat breakfast today/every morning.
S Helen isn't studying in her room nowt at night.
10
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
simple or present continuous.
Claire Henderson 1) ~ lives (live) in London with her
mum, dad, brother and sister. Every morning, she
2) .......................... (leave) home at 8 o'clock and she
3) .... ...... .... ...... ............. (take) the bus to school. Her bus
4) ....................................... (come) at exactly 8: t 0 and
school 5) .... ...... ........................ (start) at 8:30. She usually
6) .......................... (get) back home from school at 3:30 in
the afternoon and 7) .......................... (do) her homework.
In the evenings, she 8) ........ ........ .......... (often/watch) TV
for an hour or two and 9) ...... .................... (go) to bed at to
o'clock. At the weekend, she 10) .......... ................ (enjoy)
hanging out with her friends.
Tomorrow, Claire 11) ............. ..................... (have) her
birthday party. At the moment, she 12) .................. .. ..
(shop) for a new outfit with her mum. Her mum
13) .... ...... ................ .... (get) angry because
Claire can't decide what to buy.
Everyone 14) ............ .... .. .. ...... (help) with
the party. Her sister 15) ............ .............. ..
(organise) the food because she
16) ...................... .. ... (like) cooking. Her
brother 17) .. .. ....................... (have) lots
of COs so he 18) ...... .............. .......... ..
(sort out) the music. Claire
19) .... .. .. ...... .... (want) everyone
to have a good time.
11 Circle the correct item.
Paul .... .... breakfast at the moment.
A doesn' t have B has © is having
2 ........ listening to jazz music?
A Does she enjoy
B Does she enjoys
C Is she enjoying
3 Nancy and Stella usually ... ... .. hiking at the
weekend.
A are going B goes C go
4 I .. . ..... the dentist on Monday.
A see B am seeing C sees
5 Is David .. .... .. in the library now?
A study B studies C studying
6 My mother ........ home from work at 5 pm every
day,
A get B gets C is getting
7 Is Steve .. ... .. . his doctor this morning?
A seeing B see C sees
S Beth usually .... karate lessons on Tuesdays.
A has B is having C have
12
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
1 Do you have any plans for this Sunday?
What ~ are you planning to do this Sunday?
2 Tommy has English lessons on Tuesday, Wednesday
and Friday.
Tommy has English lessons .... ............. .. . ...... .
a week.
3 Heather is in a pink top and a white skirt .
Heather .. ... .. ..... , .. , . .... , . . , . . ... .. ..... . . .. .. ..... .
a pink top and a white skirt.
4 Philip has an appointment with the dentist on
Monday.
Philip .... ............ . ... .. .. ..... .. ....... the dentist
on Monday.
5 Bill doesn' t ever eat fish.
Bill never .......................... .... .. .... .. .. . fish.
23
24
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
Stative verbs
Stative verbs are verbs which do not normally have continuous tenses
because they describe a state rather than an action. These include:
• verbs which express likes and dislikes: like, love, hate, dislike,
enjoy, prefer, etc.
Kate likes pop music.
• verbs of perception: believe, know, notice, remember, forget ,
recognise, understand, realise, seem, think, etc.
I don't understand what he's saying.
• verbs of senses: see, hear, feel, taste, look, smell, sound. We often
use can or could with these verbs when we refer to what we see,
hear, etc at the moment of speaking.
The pie tastes delicious.
Lisa must be at home. I can see her car parked outside.
• some other verbs: be, contain, fit , include, matter, need, belong,
cost, owe, mean, own, appear, want, have (= possess) , etc.
Julie wants to become a lawyer.
Laura is smelling the
roses. They smell nice.
Some stative verbs have continuous tenses, but there is a difference in meaning.
Study the following examples:
• I think she's French. (= believe)
I'm thinking about going on holiday. (= am
considering)
• The soup tastes really good. (= has a really good
flavour)
She's tasting the soup to see if it has enough
salt. (= is testing the flavour of)
• I can see the children playing in the garden.
(= perceive with my eyes)
I'm seeing Jim this afternoon. (= am meeting)
• Sue loaks really well! (= appears)
Mandy is looking at some photos. (= is studying)
Some idioms with have include:
have
breakfast/lunch/ dinner, etc
a bath/ shower/ swim/ party, etc
a(n) accident/experience/ dream, etc
a baby
difficulty/ fun / trouble, etc
• The cake smells nice. (= has a nice smell)
The dog is smelling its food. (= is sniffing)
• Annie's hair feels like silk. (= has the texture of)
TIna is feeling the baby's forehead. (= is touching)
• He is arrogant. (character - permanent state)
He is being arrogant. (behaviour - temporary
situation)
• He has a beautiful house. (= possesses)
He's having breakfast now. (= is eating - idiom)
Compare the examples:
Jane has got a sports car. (= possesses)
BUT Jane is having breakfast. (= is eating)
Present Simple vs Present Continuous
13
P ~ t the verbs in bracke.ts into the present
sImple or present contmuous.
1 A: ...................... . ..... (you like) pop music?
B: Not really. I .. .. ... . .. .. .... ............ . (prefer)
rock music.
2 A: . ... ...... ... . .. ....... . ............... (you/know)
where John is?
B: He ....... ....................... (have) a shower.
3 A: You . ... .... .... ... .. . ... . .. .. ... (look) very tired.
B: I .......... .. .. . .. ...... (think) I'll have an early
night tonight.
4 A: What .... . ...... . .. .. . . . .... ... .. .. . .. . .. ... .. .... .. •
(you/think) of Jane?
B: She .. . . . .... . .......... (seem) to be a nice girl.
5 A: Who .. . .. .. . .. . .. .... . . ... .... . . .... . ........... . ... .
(this car/belong) to?
B: I . ... .. . .. .. ... . . .. . . .. . .. .. . . (think) it's C1aire's.
6 A: How much .. . .. ........ . ... .. .. . .. . .. ... ........... .
(this sweater/cost)?
B: £20, and it's beautiful. It .. . ..... . ..... .. . . .... . .
(feel) very soft.
7 A: You ....... ... ... .. ... .. . .•.. .. . .. . ... (look) great.
.. ... ...... .... .. . .. . . ... .. . .... •..... (you/go) out?
B: Yes, John .. ... .. ..... .. ... .. ............... (have)
a birthday party.
8 A: I ............ .. ............................. .... .. .. .. .
(not/understand) what you .... ........... ... .. .
(mean).
B: That's OK. I'll explain it again.
9 A:
(you/recognise) the man in this picture?
B: He .. ....... ..... .. ............ .. . (look) like Jack,
but I'm not sure.
14
P ~ t the verbs in bracke.ts into the present
SImple or present contmuous.
A: I ................ ............. (see) there's a very
good film on at the cinema tonight. Would
you like to go?
B: Sorry, I can't. I .. .... . ...... ................ (see)
an old friend from school tonight.
-
2 A: Why .... .... .. .. ............. .. ......... .. ...... .... .
(you/taste) the stew?
B: To see if it .......... .. ...... .... .................. ..
(taste) good. I think it ........ ... ..... .. .. ..... ..
(need) some more spices.
3 A: ......... .. .. .......... .. ..... (Peter/feel) OK? He
.. ........... ......... (look) really pale.
B: Yes, I ......... .. . .. .. .. .... .. ...... ..... . (know). I
.. .................... .. ........ ... ... (look) for the
doctor's telephone number now.
4 A: Why ...... .. .. .......... .. .... .. .. .... .... .... ...... .
(you/smell) the meat?
B: Because it .... .. .... ........ ....... .. ........ .... .. .
(smell) strange. I ...... .......... .. ...... (think)
it has gone off.
5 A: I ................................ .. ... (think) about
taking a week off to go on holiday.
B: I .. .. ........................................ (think)
that's a good idea. you .. ..... .... .. ...... .. .... ..
(need) some rest.
6 A: How nice! You .......................... .. .... .... .
(have) a new computer.
B: Yes, but I .......... .... .......... .. ............ .... .
(have) difficulty installing this new program .
7 A: Sam .......................... .. ...... (be) usually
a very well·behaved boy.
B: Yes, but today he ....................... .. .... .. ..
(be) very naughty.
Speaking
Tell the class about the activities you do at
the weekend. What are you doing this
weekend?
~ I usually go shopping at the weekend. This
weekend I'm going to the seaside.
Writing
Find two pictures and describe them.
25
26
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
The relative pronouns who/that , whose and which/that, and the
relati ve adverbs where, when and why introduce relative clauses.
Relative Pronouns Relative Adverbs
people who/that place where
objects/animals which/that time when
possessions whose reason why
Relative Pronouns
• We use who/that to refer to people.
The girl who/that is with Tim is his sister Laura.
• We use which/that to refer to animals, objects or ideas.
This is the bus which/that goes to Heathrow.
• We use whose with people, objects and animals i n order to show possession.
This is the man whose daughter is a lawyer.
• We don't use a relative pronoun with another pronoun (I , you, he, him, etc) .
I know someone who is an actor. (NOT: I know someone who lie is an actor.)
Relative pronouns as subjects or objects
A doctor is someone
who treats sick people.
• We cannot omit who/which/that when it is the
subject of a relative clause, that is, when there
is not a noun or subject pronoun between the
relative pronoun and the verb.
• We can omit who/which/that when it is the
object of a relative clause, that is, when there is
a noun or subject pronoun between the relati ve
pronoun and the verb.
I met a girl. She knows your sister.
I met a girl who/that knows your sister.
Relative Adverbs
That's the car. Bob bought it last month.
That's the car (which/that) Bob bought last
month.
• We use when to refer to time. When is used after nouns like time, period, moment , day and summer.
It can be replaced by that or omitted.
1991 was the year (when/that) Wendy was born.
• We use where to refer to places. Where is used after nouns like place, house, street, town and
country.
This is the hotel where we st ay when we travel to London.
• We use why to give reason. Why is used after the word reason. It can be replaced by that or omitted.
That 's the reason (why/that) he left early.
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
1
Look at the pictures and make sentences, as in the example. Use who, which or where.
something/ use to take pictures
machine/ print from computer
\.. animal! live in Australia
L place/ watch a play
out fires
L washing machine/ wash clothes
I... someone/serve people food and drinks
someone/ teach children
( something/eat your soup with
I place/ see wild ani mals

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
\. place/athletic events happen
A kangaroo is an animal which lives in Australia.
2 Match the phrases to make sentences.
11
c
That's the office building
12
The boy
/ 3 Robert is a reporter
4 That is the restaurant
5
That is the woman
6
Is this the film
7 Rome is a city
8 This is the cat
9
This is the child
11
0
/
She'll always remember the day
111 1
What's the reason
1121
Do you remember the year
a where you can see ancient ruins. I
b which serves Japanese food. I
c where my father works.
d whose child is in my class. \
e in which Brad Pitt stars? I
f which plays in our garden every day.
g who is playing with the toys is Tony. I
h who works for Zoom Magazine. \
when she graduated. I
j whose dad is our teacher.
k when they got married? I
I why he left? \
27
28
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
3 Fill in the gaps with who, which or where.
Buckingham Palace, 1) ~ which
is located in London, is the official
residence of the Queen of England. It is the ideal place for visitors
2) .... .......... .......... want to learn about British history. It is a place
3) ........ .... ........ .... . you can see many priceless works of art and
treasures 4) .................... form part ofthe Royal Collection. Al l year
around, the Changing of the Guard, S) .. ........ .... .... takes place at
the front ofthe palace, is a popular event for tourists 6) .. ...... ........ ..
visit the capital. The Palace Garden is a place 7) ...... .......... .. you
can see many different species of plants. It has more than 250 rare
wild flowers. Visitors can end their tour with a walk along the south
side of the garden 8) ............ .................. has a splendid view of the
famous lake.
Defining - Non-defining Relative Clauses
4
Join the sentences. Use who,
which, where or whose.
1 That is Mr Williams. He is an actor.
~ That is Mr Wil/iams who is an
actor.
2 This is t he t rain. It goes to
Manchester.
3 Tom is the boy. His mother works
at a bakery.
4 That's the building. Betty works
there . . ..... .. ........................ ..
5 A penguin is a bird. It can' t fly.
6 This is the shop. She bought her
sweater there ........ . ........... .. .. .
There are two types of relative clauses: defining relative clauses and non-defining relative clauses.
• A defining relative clause gives necessary
information and is essential to the meaning of
the main sentence. We do not put the clause in
commas.
The man who/that lives next door is a doctor.
(Which man? We don' t know. The meaning of
the sentence is not clear wit hout the relative
clause. )
• A non-defining relative clause gives extra
information and is not essential to the meaning
of the main sentence. The clause is put in
commas. We cannot omit the relative pronoun.
We cannot use that instead of who or which.
My aunt He/en, who lives in Paris, is an artist.
("My aunt Helen is an artist " - the meaning of
the sentence is clear.
"who lives in Pari s" - the relative clause gives
extra information)
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
5 Match the phrases to make sentences and add the correct relative pronoun or adverb.
QJ!J This is the house
[ID Alexander Fleming is the man
ITD Is this the reason
liD The doctor
ITIJ Charles Dickens
[![] The film
[ID I met a girl
[!IJ Is she the person
6
Fill in the relative pronoun. Put commas
where necessary. Write (D) for defining, (ND)
for non·defining, and if the relative pronoun
can be omitted or not.
Mrs James, ~ who lives next
door, is a teacher.
2 That's the boy ...... .. sits next
to Kate at school.
3 That house .. ...... is very big
belongs to Mr Smith.
4 Have you seen that new film in
........ Angelina Jolie stars ?
5 I know a girl ........ brother is
an artist.
6 Usa ..... ... is the same age as
me can swim very well .
7 This necklace .. ..... . is very old
belonged to a very rich woman.
8 His sister .... ... . is named Laura
is two years younger than him.
9 The film ........ was advertised
on TV was very interesting.
10 This is the CD . ... .. .. Pat gave
me for my birthday.
11 Tony ... ..... works as a pilot
flew to Madrid yesterday.
12 The boy ....... . is sitting over
there is Steven.
13 The man .. ...... just entered
the room is Claire's dad.
14 The dress ........ you were
wearing yesterday afternoon
was beautiful.
15 The book ....... . we read last
week was very funny.
~ ND
(not omitted)
a ... .. .... ..... .. discovered penicilli n.
b ~ (where) I grew up.
c ... ............. was looking for John?
d .. .... .. ........ we watched last night was very boring.
e .......... . ..... name is Lucy.
f ... ..... .... ... . looked after my dad was very helpful.
g . .. . .... . .. ..... books are very popular, died in 1870.
h .. .. . ...... .. ... she was upset?
7
Join the sentences using relative pronouns.
Which ones can you omit?
That 's the CD. Ann gave it to me.
~ That's the CD (which/that) Ann gave to me.
2 She lives in a flat. It is on the third floor.
3 Mr Harris is a police officer. He is 35 years old.
4 This is the car. He bought it last May.
5 This is Sue. She is my sister's best friend.
6 That's Antony. His father works as a vet.
7 He works for a company. The company makes
computers.
8 That 's Nancy. She got married last week.
9 I met a man. He knows your parents.
10 The police have caught the men. They broke into
Mr Smith's flat .
11 This is the cinema. It opened last week.
12 I like the ring. John gave it to you.
13 Kim won the first prize. She's from Hong Kong.
14 Jane bought a painting. It's very expensive.
15 This is Bob. His son is a doctor.
29
30
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs
8
Fill in the correct relative pronoun or adverb.
If it can be omitted, put it in brackets.
1 The person ~ who/ that gave me this scarf is
Lucy.
2 The letter ............... she got was from Steven.
3 The car ............. Jim bought is very expensive.
4 Mr Smith is the man ........................ wife is a
doctor.
5 That 's the CD .................. Pat gave me for my
birthday.
6 What's the name of the river ................ flows
through Paris?
7 Is this the hotel ..................... you spent your
holidays?
8 It's very cold. That's the reason ............... I'm
wearing my coat.
9 The keys are on the table ................. you left
them.
10 The house ..................... they live is very big.
11 The car ...................... is outside our house is
Peter's.
12 I can't forget the day .................... I first met
Harry.
9
Fill in: who, which, whose, where, when or why.
If they can be omitted, put them in brackets.
Hi Gemma
l
How are you? I'm really busy, but I just thought I'd write and tell
you about something really exciting 1) ............ happened to me
last week. Do you remember Sally, 2) ............. party you came
with me to last year? Well, I went to a music concert in 3) ........
one of my favourite local bands, 'Shine', were playing last
weekend with Sally and her brother, Oave. Anyway, Oave knew
someone 4) ............. was working backstage. So he invited us to
a party 5) .... ........ . the band were going to after the concert! We
met the whole band, 6) ............. was amazing I
About the camping trip - I thought you might like to know the
reason 7) ............ . I can't come. Do you remember the time
8) ............. I looked after my neighbour Mrs Brown's dog when
she was on holiday? Well, she has asked me to look after him
again next weekend and I said yes. Sorry!
Write and tell me all your news,
Briony
10
Complete the sentences so that they are
true about you. Use relative pronouns or
adverbs.
1 The teacher ~ who I like most is Mr Perry.
2 The pet .............................................. ..
3 My favourite CD .... " .... .. .... " ................. ".
4 The place ............................................ ..
5 ........... was the year ...... .. ...................... .
6 The houselflat ............................. .... ...... .
7 My uncle .............................................. .
8 I know a man ........................................ ..
9 The football team ................................... .
10 The actor .............................................. ..
1 1
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
1 The boy talking to Pam is my cousin.
The boy ~ who is talking to Pam is my cousin.
2 I can't meet you tonight. I'm seeing Jane.
The reason .......................................... ..
meet you tonight is that I'm seeing Jane.
3 His flat has a great view of the lake.
He lives in a flat ............................... great
view of the lake.
4 Tony's father is a painter.
That's Tony ............... ................ a painter.
5 I must return the money to John.
I must give John back .......... ............ ...... he
lent me.
Speaking
In pairs, take turns to say the name of a place, a
thing or a person. Your partner has to explain
what this place/thing is or who this person is.
~ A: cinema
B: A cinema is a place where we can watch a film.
Writing
Make up true sentences about yourself using
relative pronouns and adverbs, as in the example.
~ My mother is a kind person who cares about us all.
My school is the place where I see all my friends.
My room is the place where I spend most of my time
in the evening.
(Units 1-3)
• Present Simple & Present • Possessive Adjectives
Continuous, Adverbs of Frequency
2
Underline the possessive adjectives which you
1
a) Read the em ail below. Circle all the verbs
can find i n the email in Ex. 1. What comes
in the present simple and underline all the
after possessive adjectives?
verbs in the present continuous. Match the
• Pronouns
verbs to their uses:
• habits/ routines
3
a) Which subject/object pronouns can you
• permanent states
f i nd in the email in Ex. 1? Which subject/
• action happening at the time of speaking
object pronouns do we use in the third
• fi xed arrangements in the near future
person singular? Which personal pronouns
b) Which tense do we use for: timetables?
do we use before a verb instead of the
sports commentaries? changing situations?
name of the person or a noun? Which
annoyance? laws of nature? Gi ve examples.
personal pronouns do we use after a verb
or a preposition?
c) Find three adverbs of frequency. Where do
b) How do we use possessive pronouns? Give
we use them in a sentence: before or after
the main verb/the verb to be?
examples.
~ ~ • Relatives
Hi Claire!
4
a) Find a relative pronoun and a relative
My name isAmy Norman. I am your new pen.friend! I am
adverb in the email. Which one refers to
14 years old and I live in London, England. It is a great
people and which one refers to a place?
city where you can find lots of museums, theatres, ci nemas
and parks.
b) Read the sentences. In which sentence can
I come from quite a large family. I've got a twin brother,
we omit the relative pronoun? Why?
John, and an older si ster, Emma. John and I go to school and
Emma, who is 21 years old, goes to university. My father 1 I know a man who speaks five foreign languages.
works as an accountant for a successful company and my
2 That's the book which Sally lent me.
mother is a teacher.
From Monday to Friday my daily routine is always the c) Which of the clauses below is a defining/non·
same. I wake up at around 7: 15 am. I have a light breakfast defining relative clause? Which can be put In
and then travel to school by bus. My classes start at 8 am
commas? In which sentence can we omit the
and I stay at school until half past three in the afternoon.
relative pronoun?
After school, I go to my part-time job, from 4 pm to 6 pm.
1 People who litter must be fined.
I work for a fami ly with two young children. I help to get the
chi ldren ready for bed, feed them and play with them. In the
2 The Smiths who live next door are very polite.
evenings, I do my homework and I usually go to bed before
• Question Words
II pm.
Saturday and Sunday are my favourite days of the
5
a) Fi nd two question words in the email.
week because I do whatever I like. I get up late in the
morning and meet my friends. We sometimes go to the
b) Write questions to which the words in bold in
cinema or to concerts but we usually just hang out.
the email are the answers, as i n the example.
At the moment. I'm studying very hard because I' m sitting
my exams next week Tonight. I'm going out for dinner with
.. How old is Amy?
my family. 2 . .... .. ..... ....... ..... ..... ..... ....... .
What about you? What's your dai ly routine? How do you
3 .............. ...... ......................
spend your free time?
4 .......... ..... ...... .. .... ..... .... ......
Please write soon!
5 ...... ............. ..... ..................
Amy
6 ............. .... .........................
7 ....... ........ ... ..... .... ... ............
31
..
Revision (Units 1-3
1
Circle the correct item.
1 ........ they want to go to the theatre?
A Does B Do CAre
2 He usually .... .... his homework in the afternoon.
A do B does C doing
3 This is me and Mary ......... are both twenty.
A They B You C We
4 Lucy . .... ... a cup of coffee every morning.
A is having B have C has
5 Our neighbours spend a lot of time in
garden.
A they're B they C their
6 ..... ... people are there in the picture? Two.
A How many B How much C How often
7 The girl ....... . is standing over there is my cousin.
A which B who C where
8 Bill ........ goes to the gym; he doesn't like it.
A usually B always C never
9 ........ is that man? He's my dad.
A How B Where C Who
10 How ........ do you go to the cinema?
A rarely B often C usually
11 He . ....... piano lessons three times a week.
A has B is having C have
12 My best friend ........ in Rome at the moment.
A live B lives C is living
13 The train .. ...... at 6:00 pm.
A leave B leaves C is leaving
14 Mrs Jones, ........ husband is a pilot, is our Maths
teacher.
A which B who C whose
15 We're playing football . Do you want to join ... .... ?
A we B them C us
16 This is (athy and (arol. ..... ... are sisters.
A They B Them
(
Their
17 ....... . is Jack going? To the supermarket.
A What B Why C Where
18 Mary is ........ on time for work. She's never late.
A usually B seldom
(
always
19 We .. . ..... basketball in half an hour.
A play B are playing C plays
20 This is the bus ........ goes to London.
A who B which
(
where
21 How ........ is the bus stop from here?
A old B far C long
32
22 That's the cottage ........ we spend our holidays.
A who B which ( where
23 ... ..... he work at weekends?
A Do B Is C Does
24 . . ...... is John from? Dublin.
A Where B Which C What
25 Are you .. .. .. .. anything tonight?
A do B does C doing
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first . Use up to three
words.
1 What is your dad's job?
What ................................................ do?
2 Maya always returns home early.
Maya never . ..................................... late.
3 What is a typical weekday in your life like?
What do ................. ....... . a typical weekday?
4 She's wearing a skirt today, but she usually wears
jeans.
She ....................... . ............... jeans today.
5 I look after my little brother when my parents go
out with thei r friends.
I take ............................... my little brother
when my parents go out with their friends.
6 John lives in a house near the sea.
John lives in ......... ............. ...... to the sea.
7 There are Beefeaters at The Tower of London.
8
9
10
The Tower of London is a place .............. . .... . .
...................... Beefeaters.
In the country, you can hear birds chirping when
you wake up.
In the country, you can wake up to ............... .
of birds chirping.
What do you think of John's lifestyle?
How do ....... .. ............ about John's lifestyle?
A Beefeater guides visitors around the Tower of
London.
A Beefeater is someone ................ ............ ..
is to guide visitors around the Tower of London.
(
Mark: - )
10x3 30
( Total : 80 )
Past Simple (regular and irregular verbs)
-.u
1---:
1: ! . :- ... _
--
As Mrs Smith was in
the kitchen cooking
yesterday, the curtains
caught fire.
The fire quickLy spread
and Mrs Smith screamed
for heLp.
The fire brigade rushed
to Mrs Smith's house.
LuckiLy, firefighters
rescued Mrs Smith
and put out the fire.
Regular Verbs
Affirmative
I/You/He/ShelltlWe/They played
Negative
I/YoulHe/She/ltlWelThey didn't play
Interrogative
Did I/you/he/she/itlwe/they play?
Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/shelitlwe/they did.
No, I/you/he/she/itlwe/they didn't .
Spelling Rules
• Verbs ending in -e take only -d.
close - closed
• Verbs ending in a consonant + y,
drop the y and take -ied.
fry - fried
• Verbs ending in a vowel + y, take -ed.
pLay - pLayed
• Verbs ending in one stressed vowel
between two consonants, double
the last consonant before the -ed.
drop - dropped
BUT open - opened
• Verbs ending in -I, double the I and
take -ed.
traveL - travelled
Pronunciation
The suffi x -ed is pronounced:
• hd! when the verbs end in a It/ or Id!
sound.
sorted, Lifted, recorded
• It/ when the verbs end in a 1kI, IS!, Itj//j/, If/ or lp/ sound.
looked, missed, touched, wished, coughed, stopped
• Id! when the verb ends in any other sound.
arranged, prepared, flowed, robbed
Use
We use the past simple to talk about:
• actions which took place at a particular time in the past. The
time is either mentioned or implied.
Ann joined the tennis club a month ago. (When? A month ago; the
time is mentioned.)
Ann joined the tennis club when she moved to the area. (When?
When she moved to the area; the time is implied.)
• actions we used to do in the past but do not do ~ - -
any more. We often use adverbs of frequency
to talk about habits.
He always went fishing with his
granddad when he was a child.
• actions that took place immediately one after
the other.
First he had breakfast and then Left for work.
• people who are no longer alive.
John Lennon wrote a Lot of songs.
(John Lennon is dead.)
Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs do not form the past simple by
adding -ed.
go - went, buy - bought, come - came (See List of irreguLar verbs
at the back of the book.)
Time expressions used with the past simple: yesterday, the day
before yesterday, last week/month/year, two hours/days/weeks/
months/years ago, when, then, in 2003, etc
33
34
Past Simple (regular and irregular verbs)
1
Write the past simple of the verbs in the list in
the correct box.
cry, dance, plan, stay, call , manage, try, delay,
spell, arrive, quarrel, rob, worry, care, destroy,
try, stop, enjoy, die, like, travel , play
~ danced, ...... .. ....... ... .. . l
stressed vowel between
two consonants + ed ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ d : .. :::::: ::::::::::::: I
consonant + y ~ ied ~ cried, ...... ... .. ... ..... .. ..
vowel + y + ed ~ stayed, ..... .. ....... ... ... .
t rbs ending in -I
~ called, .. ..... .. .. ... .... .. . .
2
Put the verbs in the past simple and write
them under the correct heading. Then read
them aloud.
hand, help, disappear, scare, accept, laugh,
watch, boil, arrange, wonder, miss, add,
paint , drop, want
~
IIdl /u /d/
handed helped disappeared
-
3
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
of the past simple, as in the example.
A: Where 1) ~ did you spend (you/spend) your
holiday this summer?
B: We 2) ... . ... .. ... ... .... .. (go) to the Bahamas.
A: Really! What 3) . . ....... .. ..... .. ... (be) it like?
B: Fabulous!
2 A: Why 1) .. .... .. .. .... ... . . ........ .... ......... . .... .
(not/Lucy/come) to Harry's party?
B: She 2) (have) .. ............. . .... .. .... to revise
for an exam.
3 A: What 1) .... .. .... . .. ... ...... .. .. . . .. .... (you/do)
yesterday?
B: Oh, nothing much. I 2) .. ........... .... .... .... ..
(stay) at home.
4 A: I 1) .... .. .. .... .. .... .. .... .. (read) the book you
2) ....... ........ . (give) me about blue whales.
B: 3) ......... .. .... ... ... ...... . ... ... . (you/like) it?
A: Yes. It was quite interesting.
4
Use the past simple of the verbs in the list to
fill in the blanks in the following sentences.
Which sentence refers to:
• actions which happened at a specific time in
the past
• people who are no longer alive
• past habits
• actions which happened one after the other in
the past
eat see be buy go win
spend take wash run
I ~ ate pancakes for breakfast yesterday morning.
~ action at a specific time in the past
2 They ... .. .. ..... .. .. .. .... .. .... to catch the bus this
morning.
3 My favourite football team ..... . ... . ............ the
World Cup last year.
4 Tom .. .... .. .... .. ...... . a new computer last week.
S Princess Diana ........ .. ... a beautiful woman.
6 Shelly .. ...... ....... .. .. to the cinema with Helen
yesterday.
7 We ..... .. .... .. ... every summer by the lake when
we were young.
8 I .... .. .. .... .... .. ... .. the dog for a walk and then I
watched TV.
9 My parents ........ .. ........ a lot of their favourite
bands play when they were teenagers.
10 Betty had a bath and ............. .... .. .. .. her hair.
Past Simple (regular and irregular verbs)
5
Read Julie's email to her friend
Sam. Put the verbs in brackets
i nto t he correct form of the past
simple.
HiSam,
You'll never. guess what 1) ~ happened
(happen) yesterday morning! J 2) ........... ..
(be) in my bedroom playing a board game
with my sister when, all of a sudden, our
house 3) .................. (begin) to shake. My
si ster and I 4) .................. (look) at each
other in fear, as my parents 5) ...... ........ .. ..
(be) out of town for the day and my sister
and 16) ............ ...... .. (be) t he onl y ones at
home. J 7) ... ........................... (not/know)
what to do, so I 8) ............. ........ (grab)
my sister and we 9) ........ .... .... .. . (hide)
under my desk. The shaking
10) ...... .......... (last) several minutes. After
it 11) .............. (be) all over, we
12) .... ... .......... .. .. ....... (check) around the
house and we 13) ............ ....... (see) a few
objects on the floor. There
14) ...................... (not/be) much damage.
Thank goodness! It 15) .... .... .... .......... (be)
a terrifying experi ence!
That' s all my news for now.
I
6
Complete the second sentence so
that it means the same as the
first . Use up to three words.
1 They enjoyed themselves a lot at
the party last Saturday night.
They ~ had a great time at the party
last Saturday night.
2 liz got home and then cooked
dinner.
liz ............................ .. she got
home.
3 How long i s it since he broke his
arm?
When .. ...... ......... .... .. .. . his arm?
4 Do you know the reason for her leaving her job?
Do you know why .. .. ............................. ......... her job?
5 It took them seven hours to drive from London to Manchester.
They ...... .. .. .... ........... .......... ...... .. .... .. .... .... a seven-
hour drive from London to Manchester.
6 When did she move to Spain?
How long is it since .. .... .............. ..... .. .... ........ to Spain?
Speaking
Make sentences about yourself,
using the time expressions.
~ I went to the cinema yesterday.
I saw a horror film and I was
terrified.
Writing
four days ago
Using the pictures A-D, write a short story in the past
simple tense. Use the ideas below to help you_
• volcano/ erupt at about 6:00 am
• people hear/ loud noise/ see smoke/ sky
• they be in panic/ leave/ houses
• that night/people/ sleep i n the forest/then left area
• weeks later/ go back/village
• see/ ash/ dust/everywhere
• they / be / very sad
~ Yesterday, Chaiten, a volcano in Chile near the village of Chaiten,
erupted . .. .
35
36
Used to - Would - Be/Get used to
Used to
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
Short Answers
Form
I/ You / Hel She/ ltIWel They used to exercise.
I/ You / Hel ShelltIWelThey didn't use to exercise.
Old I/ you/he/she/itlwe/they use to exercise?
Yes, I/you/ he/she/ itlwe/ they did.
No, I/ you / he/ she / itlwe/ they didn't.
She didn't use to wear
glasses when she was a child.
Now she wears glasses.
Used to is always a past form. It has no present form. It has the same form in all persons singular and plural
in the affirmative. , used to play football. Anna used to exercise a lot.
The question form is did + subject + use to. Did Peter use to go fishing?
The negative form is subject + didn't use to. Peter didn't use to play computer games.
Use
• Used to is used to talk about past habits or actions that happened regularly in the past, but they no longer
happen.
He used to travel a lot when he was younger. (He doesn't travel often any more.)
• We use used to for things that were true but they are not true any more.
She used to have short hair when she was a child. (Now she has long hair.)
• We can use the past simple i nstead of used to wit h no difference in meaning.
She used to wear glasses. She wore glasses.
• We use the past simple and not used to in the following cases:
a) to refer to an action which happened at a definite time in the past.
She left for Ankara yesterday. (NOT: SRe /,Isee ta leal'e ... - action that happened at a definite time
in the past)
b) to say how many times an action happened at a definite time in the past.
They ate out twice last week. (t T: They !/See ta eat ... )
Would
We use would/used to for repeated actions or routines in the past. We do not use would with stative verbs,
because they describe states and not actions.
They wouldlused to eat out on Sundays. (They don't eat out anymore.)
BUT They used to have a dog. (NOT: They 1"6/,1le Ra'l e a dog.)
Be/Get used to
• Be used to + noun/pronoun/-Ing form (= be in
the habit of, be accustomed to) is used to
express habit. It means that somebody is / was
accustomed to doing sth.
They are used to hot weather. (present)
, don't mind walking. "m used to it. (present)
She was used to working long hours. (past)
• Get used to + noun/pronoun/-ing form means
" I am becoming accustomed to".
They are getting used to the hustle and bustle
of the big city. (present)
She didn't like Los Angeles at first, but she got
used to it. (past)
He' ll soon get used to living in a flat . (future)
Used to - Would - Be/Get used to
1
a) Rewrite Jane's comments using used to or
didn't use to, as in the example.
I havea cat j
. ~
0
0
1 more.
1 ~ Jane didn't use to travel a lot.
2 ........ ........... .. .... ... ........ .... ...... .. .. ..... .. . .
3
4
5
6
7
8
b) In which of the sentences above (1-8) can
you also use ' would'?
2
Put a tick (.1') next to the sentences where ' used
to + main verb' can replace the past simple.
1 She st udied hard when she was at university.
~ .I (used to study)
2 He lived alone.
3 They came to Edi nburgh a week ago.
4 She went to lots of parties when she was younger.
5 He moved house last mont h.
6 They spent their holidays in Malta last year.
3 Fill in: used to and/or would.
1 They ~ used to live in a small cottage by the sea.
2 While on holiday, she .... . ...................... ..
walk by the sea before breakfast.
3 He .. ...... . ....................... exercise at the gym
after work.
4 He ... ................. ... .. . ... ...... .. dri ve to work.
5 She .............. .. ........... have long hair.
4 (ircle the correct item.
1 It's too noisy but I' ll .. .. . .. . it.
A used to B get used to
( been used
2 When we were children, we used hiking
very often.
A go B to going ( to go
3 I had trouble with my job at first , but I ... .. ... to
it.
A got used B would use
(
have used
4 Jane ........ to Paris yesterday.
A used to fl y B flew
(
would fly
5 She didn' t .. .. .... have a pet.
A used to B use to ( use
6 They ........ the cold.
A used to B are used
(
are used to
7 She wasn' t used ........ in the countryside.
A to live B live ( to livi ng
8 He couldn' t use a computer at first, but he ... .....
to it.
A got used
( used to
B got used to
9 We . .. .. ... eat out on Saturdays.
A would B use to ( get used to
10 They still haven' t got .... .. .. by the sea.
A used to li ve B used to living
( didn't use to living
11 She .. ...... getting up early in the morning.
A wouldn' t B isn't used to
( didn't use to
12 He ........ live on his own.
A isn' t used to B isn't getting used
( didn't use to
Speaking
Tell your part ner.
• What did you use to/ would you do as a child
when you went on holidays?
• What are you/ aren't you used to doing?
~ I used to/ would go swimming with my grandparents.
I'm used to getting up early.
37
38
Time Clauses - Time Words
Time Clauses
The kids will go to
school after they
have breakfast.
• We use the following time conjunctions to
introduce time clauses.
when, as, while, before, after, since,
until/till, whenever, as long as, by the
time, as soon as, the moment that, and
then, etc
• When the time clause precedes the main clause,
a comma is used. When the time clause follows
the main cause, we don't use a comma.
Whenever he has time, ~ i s i t s his friends.
time clause main clause
He visits his friends whenever he has time.
main clause time clause
Sequence of Tenses
• Time clauses follow the rule of the sequence of
tenses. That is, when the verb of the main
clause is in a present or future form, the verb of
the time clause is in a present form. When the
verb of the main clause is in a past form, the
verb of the time clause is in a past form too.
Main clause Time clause
present / future / .... present simple or
imperative present perfect
She always visits us when she is in town.
I'll call you as soon as I reach New York.
Lock the door before you leave.
past simple /
past perfect
past simple or
past perfect
He moved to Paris after he had lost his job.
She had cooked lunch before she went to the
supermarket .
Time Words
ago - before
• ago = before now
My parents got married thirty years ago.
(= thirty years before now)
• before = before a past time
Steve and Ann got married last month. They had
met five months before. (= five months before
last month)
until/till - by the time
• until/till = up to the time when
He worked hard untilltill he finished. (= up to
the time when he finished)
They' ll be here untilltill Monday. (= up to
Monday)
• by the time + clause = not later than the
moment something happens
I will have set the table by the time you come
home. (= before, not later than the moment you
come home)
• by = not later than
I' ll be back by Tuesday. (= not later than Tuesday)
Note: a) not ... until/till = not ... before
I won't be back un till till/before
Tuesday.
b) Both until/till and before can be used
to say how far away a future event is.
There's only one week untilltill/
before we go on holiday.
during - while/as
• during + noun = in the time period
He fell asleep during the meeting.
• while/as + clause = In the time period He fell
asleep while/as he was in the meeting.
when
• when (time conjunction) + present tense
He'll call us when he gets home.
• when (question word) + will/would
I'm not sure when he will return.
She wasn 't sure when he would return.
Time Clauses - Time Words
1
Fill in: when, if, after, before, by the time,
until, as soon as.
I'm not sure ~ when the next bus will arrive.
2 ................... he paints the walls, he will cover
the furniture.
3 ................. I get home, I' ll start making
dinner.
4 I will buy a car .. .... ................. I get a payrise.
5 ...... ... . ...... .... .... you talk to Jeff, give him my
regards.
6 Don't worry. I will be there ..................... you
arrive.
7 .... ................. I reach Montreal, I'll send you a
postcard.
8 We can't leave ......................... the manager
finishes his speech.
2 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
They went out after they ...................... .... ..
(have) a shower.
2 They won't announce the results before they
.......... ...... ..... (finish) marking all the papers.
3 She sent all the emails before she ...... .......... .
(leave) the office.
4 Do you know when Kate ................... (leave)?
5 She was doing the ironing while he .............. ..
..................... (cook) dinner.
6 We' ll go out as soon as it ........ .................. ..
(stop) raining.
7 Please, lay the table before the guests .......... ..
...... ...... ......... ........ . ................ .. (arrive) .
8 They won't go on holiday until the school ........ .
................................... (close) for summer.
3 Underline the correct item.
1 Kelly called us when/until she got to the airport.
2 She watched TV as soon as/until she fell asleep.
3 Paul sent us a postcard as soon as/ until he reached
Paris.
4 We'll have a big party as/after he graduates.
5 Peter cooked dinner untiVwhile I cleaned the living
room.
6 Bill brushed his teet h and as/then went to bed.
7 They'll move to Britain after/as they get married.
4
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
simple or the future simple.
1 Do you know when .... ...... ........ ...... .......... ..
(Bill/call)?
2 I'm not sure when she .......................... (be)
back.
3 When we ................ .. ....... (finish) our exam,
we'll go home.
4 When he .......................... ........... (leave),
we'll miss him.
5 When we .................................. (see) Bob,
we'll tell him about it.
6 When ................................................... .
(Claire/graduate )?
5
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
simple or the future simple.
We .... .. ........................ (call) you as soon as
we ........................... (land) .
2 When ....................................... (he/send)
me the information?
3 I ...... ...... .......... ........ ........ . (sit) here until
you ................. .. ........ (come) back.
4 They .............................. (return) before it
(get) ........................... dark.
5 When .................................................. ..
(Mandy/come) back?
6 I .............................. .... (not/know) when I
.. ........................ . ........ .. (see) them again.
7 ................................... (you/call) me after
.. .................... (you/finish) football practice?
8 ............................ (you/buy) me two loaves
of bread when ............................. (you/be)
at the supermarket, please?
39
40
Time Clauses - Time Words
6 Read and match.
111 e
121
131
41
51
61
71
81
He put on his coat and
As soon as she got home
He was in the bathroom
They watched TV
I'll call you
We' ll wait for you
I When he leaves
I She won't leave
7
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
of the present simple or present continuous.
1 A: .. Are you working (you/work) this afternoon?
B: No, I .............. .. .................... .. (go) to
t he cinema ............. .. .... .. .. .. ............ ..
(you/want) to come?
2 A:
(Tom my/sleep) ?
B: No, he .. .. .... .. .. .... .. ..................... (play)
computer games in his room.
3 A: ...... . . ..... . .... .. .. .. .. ... .... .... .. ... (you/do)
anything tonight?
B: Yes. I ..... .. ............. .. ....... .. .... .. (meet)
Carol for dinner at 8 o' clock.
4 A: Why ....... . .... .. ........................ . . ... .. .. .
(Tom/look) so tired?
B: He ................. .. ..... .. .... .. ....... .. (work)
long hours.
5 A:
(Jane/talk) on the phone?
B: No, she ................................... (help)
Mum i n the kitchen. John .. .................. ..
............. . (come) for dinner tonight.
6 A: How long ............................... (it/ take)
to get from here to Los Angeles by plane?
B: Two hours.
7 A: .. ...... . .................................. (you/go)
out tonight?
B: No. Steve .. ...... .. .. ........ .. ..... .. ... (come)
around.
a as soon as I reach London.
b I' ll tell you.
c then he went outside.
d until you are ready.
e before she sends all the em ails.
f after they had lunch.
g she started cooking dinner.
h when the doorbell rang.
8
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first . Use up to three words.
1 Finish your homework and then you can go out.
You can' t go out .. . ........... . ...... ............ . ... ..
your homework.
2 He fell asleep during the film.
He fell asleep whi le .. ........ .. ... .... .... the film.
3 Let me finish watering the plants and then I'll
listen t o the CD.
I'll listen to the CD as soon .. . .. . ........... .. ..... .
wateri ng the plants.
4 I' ll do the shopping and then I'll pick up the kids .
I'll pick up the kids .. .. ...... .. . .. . .... .. .. .... .. .... ..
the shopping.
5 I' ll talk to my lawyer and then I'll sign the cont ract .
I won ' t sign the contract
to my lawyer.
Speaking
Join the sentences using linking words, and
tell the story to your partner.
• It was late. Julie went to bed . • She was
about to fall asleep. She heard a loud noise .
• She waited. The noise stopped. She went i nto
the li ving room . • She switched on the light.
She saw a man standing near the doorway.
• He ran out of the house. He saw her. • Julie
picked up the phone. She called the police.
.. It was late when Julie went to bed. ete
Writing
Now, write the story in your own words. Give
your story an ending. Use time words.
(Units 4-5)
1
• Past Simple
a) Read the article below. List all the verbs in
the past simple. Which are regular? Which
are irregular? How do we form the negative
and interrogative forms of the past simple?
b) Match the past simple verb forms in the
text to their uses:
• actions which happened at a specific time in
the past
• actions which took place immediately one
after the other
What other uses of the past simple can you
think of? Give examples.
Summer
Last June heavy rain
and floods caused
dulos in the UK.
Usa Wilkinson tells
us her story.
One day last June, it started raining hard and it didn't stop. The
news report said that around 2 months worth of rain fell in just 8
hOurs and caused terrible flooding.
I remember that day really well. At around 10 o'clock in the
evening, there was a knock on the door. I answered the door and
our neighbour, Mr Stevens, told us to leave our house because he
was afraid the river would burst its banks and flood the town. My
mother got dressed quickly and went to get the car out of the
garage, while I ran across the street to warn the neighbours. My
mother met me with the car and we drove to the hill where we
were safe. Suddenly, we heard the terrible roar of the water as it
ocked the lampposts down, and everything went dark. This
was about 11 :15 pm. We sat in our car until daylight came. Then
we went home.
There was a lot of damage to our house and to other houses in
:he neighbourhood. The first floor of our house was completely
underwater. We had to throwaway most of our furniture, and we
lost all of our old pictures, which was very sad. It took us the rest
of the summer to clean the house and garden. It was a terrible
experience but we were all so relieved that we were safe.
2
Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple
to complete the sentences.
1 Linda ........... (buy) her house two months ago.
2 Last night Fiona .......... ...... (drop) her mum's
favourite vase and ..................... (break) it.
3 Tom ........................... (catch) the 7:30 am
flight to Madrid yesterday morning.
4 Susan ................. (leave) work early yesterday.
5 John ........................ (not/get) my message
last night.
6
(Mother Theresa/live) in India?
7 She ............ (come) home very late last night,
.............. (have) dinner and ............. (go) to
bed because she .......... ........ (be) very tired.
• Used to - Would - Be/Get used to
3
Study the sentences (1· 3) and answer the
uestions.
He used to travel a lot.
2 He travelled to London yesterday.
3 He is used to travelling.
4
a) Which sentences refer to the present/past?
In which sentence can we use 'would'?
b) Can we use 'used to travel' in sentence 2?
WhylWhy not?
c) Look at sentence 3. What words do we use
after 'be used to'? Can we use the same
words after 'used to'?
• Time Clauses - Time Words
a) Circle all the time words you can find in the
text. Give more examples.
b) Answer the questions.
When do we use a comma to separate a time
clause from a main clause?
2 If the verb in the main clause is in the present,
what tense can we use in the time clause:
present simple or will?
3 When can we use 'will' after 'when'? Give an
example.
4 Which of the two sentences is correct? Correct
the wrong one,
a) She fell asleep during the performance,
b) She fell asleep while the performance. 41
42
Revision (Units 1-5
t (ircle the correct item.
1 Ben isn't in his room. He's ........ his homework.
A doing B does ( do
2 The Beatles ......•. a lot of hits in the 60s.
A are having B had ( have
3 ., ...... countries produce the best olive oil?
A Who B Where (Which
4 Steve never ..... . . . milk.
A drinks B doesn't ( drink
5 Did you ........ the potatoes?
A fry B fried ( frying
6 This is the house ........ Jane lives.
A who B which (where
7 I ........ my favourite actor on TV last night.
A saw B see ( am seeing
8 He always ........ tennis at the weekend when he
was at university.
A plays 8 play ( played
9 Did they drink their coffee? Yes, they ....•....
A did B do ( are doing
10 Linda moved to England ........ she finished
university.
A then B while ( after
11 Do not start writing ... ..... I tell you.
A until B when (while
12 He ........ sick yesterday so he didn' t go to school.
A is feeling B felt ( feel
13 They .. ..... . to Paris last year.
A are travelling B travel ( travelled
14 ........ are you going to get there? By car?
A What B How ( Where
15 She ........ travel to London in 1999.
A doesn' t B didn' t (does
16 Wait in front of the post office ... ..... I get there.
A when B after (until
17 Are they ........ lunch at the moment?
A eat Bate ( eating
18 It ........ me hours to tidy my room yesterday.
A take B is taking (took
19 Did you ........ the British Museum while in
London?
A are visiting B visit ( visited
20 ..... ... the team won the game, they went out to
celebrate.
A After B As ( Until
21 We ........ at the hotel until the rain stopped.
A stayed B stay ( are staying
22 He left an hour ........ .
A yesterday B before ( ago
23 She ........ as a shop assistant at present.
A is working B worked (works
24 She tidied up ........ then she read her book.
A until Band ( when
25 She waited .•....• . the bus came.
A when B before ( until
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
(omplete the second sentence so that i t
means the same as the first . Use up to three
words.
We left right after it got dark.
We left as ..........•........... .. ........ it got dark.
2 How did the story end?
What ... . ........... . ....... at the end of the story?
3 My sister bought (Os with her money.
My sister spent .................. .............. . . (Os.
4 On my holidays, I spent every morning on the beach.
On my holidays, I .... . ......... .................... .. .
spend every morning on the beach.
5 I couldn't wake up early until I got a job.
I got used .. .. .. .... .. .. up early after I got a job.
6 When John came, it was raining heavily outside.
There ......•............................. rain outside
when John came.
7 What's the matter? You look really bored.
What's the matter? You look .................... up.
8 Animals were used for travel in the past.
People .............. ........ .. . ..... . ............ travel
on animals in the past.
9 They had a terrible time at the party.
They didnl ........ ....... .. ............ . . themselves
at the party.
10 I am so upset I could cry.
I am so upset I feel .... ....... . ..... . . ....... crying.
(
Mark: - )
10x3 30
( Total : 80 )
Form subject + have/has + past participle
I/You
He/She/It
WelThey
Affirmative
Long Form
have
has
have
Short Form
've
's
' ve
Interrogative
lived/
come.
Present Perfect
Negative
Long Form Short Form
I/ You have not haven't lived/
He/ She/ It has not hasn't come.
We/ They have not haven't
Short Answers
Have I/ you
lived?!
Yes, I/ we have. No, I/ we haven't.
Has he/ she/ it
come?
Yes, he/ she/ it has. No, he/ she/i t hasn't.
Have we/ they Yes, you/ they have. ·No, you/ they haven't.
Use
We use the present perfect :
• for actions which started in the past and still
continue in the present, especially with stative
verbs such as be, have, like, know, etc. In this
case, we often use for or
since.
Mr Adams has been a
teacher for ten years.
(He started teaching ten
years ago and he is still a
teacher.)
• for experiences.
He has tried
bungee jumping.
• for actions which happened at an unstated time in
the past. The exact time is not mentioned because
it is either unknown or
unimportant. Lizzie has
been to Moscow. (When
did she go? We don't
know or it's not
important. What is
important is that she has
been to Moscow.)
• for actions which have recently finished and their
results are visible in the present.
They have finished their
shopping. (We can see that
they' ve done their shopping
as they're putting the bags
in the car.)
• with today, this morning/afternoon, etc when
these periods of time are not finished at the
time of speaking.
Paul has received four
faxes this morning. (It
is still morning, so this
period of ti me is not
over yet. He may
receive more faxes.)
BUT He received ten
faxes yesterday.
(The period of time - yesterday - is over.)
43
44
Present Perfect
Have gone (to) - Have been (to)
• We use have gone (to) to say that someone went • We use have been (to) to say that someone went
somewhere and is still there. somewhere but he/ she has come
They have gone to
Disneyland. (They are
still there. They haven' t
come back yet.)
Time expressions used with the present perfect:
• already (normally in affirmative sentences)
You don't need to buy a newspaper. I have
already bought it.
• yet (normally in interrogative or negative
sentences)
Have you heard the news yet?
The plane hasn't landed yet.
• just (normally in affirmative sentences to show
that an action finished a few minutes earlier)
Edward has just come in.
• ever (normally in affirmative and interrogative
sentences)
This is the best film I have ever watched.
Have they ever invited you to their house?
1
Make complete sentences using the words
below. Use the present perfect.
1 l / already/ see/ the dentist
~ I have already seen the dentist.
2 John/ move house/ yet? ......... ... ... . . ....•. . .... . ..
3 l / already/ type/ eight letters/ today ..... . ......... .
4 she/never/travel/abroad ....... . ........ . ...... •....
5 the plane/just/arrive ... ..... . ... . ....... . •...........
6 you/ ever/ meet/anyone famous? .. ... .. .. . .. .... .. .
7 she/try/ snorkelling . .. .. .... . .... .. ................. ..
8 he/not finish/his homework/yet . .. .. .....•......•.
back.
She's been to Egypt twice. (She went to Egypt but
she's back. She's not there any more. )
• never (negative meaning)
Tristan has never been good at Maths.
George has never seen a play at the theatre.
• for (= over a period of time)
They have lived in that house for nine months.
• since (= from a starting point in the past)
They have lived in that house since the
beginning of the year.
• recently (normally in affirmative sentences)
She has recently bought a new car.
• so far (normally in affirmative statements)
I ' ve typed three letters so far.
2
Make sentences using the words below, as in
the example. Use since or for.
1 I/ not see/ Emily/ long t ime
~ I haven't seen Emily for a long time.
2 he/ not eat/anything/ yesterday .. . ... .. . .... ... .. . .
3 we/ not be/ out/months ........ ... . .... . . . .... . .... . .
4 they/ not hear/from David/ last summer . .. . .. . .. . .
5 Kelly/ not have/a holiday/ two years . .. . ..... .. .. . .
6 they/ be/ married/ 1997 ........................... •...
7 I/ not speak/ Daniel / last Sunday . .... ........ . .. .... .
8 he/not email/ John/weeks .. . ......... . . .. .. .. .... .. .
3
Complete the conversation, using the present
perfect.
A: Sam, let's check if we 1) ~ have done (do)
everything for Claire's surprise party.
B: OK. 2) . ................... .. .. ...... . ........ ... . . .. ... .
(you/book) the table at the restaurant?
A: Yes. And I 3) . ........ .. . . . .................. (order)
the flowers.
B: Great! What about the balloons?
A: I 4) ..... . .......... ........ . .... . ...... (already/ask)
Ben to organise the decorations.
B: Good thinking. Now, Sally 5) .. . . .. ..... .. . . . . ..... .
(buy) Claire's present and 6) .. ... .... .... . ..... ... .
(call) all her friends.
A: That 's fine. 7) .......... . .... . .. ... ... ....... ...... .. .
(you/tell) C1aire we're taking her to the theatre?
B: Yes. Don ' t worry. She has no idea what we are
planning!
A: Oh, I almost forgot! 8) .... . . .. .. . ..... ... ..... .... . .
(you/check) if Sally 9) . . . .. .... . ... . .. . .... .. .. . ... .
(bake) the cake?
B: She just called me. It 's all under control!
Fill in the gaps with have/ has been (to) or
have / has gone ( to).
Harry ~ has gone to the sports centre and won' t
be back until 5 o' clock.
2 We ...... ... . . .. . ................ . Madrid twice so far
t his year, but we want to go again soon.
3 You can't see Herman before Friday. He ..... .... .
.............. . ...... .. . ....... on a business trip.
She ..... . ........... . .. . ............ the hairdresser's
twice this week.
Oliver isn' t here at the moment. He ..... . .... ... . .
.............. . . . t he bank to withdraw some money.
They .... .. . . . .......... . ........ . ... Spain on holiday
five times.
James and Lynn .......... .. .. . .. . .. .. ... .. .. .. ... New
York for a few days on a business trip. They' re
coming back tomorrow.
B' ll 1 Y •.••. •• .. •.•• .••.••••••• . •.•.••. work. He should
be home by 3 pm.
Julie ............ . ...... .. .. .. .. .... ...... . Rome twice
this year.
Present Perfect
5 Underline the correct item.
They haven't bought the tickets for the cinema
e v e r / ~ .
2 Have you for/just come in?
3 The baby has yet/already gone to sleep.
4 It hasn' t rained just/for three weeks.
5 Don' t come in here! I've just/yet cleaned the floor!
6 He hasn' t been to his grandparents' house
already/since last summer.
7 Rodney has ever/never met such friendly people.
8 Has Peter yet/ever played golf?
9 Ed has lived in Russia for/since 1995.
10 Have you ever/never visited Japan?
11 Has Frank left yet/just?
12 I haven' t talked to him since/for days.
6
What has happened? In pairs look at the
pictures and use the phrases to ask and answer
questions, as in the example.
o win medal 0 miss bus 0 lose game
o graduate from university
~ A: Why is he running?
B: He has missed the bus.
45
46
Present Perfect
7
Mario has written a letter to his English pen·
friend. Read the letter and fill in the gaps with
the correct form of the verbs in the present
perfect.
Dear Fred,
HQW are things? I'm sorry I 1) ~ haven't
written (not/write) to you for months but I
2) ....... ...... ... . ...... (be) really busy.
So many things 3) ....................... (happen) to
me since my last letter. I don't know where to
begin! My brother 4) ...................................... .
YllSt/find) a new job, which is great news. He Hkes
it much more than his old one and he earns more
money, too. Also, do you remember my cousin
Karen and her friend 5imon? Well, they 5) .........
........................ . (decide) to get married! They
6) ... ... ..................... ............... (already/choose)
a wedding date. Isn't that wonderful?
As for me, I 7) .......... ................... (not/study)
much for my exams because I 8) ........................ ..
(be) at the swimming pool every day for the last
week. My coach is very happy with me because I
9) ................................ (not/miss) a session so
far this year. Well, if I want to be an Olympic
champion, I must work hard!
Well, that's all my news. Write to me soon with
your news.
Best wishes,
Mario
8
What has happened to each person? Use the
verbs in the list to make sentences.
• study • lose • not! eat • gain
1 Pauline:
~ She's lost her keys.
2 Sally:
I can't find
my keys.
I'm five
kilos heavier.
3 Mario:
4 Roger:
I'm really
hungry.
9
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first . Use up to three
words.
1 I last phoned Helen in April.
I ~ haven't phoned Helen since April.
2 The last time we saw Henry was a week ago.
We ............................... . Henry for a week.
3 It's a month since he went to the cinema.
He ...................... to the cinema for a month.
4 She wrote to Alison in September.
She ...................... to Alison since September.
Speaking
Janet is on holiday in Budapest. Look at her
notes and say what she has already done/
hasn't done yet.
• visit the Royal Palace
• take a boat trip down
the Danube )I.
• buy souvenirs )I.
• try the local dishes ./
• visit the Museum
of Fine Arts )I.
• relax at traditional
coffee houses ./
~ Janet has already visited the Royal Palace.
Writing
Write a letter to your friend telling him/her
your news. Use the present perfect. Use the
letter in Ex. 7 as a model.
Present Perfect Continuous
Form subject + have/has been + verb -i ng
Affirmative
I/ You / We/ They have ('ve) been living
He/ She/ It has ('s) been living
Negative
I/ You / We/ They have not (haven' t) been living
He/ She/ It has not (hasn't) been living
Interrogative
Short Answers
Use
Have I/ you/ we/ they been living?
Has he/ she/ it been living?
Yes, I/ you/ we/ they have.
No, I/you/ we/ they haven' t .
We use the present perfect continuous:
Yes, he/ she/ it has.
No, he/ she/ it hasn't.
• to put emphasis on the duration of an action • to express anger, irritation or annoyance.
which started in the past and continues up to the
present, especially with time expressions such as Have you been
for, since, all morning/day/week, etc. fighting again?
(The speaker
He has been expresses her
painting the house anger.)
all morning.
(He started painting
the house in the
morning and he is
still painting it.)
• for an action which started and finished in the
past and lasted for some t i me. The result of the
action is visible in the present.
He is tired. He has
been walking all
morning.
(The result of the
action is visible in
the present - he is
tired.)
Note: With the verbs feel, live, work and teach,
we can use the present perfect or present
perfect continuous with no difference in
meaning.
He has lived/has been living in London
since 2006.
Time expressions used with the present
perfect continuous: how long, for, since,
lately/ recently
47
1
48
Present Perfect Continuous
Use the verbs to complete the sentences, as in
the example.
• work • paint • surf • study • cook • play
~ They have been
surfing the Net all
morning.
2 ........ .. ........ .... .... . .. .
.... ..... .. ...... .. ...........
since breakfast .
3 ...... ... ............... .. ... .
.... ... .... .. ....... ... ..... ..
since morning.
4 .... .... ...... ... .. .. .... ... ..
... .... ...... ... ....... .. .....
for ten hours.
5 .. . ... .. . .. . . .. . ...... .. .. . .. .
....... .... ...... .... ' .. ... .. . .
since 10 o'clock this
morning.
6 .. .... .... .. .... ..... .. ... .. ..
for two hours now.
2
It's 3 o'clock on Saturday afternoon. Look at
the i nformation and write what the people
have been doi ng and for how long they have
been doing i t, as in the example.
f1tJ:U:r;l
~ ~
Peter 12:30 pm . play computer games
Rachel 12:00 pm shop
Andrew 1:30 pm wash car
Louise 1 :00 pm cook
John 2:30 pm
send text messages
Peter ~ has been playing computer games for two
and a half hours/ since 12:30.
Rachel . .. . ....... ...... .... . . ... ... .... . ...... .... .. .. .. ...... .
. ... ..... ... ..... .... ... ....... ....... ...... ....... ... .. ........ . .
Andrew .. .. ... .......... .. .. . .. . .. . .. . ..... . .. . ... ...... , . . .. . .
..... ...... ... .... ....... .... .. ...... .... ...... ...... ..... .... ....
Louise .... .. ... ..... . .•. .... . . ..... .. •. .. ...... . .• . ..... . .. . .. . .
.... .... ... ........ ..... ...... .. ... .... .... ...... ... ... ...........
John .... . .•. . ... .. .. . .• . ........ .. ... . .. .... •........ . .. . .... ...
. .... ... ..... ....... ... ..... ... .... .... .... ... ......... .. ........ .
3
Imagine the si tuation. Use the verbs in the
present perfect continuous to write
sentences, as in the example .
• redecorate • walk • cry • sneeze
• wait • rain
Jenny's upset.
She ~ 's been crying all evening.
2 He's wet.
He .. .. . ..... . ... .. . ...... .. ... ... ..... .. ... .. ..... .. .... .
in the rain.
3 Paula has a cold.
She . .. . ..... . .. . .. . ........ . . .. .. ...... ...... ..... .. .... .
since yesterday.
4 The house looks nice.
They .. . ... ... .. .. ..... ... . .. . ..... . .. . .... ...... .. .. .. · ·•
it for the last month.
5 The ground is wet.
It ..... ... ..... . .. . .. . ....... •.. .. .. . .... .. .. .. .... . .•.. ...
all morning.
6 They're angry.
They . . ... ..... .. . .. .. .. .... ..... . ........ . .. . ..... . .... . .
in a queue for more than three hours.
Present Perfect vs Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect
We use the present perfect:
• for an action which started in the past and
continues up to the present, especially with stative
verbs such as have, like, knaw,
be, etc. In this case, we often
use for or since.
Diane has had the cat for two
years. (She got the cat two years
ago and she still has it.)
• for an action which has recently finished and
whose result is visible in
the present.
They have just moved
into a new house.
(We can see that they
have moved into a new house as they have just
started unpacking. )
• for an action which happened at an un stated
time in the past. The exact time is not
important, so it is not mentioned. The emphasis
is placed on the action.
The Smiths have bought
a yacht. (When did they buy
it? We don't mention the
exact time because it is not
important . What is important
-- 'r ..
o • o o ~ o .
0·0 I .... ,
is that they've got a new yacht.)
• for an action which happened within a specific time
period that is not over at the moment of speaking.
We often use words and expressions such as today,
this morninglafternoon/weeklmonth/year, etc.
Jessica has sent three faxes
this morning. (It is still
morning, so this period of
time is not over yet. She
may send more faxes . )
• to announce a fact, a piece
of news, etc.
The police have arrested the two criminals.
Time expressions used with the present perfect:
for, since, already, yet, always, just, ever, never, so
far, today, this week/ month, etc, how long, lately,
recently, still (in negations), etc
Present Perfect Continuous
We use the present perfect continuous:
• to put emphaSis on the duration of an action
which started in the past and continues up to the
present , especially with time expressions such
as for, since, all morningl
day/week, etc.
He has been painting
the garage for over
two hours. (He started
painting the garage two hours
ago and he is still painting it.)
• for an action which started in the past and
lasted for some time. The action may have
finished or may still be going on. The result of
the action is visible in the
present.
Mr Taylor looks tired. He has
been working hard all day.
(The result of the action is
visible in the present - he is
tired. )
• to express anger, irritation or annoyance.
Who has been using
my lap top again?
Note: With the verbs feel, live, work and teach,
we can use the present perfect or present
perfect continuous with no difference in
meaning. They have lived/have been living in
Madrid for ten years.
Note: We use the present perfect to put
emphasis on number and the present perfect
continuous to put emphasis on duration.
Study the examples:
I've typed five letters so far.
I've been typing letters all day.
Time expressions used with the present perfect
continuous: for, since, how long, lately, recently
49
50
Present Perfect vs Present Perfect Continuous
1
Match the sentences (1-7) with the correct tense descriptions (a-g).
rn Katie has known Ben for years.
[IIJ John's frustrated. He's been working for
too many hours.
[ID The train has just arrived in the station.
GO Nathan has been gardeni ng for two hours
now.
[ill She has been reading my diary without
asking me!
[1D We have watched two OVOs already
today.
CIIJ They have moved abroad.
2
Put the verbs i n brackets i nto the present
perfect or present perfect continuous.
1 A: Are you still working on your English essay?
B: No. I ...................................... .. ........ .
Uust/finish) it.
2 A: Is Christina still at the gym?
B: Yes. She .. .... .. .... ................ .. ..... .. ... .. .. .
(exercise) all morning.
3 A: Are Georgia and Claire still at the party?
B: No. They ............................ .. .... .. .. .... ..
(already/leave).
4 A: Do you li ke Charlotte?
B: Yes! She's one of the most interesting people I
.. ...................... ............. . (ever/meet).
5 A: Your Italian is very good!
B: Thanks! I .................................. .. .. .. ... .
(learn) it ever since I was ten.
6 A: Is this your first time in France?
B: Yes. We .............................. ... ........... .
(never/be) here before.
7 A: How long .... .. .... .. .. .................... .. ...... .
(you/live) here in Glasgow?
B: For seven months now.
a to put emphasis on the duration of an action which
started in the past and continues up to the present
b to express anger, irritation or annoyance
c to express an action which happened at an unstated
time in the past
d to express an action which started in the past and
lasted for some time. The action may still be
continuing or may already have finished, but it has a
visible result in the present
e to express an action which happened within a specific
period that is not over at the moment of speaking
f to express an action which has recently finished and
whose result is visible in the present
g to express an action which started in the past and
continues up to the present
8 A: You look dreadful!
B: I know. I ................ .. .................. .. .... ..
(not/feel) very well recently.
3
Complete the email below by putting the verbs
in brackets into the present perfect or present
perfect continuous.
Dear Holly,
I'm sorry I 1) ............ .. .. .. ... ......... (noVsend) you an email for
such a long ti me. I have so much to tell you. I 2) ................ ..
. ......... .. ............ ijusVpass) my driving test! My dad 3) ....... ..
.. .......................... (already/buy) me a new car, but he says
that I have to pass my Maths exam next week before I can drive
it, so I 4) ....................................... (study) reall y hard lately .
I 5) ........................ ....... (also/make) a new friend. She lives
next door. Her name is Adriana and she 6) ................ ............... ..
(jusVmove) here from Spain. We have a lot of fun together. I
can't wait for you to meet her.
What 7) .. . ... .... .. ..................................... .. ..... (you/do) lately?
8) ...... ......... ...... ....................... (you/decide) yet ~ you are
coming here for the summer? I hope so!
Write back soon. I can't wait to hear all your news.
Love,
Samantha
Present Perfect vs Present Perfect Continuous
4
Complete the sentences with the verbs in the
list in the present perfect or present perfect
continuous.
• rain • catch • fail • work • study • fish
She's very sad. She ... . . ... .. . .. .
..... . . . .... . ... ....... her exams.
They ...... .. .......... . . ....... . .
. . ...... . .... . all morning.

. ;"
, "
' f ' ~ \ i ' ~ , ' \
, --- !J+ L. :
5 She . ........ .. . .. . .... .. . .. . .. .
as a teacher for ten years.
...... .. .... all day today.
Underline the correct word.
1 How long/since have the children been watching
TV?
2 We haven' t finished already/yet .
3 Have you been doing anything interesting so far/
lately?
4 Has Charlotte recently/always been so good at
Maths?
5 Mathew has already/still been to Los Angeles this
year.
6 Has Jenny found her car keys since/yet?
7 I have ever/never driven such an expensive car
before!
a Have you seen any good films recently/ever?
9 They have taken over 100 photos so far/yet .
He hasn' t lived here since/for 20 years.
6
For each situation use the words in brackets to
ask a question or to make a statement.
You see your friend waiting for the bus. You ask:
(wait long?)
.. Have you been waiting long?
2 Your f riends are going to a rock concert . You ask:
(book tickets?)
3 Your friend asks about your dad' s job. You say:
(work/ doctor/ for years)
4 You see your neighbour driving a new car. You
tell your friend: (buy/ new car)
5 Your friend has got her hair dyed. You ask:
(dye/ hair)
6 You ask your sister why she is crying. She says:
(lose/ ring)
7 Your brother is panting and his face is red. You
ask: (fight?)
8 There's a bank robbery. You ask: (they/ catch
robbers?)
Speaking
Tell your partner:
• two things you have/ haven' t done this week
• two things you have been doing for the last
four years
• two things which have happened in the past
at an unstated time
.. I've tidied my room.
I've been learning English for the last four years.
My parents have bought a new car.
Writing
Write a short email to your Engli sh penfriend,
Jim, telling him your news. Use t he present
perfect and present perfect continuous. Use
the email i n Ex. 3 as a model.
51
52
Present Perfect vs Past Simple
Present Perfect Past Simple
We use the present perfect: We use the past simple:
• for actions which happened at an unstated time • for actions that happened
in the past. at a stated time in the past.
She has hurt her leg. He got his degree last year.
(When? We don't know. The (When? Last year.)
time is not stated.)
• for actions which started in the
past and still continue.
Jenny has worked for this
company for ten years.
(Jenny still works for the same
company. )
• for actions which started and
finished in the past .
Lucy worked for the same
company for thirty yeors.
(Lucy worked there for thirty
years, then she stopped. She
doesn't work there any
more. She has retired. )
We use the present perfect to announce a piece of news and the past simple to give more details about it.
I've just seen the new boss. He came in an hour ago.
Time expressions used with the present perfect:
for, since, yet, already, just, etc
Time expressions used with the past simple: ago,
yesterday, last week/ month/ year / Friday, etc
1 Put the verbs in brackets into the p , ent perfect or past simple.
A: Katie ~ has bought (buy) a new car, hasn't
she?
B: Yes. She .. . ....... .. ......... (buy) a silver BMW
last week.
2 A: I ............... (not/feel) well since last week.
B: Well , ... . .. .. .... .. . . .................. .. (you/see)
a doctor yet?
3 A: .. ... . . .. .... .................... (you/talk) to Jim?
B: No, he ......... . . .. •. .. .... (go) to the bank. He
................ .. .......... (not/come) back yet.
4 A: .. .. .. .. .... ...... .. .... ...... ...... (you/have) any
news from Bob and Tina?
B: Yes. They .................................... (call)
me from Spain last night.
5 A: ......................................... (you/send)
that job application off yet?
B: Yes, I .................... (post) it this morning.
6 A: How long ...... .. ..... ......... .... ...... ........... .
(you/be) here?
B: We .......................... . .. ... .. .... . (be) here
since 8 0 ' clock.
7 A:
(you/ever/been) to Italy?
B: Many times. In fact , I ....................... (be)
there last week.
8 A: .. . ...... .. ...................... (you/see) James?
He . ................ (say) he wanted to see me.
B: Actually, he .. .. ........ .... .. .. .... ......... . .... ..
Uust/leave).
Present Perfect vs Past Simple
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
perfect or past simple.
Hi , Betty. I 1) ~ haven't seen (not/see) you for
ages.
B: That 's because I 2) .. . . ..... . .... (be) away for
the past few months. Sorry, I 3) ........... . ..... .
(think) you knew.
A: No one 4) .. ......... ... .. .. . . ... (tell) me. Where
did you go?
B: I 5) ........... . .. ..... ..... . (go) to France.
A: What was it like? I 6) ......................... ...•..
(never/be) there before.
B: I really 7) ........................ (enjoy) myself.
It was so different to England!
8) .... . ...... . .................. .. ......... (you/visit)
t he Eiffel Tower while you were there?
B: Oh yes, it was the most amazing thing I
9) .................... . ........... (ever/see) . What
10) .. . ............... . .... (you/be) up to?
Nothing as exciting as that! I 11) ... ....... . . .
.................... (just/finish) my exams.
B: That's good. Do you have any plans for the
summer?
Yes, I 12) .............•................... (just/buy)
a plane ticket to Madrid. I'm planning to go and
stay with my cousin Pedro for a month.
B: That 's good. Pedro is a lot of fun . Send me an '
email when you have some time.
OK, I will. Speak t o you soon.
3 Underline the correct i tem.
1 Jenny has come/came back from her holiday in
Tahiti yesterday.
2 The Robinsons don' t live here any more. They
moved/have moved to Liverpool two years ago.
3 Mitchell left/has left for the airport three hours
ago.
4 When we were on holiday, we have walked/
walked for two hours every day.
5 Anna has decided/decided that from now on she
will recycle paper and plastic.
6 Alex didn't make/hasn' t made any plans for his
birthday yet.
7 The children saw/have seen lots of exotic
animals at the zoo last Monday.
8 When John has heard/heard the joke, he couldn' t
stop laughing.
4 Correct the mistakes.
1 l .GIllf already cleaned my room.
2 Have they ever see a lion?
3 We have moved here two years ago.
4 They have make a lot of money.
5 Tom hasn' t fi nished his lunch just.
6 My mum's just came back from China.
7 My dad has went fishing.
8 Have you ever travel to Egypt?
9 Ben and I get married last year.
10 Jenny is lived in Germany for five
years now.
~ h a v e
5 In pairs, act out dialogues, as in the example.
• go abroad (where)
• meet a famous person (who)
• travel by boat (when)
• be in hospital (why)
~ A: Have you ever been abroad?
B: Yes, I have.
A: Where did you go?
B: I went to Canada. ete
53
54
Present Perfect vs Past Simple
6 Match the items in column A to those in column B to make sentences.
A
1 I
d
They didn' t go to Spain
21
Jenny stayed at home
3 Have you ever been
4 Chris hasn't spoken
5 Kelly lived i n London
6 I haven't travelled
7 She finished her homework
1
8 Ted has called you
7
Circle the mistake and then correct it, as in
the example.
Mr Thomson played football for a big team when
A
he ha@ een younger. ~ was
2 They have gone to the USA last summer and
A
brought back a lot of souvenirs. . ......... . . .. ... .
B
3 Chris never used a computer before, so he asked
A B
me to help him. . .......................•
4 Steven and Dora bought a new puppy and have
A B
brought it home yesterday ................ .
5 A: It has started rai ning an hour ago.
A
B: Yes, but it has stopped now ...... ...... . ..... .
B
6 Austin worked for our company for six years. He has
A B
been here since he finished uni versity ......... .
7 A: I called you last night, but you weren't home.
A
B: I have been at the cinema.
B
I a
\ c
I d
\ e
I f
\ g
B
to Tokyo?
to Paul for weeks.
for f ive years before she moved.
last summer.
all morning to tidy her room.
an hour ago.
twice this morning.
abroad since 2000.
8 I have tried waterskiing, but I haven't been good
A B
at it. ...... .. ... ..... ........... .
9 The bookshop NlQ two hundred copies of this
A
new book since it this morning.
B
10 They haven't see each other since December
A
when they met at John's party .......... . ......... .
B
8 Circle the correct item.
1 I've ...... posted the letters.
A yet C ever
B just D for
2 Have you ...... been to Rome?
A yet C ever
B just D for
3 Tina hasn ' t finished her exams ...... .
A yet C already
B just D for
4 ...... you seen Philip yet?
A Did C Have
B Does DAre
Present Perfect vs Past Simple
They have been friends .. . . .. three years.
A ever C for
B since 0 already
.. . .. . you go out yesterday?
A Do C Did
B Does o Have
She ... . .. a lot of pictures so far.
A took C takes
B has taken o was taking
Peter .. .... the newspaper, then he went to bed.
A read C was reading
Breads 0 has read
Jim ... .. . married last week.
A gets C is getting
B got 0 has got
Have you heard from Peter ... . . . ?
A already C never
B ever o yet
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first . Use up to three
words.
It last rained three weeks ago.
It ~ hasn' t rained for three weeks.
I saw George last Monday.
I . .... .... . .. .. .... .. ... ........ ... . .... .. . George since
last Monday.
Sally hasn' t played tennis for two years.
Sally last ... .. . ..... .. . . .......... . ..... ... . .. ...... .. .. .
two years ago.
It's been three weeks since I last spoke to Jim.
I . . .. . ... .... . . . .. .... ... . ...... ...... .. ... .. ..... . to Jim
for three weeks.
The last time he acted was fi ve years ago.
He . .. .. . . ... . .. . ...... ... .. . .... .. ... .. . for fi ve years.
David hasn't called his brother since Friday.
David last . .......... ..... . . ... .. . ......... his brother
on Friday.
They came at 5 o' clock and they' re still here.
They .. .. ... . . .... ... . .. . .. . ....... ... .... .. .... . .. since
5 o'clock.
Ben is still decorating the house.
Ben . .. .. . . . .. ....... ..... .. . . ... .. .. . ... . ... decorating
the house yet.
Speaking
a) Work i n pairs. Ask your partner questions
to complete the questi onnai re .
Place of birth: .... .. ....... .. ........ ................ .. .
Learning Engl ish since: .. .. ............................ .. ... .. ..
Countries visited: ... ... .... .. ............ .... ............. ... ...... .
How many times this month ...
• go to the cinema?
• go to the beach?
• help with the housework?
• visit grandparents?
• play computer games?
~ A: What 's your name?
B: ...... .... .. ... .
A: When were you born?
b) Use the completed questionnaire to
present your partner to the class.
~ ........ .. ... was born on .. .. .. ...... . . ............. was
born in .... ...... .. . . .. ........ ... started learning
English in ........ .. .. .. ........ ..... has visited
...... ...... . and .......... ... . This month, ...... .... .. .
has been to the cinema ...... .... ... . ete
Writing
Use the questionnaire from the Speaking
activity to write a short profile about your
partner.
55
(Units 6-9)
1
• Present PerfecUPresent Perfect
Continuous
a) Read the article below and find examples
of:
• actions which happened at an unstated
time in the past • actions which started in
the past and still continue • experiences
• an action which started in the past and
continues up to the present with emphasis on
duration
What tenses are used? What time expressions
go with these tenses?
b) What other uses of these tenses can you
think of? Give examples.
As a travel writer, I have been on many different
types of holiday before, but nothing compares to
the time I have spent so far at Necker Island in the
British Virgin Islands. I have been staying here for a
week now and let's just say that I don't want to go
home! It all started last week, when my boss asked
me to visit this wonderful island to write an article
about how the rich and famous spend their holidays.
She didn't need to ask me twice! I went home,
packed my bags and drove to the airport!
British tycoon, Richard Branson, has owned the
island for around 20 years now. In this time, he has
spent a fortune turning it into a small paradise.
Having a whole island to yourself doesn't come
cheap though. The island has accommodation for 24
people, and it is all yours for the bargain price of
46,000 dollars a night. For many years now, Necker
Island has been a favourite destination of the rich
and famous. A lot of celebrities have stayed here,
including Princess Diana, Mariah Carey and Oprah
Winfrey.
So, what have I done so far? Well, I have already
walked around the island and have taken lots of
pictures. I have also swum at the gorgeous beaches.
I have done a lot of water sports, from scuba diving
to deep·sea fishing. I have to say that if money is no
object, you must put it on your list of places to go.
• Present Perfect vs Past Simple
2
Name the tenses of the verbs in bold in the
sentences (1-3) and then match them to their
uses (a-c). Find examples of each in the article.
[ill We had fish for dinner last night .
0::J I've lived here since 2004.
Q:IJ He worked at that bank for five years.
a an action which started in the past and still
continues in the present
b an action which happened at a stated time i n the
past
c an action which started and finished in the past
3
Put the verbs in brackets into the present
perfect, the past simple or present perfect
continuous.
Roger ..... ... . . . .. .. .. .. . . (go) to a football match
yesterday.
2 My brother . .... . ....... . .... ... . . ... .. . ... .. . . (learn)
to play the piano since he was eleven.
3 I ... . .. . . ..................... . .... .. .. . .. . . (just/read)
this book. It's very interesting.
4 .. ......... . . ..... .......... ...... . ..... .. . (Mark/paint)
the kitchen yet?
5 Ben .......... ...... .... .......... . . .. .... (live) in this
house for ten years now.
6 The train .... .. .. . . ... .. ........... . . (arrive) at the
station at 5 o'clock yesterday.
7 She ... ... ........ .. . ..... .... .. ... .. (exercise) since
8:00 and now she's exhausted.
8 We ........ . .. . . .. . ..... . . ...... (not/see) Billy for a
long time.
9 They . . . ....... .. ... ... .. . .... . . .. ... ..... . (graduate)
from university four years ago.
10 We . .. . . .. .. . ..... . . . ........ ... . .. . . ... . . (be) friends
since we were children.
4 Underline the correct item.
1 My sister has just/ever joined a gym.
2 I haven't been feeling well for/since Monday.
3 Tom has been in Madrid for/since two weeks.
4 Nancy has already/ever bought new shoes for
the party.
5 Have you yet/ever tasted Indian food?
1
(ircle the correct item.
....... you go to the party yesterday?
A Do B Did
(
Does
2 Emma's the girl .. . .... spent the summer in Japan.
A which B who ( where
3 Katie and Ollie .. . .... three art galleries so far.
A have visited B visited (visits
4 We .. ..... to the cinema last night.
A go B have gone (went
5 I have lived in England ....... I was nine.
A for B since ( ever
6 Have you ever .... .. . to Disneyland?
A be B gone ( been
7 She ....... in this museum for ten years.
A has worked B worked (works
8 She screamed ...... . she saw a spider.
A until B when ( while
9 I usually .... ... out with my friends after school.
A hang B have hung (am hanging
10 Sarah waited at the bus stop ....... the bus came.
A until B after ( as soon as
11 Anna was driving to York when she ....... an
accident.
A has B has had (had
12 David ....... us breakfast yesterday.
A makes B has made (made
13 Our teacher asked ....... why we were late.
A us B our ( we
14 She likes hotels . . ..... have a swimming pool.
A who B which ( where
15 The children ....... go to the opera. They don' t
like it.
A never B usually
(
always
16 Why ....... you keep my secret? Now everyone
knows!
A didn't B don't
(
haven't
17 He ....... skiing in the past.
A has tried B try
(
tries
18 They ....... to (airo tomorrow morning.
A are going B went
(
have gone
19 How long ....... Nina worked for that company?
A is B was
(
has
20 This is the best book I've ....... read.
A never B ever
(
since
21 Have you ..... .. tried sushi?
A yet B never
(
ever
Revision (Units 1-9)
22 She ...... . to Portugal tomorrow.
A is flying B flies
(
flew
23 They've been here . ..... . a week.
A since B yet
(
for
24 Have you ....... Steve yet?
A meet B met ( meeting
25 This book isn't . . .... .. It's Laura's.
A my B mine ( me
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
(omplete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
1 I was born here.
I have lived .............................. I was born.
2 Believe it or not, it is still raining.
Unbelievable! It hasn't ........ .. ................ yet.
3 LEGO bricks became a children's favourite many
years ago.
LEGO bricks ........................ . ..... a children's
favourite for many years.
4 Is this your first visit to Edinburgh?
Have you ......................... Edinburgh before?
5 I started working as a lifeguard ten years ago.
I ....................... as a lifeguard for ten years.
6 Would you li ke to go out this weekend?
How about ............................ this weekend?
7 I last saw him two days ago,
I haven't ................... . .. . .. . ..... ..... two days.
8 My daughter is on holiday in Spain at the
moment.
9
10
My daughter has ................................ Spain
for her holiday.
When did he last write to you?
How long has it ...... ........... .............. he last
wrote to you?
Why did you tell my secret?
Why didn't ......................... ...... my secret?
(
Mark: _ )
10x3 30
( Total : 80 )
57
58
1
Past Continuous vs Past Simple
We use the past simple:
• for an action which was completed at a
stated time in the past.
Tom had his first birthday last week. (The
time is stated. The action was completed.)
• for actions which happened immediately
one after the other in the past.
First, she paid the taxi driver and then she
got out of the taxi.
Time expressions used with the past simple:
ago, yesterday, last month/week, in 1998, etc
We use the past continuous:
• for an action which was in progress at a stated time in I
the past. We do not know when the action started or
finished.
At 8 o' clock this morning,
they were having breakfast.
• for two or more actions which
were happening at the same
t i me in the past (simultaneous
actions) .
He was drinking coffee while
he was driving.
• for a past action which was in
progress when another action
interrupted it.
He was walking home when his mobile rang. (The
action in progress - was
walking - was i nterrupted by
another action - rang. )
Time expressions used with the past continuous:
while, when, as, all day/night/morning, all day
yesterday, etc
a) Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or
the past continuous.
b) Form complete questions to match
the answers.
1 Where/ commercial jetlfly to?
A: .......... ................................ . . _.
B: From Madrid to Paris.
A commercial jet that 1) ~ was flying (fly) from Madrid to Paris
2 What/the officials/ tell / the reporters?
2) ... . ................... (make) an emergency landing at Barcelona Airport
last night. Officials 3) .............................. (tell) reporters that smoke
4) ..................... .............. (come) from the engine soon after take-off. The
pilot 5) .............................. (try) to contact air traffic control, but couldn't at
first. At 10:59 pm he finally got through and 6) ............................. (tell)
them that he 7) ...... ..................... (experience) engine problems.
He 8) ....... .................... (land) the plane safely at 11 :26 pm. None of the
129 passengers on board were injured or 9) ......................... (need)
medical treatment. One passenger. Jamie Simons. told the reporters "We
10) ......................... (be) scared, but no one 11) .. ........................ (panic).
The pilot and crew 12) .......................... (keep) us all calm."
A: ...... ......... . ............................. .
B: There were problems soon after take-
off.
3 How many passengers/ be/ on board?
A: ................. ............................ .
B: 129 passengers.
4 When and where/the pilot / land/plane?
A: .................. . .......................... .
B: At Barcelona airport at 11 :26 pm.
Past Continuous vs Past Simple
Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple
or the past continuous.
A: What 1) ~ happened (happen) to you?
B: I 2) .................... (faU) off the ladder while
I 3) ......................... (clean) the windows.
2 A: Where 1).................. ........ .. ... (you/be)
yesterday afternoon? I 2) ........................ .
(eaU) you, but there 3) ........................ .
(be) no answer.
B: 14) .................... .... (be) at home, but you
5) .................. ............ .. (probably/ring)
me while I 6) .. .. ............................ (cut)
the grass outside in the garden. Why?
A: I 7) ...... ................... (have) nothing to do,
so I 8) ......................... (think) we could
go to the cinema.
3 A: There 1).................... .. ... (be) a power
cut last night.
B: Yes, I know. I 2) ................................ .. ..
(surf) the Net when the lights 3) ., ............ ..
(go) out.
4 A: So what 1) ........ ................. (happen)?
B: We 2) .............. ............... (walk) through
the woods when we 3) .................... .. .. .
(hear) someone scream.
Underline the correct item.
Susan was driving/drove to work when she was
g e t t i n g / ~ a flat tyre.
2 He was leaving/left work and was going/went
straight to the train station.
3 She was walking/walked in the park when a dog
was attacking/attacked her.
4 I was riding/rode my bike in the park when it
was starting/started to rain.
5 It was snowing/snowed aU day yesterday, so we
were not playing/did not play outside.
6 At 7 o' clock this morning, she was making/made
breakfast for her family.
7 She was listening to music while she cooked/was
cooking dinner.
8 Tom turned/was turning 16 last Friday.
4
Claire caUed the fire brigade after she saw a
fire in the building next door. After the fire, a
firefighter questioned Claire about what
happened. Put the verbs in brackets into the
past simple or past continuous.
F: Where 1) ~ were you
(you/be) when you first
2) .......................... .
(notice) the fire?
C: I 3) .......... ............ .... ..
(be) in my kitchen and I
4) ........ ................ .. .. .... .
(cook) dinner for my husband.
F: 5) ............................... (you/see)
the fire from your kitchen window?
C: Yes. I 6) ...................... ..... (take) something
out of the oven when I 7) ................ ........ ..
(hear) a loud explosion. I 8) ...... ...... ........ ..
(run) to the window and 9) ................ ...... ..
(look) outside. I 10) ........................... (see)
flames coming from the 1 st floor of the building.
People 11)................................... (shout)
and 12) ............ ........ .......... (run) out of the
building.
F: What 13) ........................... (you/do) then?
C: I 14) ...... .............. .............. (eaU) the fire
brigade immediately.
F: Thank you.
5
Circle the mistake (A or 8) and then correct it,
as in the example.
1 Mary was talking on the phone when the doorbeU
A
was ringing. ~ rang
®
2 Peter was studying when his sister was listening
A B
to music ......................... ..
3 Laura was ooening the door and walked into the
A B
house . ...... .... .. .. .......... ..
59
60
Past Continuous vs Past Simple
4 While we were on holiday, we
A
were spending most of the day
B
lying on the beach ............. .. .. ..
5 At 8 pm last night, Tony was cooking
A
dinner while Eric watched TV.
B
6 While Liz was planting roses, Bill
A
washed the car ................. ..
B
6
Complete the sentences with
your own words.
I was watching TV when ~ the
earthquake happened.
2 While Fiona was cooking dinner,
3 As they were talking, ...... ....... ..
4 Beth was studying while .. ........ ..
5 Tom turned on the radio .......... .
7
Complete the second sentence so
that it means the same as the
first. Use up to three words.
1 Jason and Katie started playing
tennis at 10 am and finished at 12
pm.
Jason and Katie ~ were playing
tennis from 10 am until 12 pm.
2 John waited for five minutes
before Sally arrived.
Sally .. .... .. . ..... .. .... . . ... ...... ... .
just five minutes after John.
3 She was eating her dinner when
the phone rang.
While she ............ .. ............ .. .
...... ...... dinner, the phone rang.
4 The children were still sleeping when we arrived.
We arrived ........ ........ .... .. .................. .... ...... .. ... . were
still sleeping.
5 As Ben was sleeping last night, someone stole his bicycle.
Ben was sleeping last night ..... ......... . .... . .... . . . .... . . .. ..... .. .
his bicycle.
Speaking
Look at the pictures. In pairs, prepare a short story. Tell the
class. Think about:
• people • place • weather
• what happened • people's feelings
Use these verbs/phrases: surf, attack, lie down, swim fast ,
see, come to save.
~ It was a beautiful sunny Sunday morning. Steve and Paul were
having fun surfing in the sea .. .
Writing
Use the information from the Speaking activity to write a
news report for the school magazine (50-80 words). Use
Ex. 1 a as a model.
Past Perfect - Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
Form subject + had + past participle
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
Short Answers
Use
lIyou/ he, etc had left
I/ you/ he, etc hadn' t left
Had I/you/ he, etc left?
Yes, I/you / he, etc had.
No, I/you / he, etc hadn' t .
We use the past perfect:
• for an action which happened before another
past action or before a stated time in the past.
He had already gone to bed
when his dad came home.
(He went to bed first and
then his dad came.)
• for an action which finished in the past and
whose result was visible in the past.
When I saw Peter yesterday he
was happy. He had won the
lottery. (The action finished in
the past and its result was
visible in the past, too. )
Note: The past perfect is the past equivalent of the
present perfect.
a) She had broken her leg, so she couldn't walk.
(The action 'had broken' happened in the past,
and the result 'couldn't walk' was visible in the
past, too.)
b) She has broken her leg, so she can't walk. (The
action 'has broken' happened in the past, and the
result ' can' t walk' is still visible in the present.)
TIme expressions used with the past perfect:
before, after, already, for, since, just, tilll
until, when, by, by the time, never, etc
Past Perfect Cont inuous
Form subject + had been + verb ·ing
Affirmative I/you/ he, etc had been working
Negative I/you/ he, etc hadn't been working
Interrogative Had I/ you / he, etc been working?
Yes, I/ you / he, etc had.
Short Answers
No, I/ you / he, etc hadn't.
Use
We use the past perfect continuous:
• to put emphasis on the duration of an action which
started and finished in the past before another
past action or a stated time in the past, usually
with since or for.
They had been saving
money far eight years
before they managed
to buy a house.
• for an action which lasted for some time in the
past and whose result
was visible in the past .
She had been studying all
day, so she was tired.
(She spent all day
studying and, as a result ,
she was tired. )
Note: The past perfect continuous is the past
equivalent of the present perfect continuous.
a) He had been driving for hours, so he was tired.
(The action ' had been driving' lasted for some
time in the past and we could see the result ' was
tired' in the past, too. )
b) He has been driving for hours, so he is tired.
(The action ' has been driving' happened in the
past, and we can still see the result 'is tired' in
the present. )
Time expressions used with the past perfect
continuous: for, since, how long, before, until , etc
61
62
Past Perfect - Past Perfect Continuous
1
Complete the sentences using the past perfect.
1 The children ~ had done (do) t heir homework by
the time their mum came home.
2 The thieves ......... ............. ... ................... ..
(already/run away) when the police arrived.
3 She ........................................ (just/finish)
her homework when I arrived.
4 Robert .. . . . .................... .. ........... (not/hear)
from Maria for ages before she called him.
5 After she ............. ... ........... ... (hang out) the
washing, it started to rain.
6 She ................. ..... .. . . ........ ... (tidy) her room
before John came back home.
2
Complete the sentences using the past perfect
continuous.
Jane ~ had been working (work) at this company
for 35 years before she retired.
2 They ....... . ...................... ......... (practise)
for months before they went on tour.
3 My family ........... ........... ..... (live) in France
for a long time before they moved to Greece.
4 We .. . ....... ....... ... ........ ..... ..... . .. (clean up)
all morning before the party started.
5 I ... ... .. ...................... .... .. ...... ..... (dance)
for a long time with them before I quit the group.
6 Tony ..... ...... . .. . ....... ........ ............ (run) in
the rain. That was why he was soaking wet.
3
Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect
or past perfect continuous.
A: Was John at the party?
B: No, he ............ .. . ......... .... . ...... . ....... .. ..
(leave) before we arrived.
2 A: Why was Peter so tired last night?
B: He .. ......... .... .............. ...... ... ............ .
(work) since 10 o' clock in the morning.
3 A: Did you go to the cinema with Steve last night?
B: No, I ..... .. ...... .......... ........... ............ .. .
(see) the film before.
4 A: Why was Tony crying?
B: He ............. ... ....... . .. ... .. .......... . . (lose)
his favourite teddy bear.
5 A: Did you see the kids?
B: No, they ...... ................ .. . ........ . .... . .... .
(go) to bed when we arrived.
6 A: Why were his clothes dirty?
4
B: He ......... ..... ........................ . .......... ..
(play) football· at the park.
Complete the sentences using the past perf ect
or past perfect continuous.
Richard ~ had just finished (just/finish) when
we came home.
2 ......... ......... ......................... (they/paint)
the house all day yesterday?
3 Sylvia and Tom .. ... .... . ...... . .... ............. . ... ..
(plan) their holiday for three months before they
left.
4 Joanna ........ ... ....... ................... .... (work)
here for ten years before she quit.
5 The secretary ...... ...... ................ ..... .... .... .
(not/write) all the letters by noon.
6 How long ............ ......... .. ............... ..... .... .
(youllive) in Canada before you moved to France?
5
Fill in the gaps with one of the verbs from the
list in the past perfect or past perfect
continuous.
• see • lose • work • listen • revise • wait
Margaret was sad because she ~ had lost her dog
and couldn't find it.
2 Gregory was angry because he
. ..... ................ ..... ........... for his f riend for
over an hour.
3 Scott was tired because he ........ . .... .. . ... .•... .
... ............................. all day.
4 Fran had a headache because her brother
. ..... ...... .............................. to loud music
the whole afternoon.
5 Harry was frightened because he
. ............................... a ghost.
6 Isabel was exhausted because she ............... . .
....... .................... for her test all afternoon.
Past Simple - Past Continuous - Past Perfect
The past simple is used for actions
which happened immediately one
after the other in the past.
The past continuous is used for a
past action which was in progress
when another action interrupted it.
The past perfect is used for an
action which happened before
another past action.
They came back home from work
and cooked dinner. (They came
back home and then they cooked.)
Sue was cooking dinner when
Paul came home from work. (Sue
was still cooking dinner when Paul
came home.)
Helen had already cooked dinner
when Pete came home from
work. (Helen cooked dinner first.
Pete came home afterwards.)
6
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense.
Last Sunday, Tony 1) ................................ (decide) to
spend the day at the seaside. The day 2) ..... ... ............ .
(be) beautiful. The sun 3) .... ....... ...... ........ ....... (shine)
as he 4) ...... ........... ....... .. .. .... (reach) the beach. He
5) .......................... ...... (get out) of his car and
6) ....... ........ ......... ....... . (walk) along the beach. Some
people 7) .......... ....... ............. ... . (sit) and 8) ......... .......... .
(have) a picnic. Their kids 9) ... .............. .. ................... .
(play) in the sand. Tony 10) .: ......... ... .. .... ........ .... (help)
the kids make a sandcastle, then they 11) .......... .......... ..
(walk) to a nearby restaurant and 12) .. .................... .
(have) lunch. While they 13) .. .......... ...... .... .... ...... (eat),
Tony 14) ...... ................ .. .... ... (hear) a voice from behind
him calling his name. He 15) ...... .. ...... ............. . (turn)
around to see who it was. A tall man with a friendly smile
16) .............. ............ ......... (stand) behind him. Within
seconds, Tony 17) .............. .... .. ............. (realise) he was
his neighbour, Steve. Steve 18) .. .. .. ............................. .
(leave) their town to work abroad. Tony 19) .................. ..
........ ........... (not/hear) from him since then. Now, he
20) .... .... .............. .. .... .. .. (stand) there, and he 21) .... .... .
............ ...... . (smile) at him.
-
7
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense, past simple, past continuous or past
perfect.
1 A: What .............. .... ................ .. . (you/do)
at eleven o' clock yesterday morning?
B: I .................... .. .............. .. .. .. (work) in
the garden. I .. .. .. .. ... .. .... ... .. .. ...... (help)
my mum while she .. .. ...... .. ... .. .. .... .... .... .
(plant) some flowers.
2 A: ............ .. .... ........ ...... .. .. .... (you/enjoy)
the film last night?
B: No, despite the good reviews I ............... ..
(read) about it. It .. .... ............... .. .... (be)
unimaginative.
3 A: You ............ .. ........ (do) well in your tests.
Congratulations!
B: Thanks. I ............................. .. .. .. .. .. ... ..
(study) very hard for them.
Writing
Write a short story entitled " A great surprise" •
Use the text in Ex. 6 as a model.
63
64
(Units 10-1 I)
1
• Past Simple - Past Continuous
a) Read the text below. Underli ne the verbs in
the past simple and circle the verbs in the
past continuous. Which past simple verbs
are regular? Which are irregular? How do
we form the negative and interrogative of
the past simple and past continuous?
Two teenagers are recovering in hospital after
their boat sank on Friday afternoon. When they
left to go sailing on Friday morning, the sun was
shining and the sea was calm, but all that was
about to change as the boys had forgotten to '
check the weather reports the night before.
As they were sailing in deep water a mile
from the beach, the weather suddenly changed.
The sky was turning grey and it was becoming
windy when the boys realised they should
perhaps get back to the shore. However, a
huge wave pushed their boat onto some
rocks. The boat sank immedi ately and the
boys fell into the water.
The boys had been sitt ing on the rocks
all afternoon, so they were cold and ti red.
When the boys hadn't come home for
dinner, their parents called the coastguard.
They had been searching for a while when
they heard somebody screaming. The
boys had seen the rescue boat and
immediately started shouting. After the
boys had got into the rescue boat, they
were happy to be safe and promised to
always check the weather before they
took the boat out again.
b) Match the verbs to their uses:
• an action which was completed at a stated time
in the past
• a past action which was in progress when anot her
action interrupted it
• actions which happened immediately one after
the other
2
Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or
past continuous.
Sam .................... .... . .. (spend) all his money
at the shops yesterday.
2 My brother .. . ........................ (fall) down the
stairs and hurt his arm.
3 Do you know who .. .. ........ .. .. .... ......... (go) to
Jill 's party last weekend?
4 What ................. ... .. .. .......... (you/do) when
the earthquake happened?
5 Our neighbours ............... .. . (work) in the garden
all day yesterday, while we ... . .... .. ............... ... ..
(paint) the fence.
• Past Perfect - Past Perfect
Continuous
3
Find the verbs in the text which are in the past
perfect and past perfect continuous. Which
tense shows:
4
a) an action which happened before another past
action or before a stated time in the past?
b) an action which lasted for some time in the
past and whose result we could see in the past?
c) the duration of an action which started and
finished in the past before another past
action or a stated time in the past?
Underline the correct item.
Mark had been playing/had played the drums since
six o' clock that evening.
2 How long had you known/had you been knowing
about this situation?
3 Cathy hadn't expected/hadn't been expecting the
food to be so good.
4 I had cooked/had been cooking dinner before I
went shopping.
1
Circle the correct item.
1 I ....... my grandma last weekend.
A was visiting B visited C am visiting
2 What is the name of the river ....... flows through
London?
A which B who
3 Do you have today's newspaper?
Yes! I ....•.. it this morning.
C where
A am buying B bought C was buying
4 Where's Natasha? She's ... .. . . in the garden.
A playing B plays C played
5 Do you want to see .... ... holiday photographs?
Amy Bme Cl
6 I like people ....... are nice and friendly.
A where B which C who
7 Sam ....... breakfast when the phone rang.
A is having B was having Chad
8 We ....... dinner in half an hour.
A are having B had C have
9 That's the restaurant ....... he had his party!
A who B where C which
10 They ....... to Greece on holiday last year.
A go B went C were going
11 I promise to call you ....... I finish my homework.
A while B until C as soon as
12 Do you ....... pop music?
A liked B like C liking
13 He ....... walking his dog when it started to rain.
A were B was C is
14 We ....... our friends for lunch yesterday.
A met B meet C was meeting
15 She ....... tells lies. She's a very honest person.
A usually B always C never
16 We ... .... out tonig·ht. Do you want to come?
A are going B go C is going
17 She was dirty because she ....... in the mud.
A had been playing B played
C has played
18 Tom ....... eats chicken. He doesn't like it.
A always B never C often
19 What time ... .... he come home last night?
A did B do C does
20 Susan ... .... at the moment.
A is studying B studies C studied
21 Ann was sleeping ....... Laura was watering the
plants.
A while B until C whenever
Revision (Units I-I I)
22 She left an hour .... . .. .
A last B before C ago
23 How long ....... English for?
A you have studied B does you study
C have you been studying
24 ....... people were at the party?
A How far B How many C How much
25 Look at ....... ! She's gorgeous.
A she B her C hers
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first . Use up to three
words.
1 I woke up to the sound of rain this morning.
It ....... ............................. when I woke up
this morning.
2 It took the bus half an hour to arrive.
The bus finally .................................. after
half an hour.
3 That was the first time I'd ever seen a tortoise.
I .................................. a tortoise before.
4 Tom did the washing-up before Ann got home.
By the time Ann got home, Tom .................. ..
.................. the washing-up.
5 The accident happened at 8 am.
The accident ...................... ... place at 8 am.
6 He drives very carelessly.
He's . ................. . ...... ... .... ........... .. driver.
7 I really hate documentaries.
I can't ................................ documentaries.
8 I am five kilos heavier than last month.
I have .... _ ............................ five kilos since
last month.
9 The dishes were still dirty when she got home.
Nobody ................ ........ ............. the dishes
before she got home.
10 It wasn't until his last film that he became
successful.
He hadn't had ................................ before
his last film.
(
Mark: )
10x3 30
( Total: 80 )
65
66
Will
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
I/You/He/ ShelltlWe/They will/'II walk
IIYou/He/Shell tlWe/They will not/won't walk
Willllyou/he/she/itlwe/they walk?
Short Answers
Yes, lIyou/he/ she/itlwe/they will.
No, lIyou/he/she/itlwe/they won't.
Form
• We form the future simple with will + bare infinitive. Will is the same for all persons.
"11 go to France this summer.
She'll make a cake this afternoon.
• We form questions by putting will before the subject.
Will you watch the football match tomorrow?
• We form negations by putting not after will . The short form of will not is won't .
The children will not/won't like this toy.
Use
We use will :
• for on-the-spot decisions.
This necklace
is beautiful.
"11 buy it.
• to make predictions based on what we think or
imagine.
Her teacher thinks
she'll be a great pianist
one day.
• for threats or warnings.
Stop talking or
I'll send you out.
• for actions/events/situations which will definitely
happen in the future and which we cannot control.
Ann will be two years old next month.
• for promises.
"11 help you
with your
homework.
• with the verbs hope, think, believe, expect, etc.
, believe he' ll be here on time.
• with the adverbs probably, perhaps, etc.
He'll probably be late tonight.
• with the expressions I'm sure, I'm afraid, etc.
"m afraid we
won't be on time
for the meeting.
Time expressions used with will: in a (little)
while, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in two/
three days' time, next week/month/year, tonight,
soon, this evening, in a week/month/year, etc
1
Read the sentences below and mark them as a,
b or c according to what they express.
a prediction based on what we think or imagine
b promise
c on-the-spot decision
1 I'm thirsty. I' ll buy an orange juice. ~ c
2 Don't worry Mum, I'll be careful.
3 I think he'll be back before midnight.
4 People will live in underwater cities in
2088.
5 Without a doubt, Tony will like the blue
jacket best.
6 I thi nk you will enjoy this show.
7 Is that the phone? I' ll get it!
8 I' ll do my best to win this competition.
Match the items, as in the example.
e will win a won't go
b ' 11 be
c ' 11 open
d ' 11 have f won' t come
Leave now or you .. ... .. late.
I' m afraid he ..... .. tomorrow.
;:::;:;::::; Tidy your room or you . .. ___ . out .
;:;:;::::; It's hot. I ....... the window.
~ ; : : : : ; I'm thirsty. I ....... a glass of water.
'--'-------' He thinks his team . .. . .. . the game.
Answer the questio(ls about yourself using I think,
I hope, I believe, I expect, probably or perhaps,
as in the example.
Who will you vote for to be class president?
~ I think I'll vote for Katie.
2 What will you buy your mother for her birthday?
3 Where will you be at 4 o'clock t omorrow
afternoon?
4 When will you next visit your grandparents?
5 Where will you go on holiday?
4
Will
Sonia, a famous psychic, has given
her predicti ons for the year 2030.
Put the words in the correct
order to form her predictions.
America/ an/ earthquake/ city / a/
will / hit/in
~ An earthquake will hit a city
in America.
2 the/ tsunami / huge/ islands/ a/ will /
hit/in/ Pacific
3 engineerslflying/ develop/ cars/will
4 be / volcanic / will / there / eruption /large / a
5 housework/robots/ our/ do/ will / all
6 die of / serious/ people/ won't/diseases
5
a) In pairs, ask and answer questions, as i n the
example.
1 go to the cinema/weekend?
~ A: Will you go to the cinema at the weekend?
8: Yes, I will. I'll go with my friends. /
No, I won't. I'll visit my parents.
2 eat pizza/ Friday night?
3 go to university/ after you finish school?
4 have your own business/ when you' re 45?
5 visit England/ next summer?
6 live by yourself / when you' re 201
7 get a job/when you finish school?
8 travel abroad/ this summer?
b) Talk about your partner's plans, as in the
example.
~ Maria won't go to the cinema this weekend.
She'll visit her parents.
67
1
Be going to
Form subject + am/is/are going to + verb
I am, He/She/lt is, We/YoulThey are going to paint the house.
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
I am not, He/She/It is not, We/You/They are not going to paint the house.
Am I, Is he / she/it, Are we/you/they going to paint the house?
Short Answers
Use
Yes, I am.
No, I' m not.
Yes, he/she/it is. Yes, we/ you/they are.
No, he/she/it isn't. No, we/ you/they aren't .
We use be going to:
• to talk about future plans and intentions.
• to make predictions based on what we see or
know.
I'm going to learn flamenco. (She's planning to .. . )
They are going
to buy a car.
Time expressions used with be going to: in a (little) while, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in two/three
days ' time, next week/month/year, tonight, soon, this evening, in a week/month/year, etc
What is going to happen? Use the phrases to complete the sentences .
• buy/meat • take/taxi • play/ golf • have/ baby • blowout/candles
Ann ~ is going to buy
some meat.
2 They ...... .... .... .. .. .... .. .
3 Mina ............ .. .. .. ...... .
4 Beth .... ........ ...... ...... .
5 Annie .. .. .. .. ...... ........ ..
Be going to
2
a) George and his friends are going away this weekend. Look at the pictures and use the phrases to write
sentences, as in the example •
• go hiking • sing around a campfire • stay in a chalet
• visit a deer park. watch wild birds. ride their bikes
1 ~ George and his friends are going to go hiking.
2 ...... ..... .......... ...... ... ..... ... ..... ..... ... .. .............. ..... ....... ..... ... ....... ...... ...... .... ........... ........ .
3 .... ...... . .... . . . .... . .... . .. ... . . ...... . .... . ...... . .... . ... .. ...... . . . .... . .. . ... . . . .. . . ...... ... . . .. . ... . .... . ..... .. ... .. ... .
4 .... . ... . ...... . .............. . ..... . ... ... .... ... . ... ... . .. ....... . ... .. .. . ........ .. .......... . ... .... .. .. . ..... ... ... .. .. . . .. . .
5
6 .. ..... .. ......... .......... .. .... .... ... ............ ........ .. ................. ............ ..... ....... ... .... ..... ....... ..... •.
b) What are your plans for next summer?
Next summer, I am going to travel around Spain with my best friend. We are going to
Use the words to make questions and then answer them about yourself.
1 you/ going/ birthday / nextl a/ to/ are / party / for /
have/ your?
~ Are you going to hove a party for your next
birthday?
Yes. I am going to have a big party and invite
01/ my friends.
2 are/ the/ summer / you/ grandparents/ going/
with/ to/ spend/ holidays/ your?
3 meet / are/ your / going/ this/ to/weekend/friends/
you?
4 are/ abroad/you/ to/ year / travel / going/ next?
69
70
Will - Be going to - Present Continuous - Present Simple
1
Will is used:
• to express on-the-spot decisions.
I'm tired. I'll have a nap.
• to make predictions based on what we think or
imagine.
She'll became an excellent doctor.
• for threats or warnings.
You' ll hurt your back if you move this heavy sofa
by yourself.
• for promises.
I promise I'll be back on time.
The present continuous is used:
• to talk about fixed
arrangements in the near
future.
He must hurry. He's having a
business meeting in an hour.
Fill i n the gaps with will or be going to and the
verb in brackets, as in the example.
A: I'm too tired to wash the dishes.
B: Don't worry! I ~ '/I wash (wash) them for
you.
2 A: I don' t want to tidy my room.
B: If you don't, I .... .... ....... .. .... ... ... . ... ..... .
(notllet) you go to the cinema.
3 A: Do you have any plans for this evening?
B: Yes, I .. . . ... .... .. . .. . (visit) my friend, Maria.
4 A: Can somebody answer the phone?
B: I .. ... ....... .. . .. ... . .. . . ... (get) it.
5 A: What are you doing on Friday afternoon?
B: I . . ....... ....... . .. (have) lunch with a client.
6 A: Do you prefer orange juice or Cola?
B: I .. .. .. . ... .. .. .. ... . .. . .... (have) some orange
juice, please.
Be going to is used:
• to talk about future plans and intentions.
Now that she has a job, she is going to buy her
own house. (future plan)
Now that he has the money, he is going to buy a
Ferrari . (intention)
• to make predictions based on what we see or
know.
She has studied hard. She '5 going to get good
grades.
The present simple is used:
• for timetables (planes, trains, etc) and
programmes.
The train leaves , : ~
in ten minutes.
2 Circle the correct item.
1 The bus to London ...... at 8: 30 tomorrow
morning.
A leaves B is leaving
C going to leave
2 She has enough money now, so she ... .. . that
computer.
A is going to buy B buys C is buying
3 I'm very tired. I .. . ... sleep early tonight.
A am going B go to C will go to
4 I .... .. you as soon as I arrive at the hotel.
A will call B called C call
5 We can ' t come with you this weekend. We . .. .. .
the children's bedrooms.
A are painting B paint C will paint
6 Please tell me! I promise I .... . . tell anyone.
A didn' t B am not C won't
Will - Be going to - Present Continuous - Present Simple
7 I ...... do the shopping tomorrow. I'm tired now.
A will B am C won't
8 The play ...... at 7:30 pm.
A will start B starts
C going to start
9 Is he going to travel to Spain? Yes, ...... .
A he is going B he isn ' t C he is
10 I expect Bill ...... us soon.
A is calling B will call
C is going to call
3 a)
Use the verbs to complete Sylvia's schedule
for next week. Then ask and answer
questions, as in the example.
• book • collect • meet • have • buy
Monday 11 th j a) .......... flight to Australia at
, travel agent 's
Tuesday 12th b) ....... ... Emma and Alice for
lunch
Wednesday 13
th
cl ..... ..... business meeting
with Tom
: d) .......... Katie's birthday
present
e) .......... Mum and Dad from
. airport
Monday - Katie's birthday present?
~ A: Is Sylvia buying Katie 's birthday present
on Monday?
B: No. She's booking her flight to Australia.
2 Tuesday - Mum and Dad from airport?
3 Wednesday - Emma and Alice for lunch?
4 Thursday - business meeting with Tom?
5 Friday - flight to Australia at travel agent's?
4
b) What are your fixed arrangements for next
week? Tell your partner.
On Monday next week, I'm going to my friend's
house after school. On Tuesday ...
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use no more than three
words.
1 Kim is planning to make a cake after lunch.
After lunch, Kim is going to make a cake.
2 My older brother refuses to take me to the
cinema tonight.
My older brother says he ............................ .
............ ............... me to the cinema tonight.
3 I promise I will be on time tomorrow.
I promise I ............ .. .......................... late
tomorrow.
4 Ben has arranged to meet Ellie later this
afternoon.
Ben is ................................................... .
Ellie later this afternoon.
5 Emma's intention is to start Spanish lessons this
summer.
Emma is ................................................ .
Spanish lessons in t he summer.
Speaking
In pairs, ask and answer questions about your
plans for this weekend, as in the example.
Ask:
• who/go with? • where/ stay?
• how/get there? • what! do?
A: Are you doing anything interesting this
weekend?
B: I'm going to visit a friend in Kent.
Writing
Use the answers from the Speaking activity to
write a paragraph about your partner's plans
for the weekend.
~ This weekend, Ann is going to visit a friend in
Kent . ...
71
72
Conditionals - Types 0, I, 2 & 3
• A conditional clause consists of two parts: the if-clause (hypothesis), which begins with the word if, and
the main clause, which shows the result of the hypothesis.
Jfyou spend too much time in the sun, l'Qu will get sunburnt.
if-clause main clause
• When the if-clause comes before the main clause, we separate them with a comma. When the main
clause comes before the if-clause, we do not use a comma.
If it rains, you will get wet . You will get wet if it rains.
If-clause Main clause
Type 0: if + present simple .... present simple
Type 1: if + present simple .... future simple, imperative,
can/must/may + bare infinitive
Type 2: if + past simple
Type 3: if + past perfect
Use
.... would/could/might + bare infinitive
.... would/could/might + have + past
participle
• Conditionals type 0 express something which is always true, laws of
nature. If you mix blue and yellow, you get green.
• Conditionals type 1 express a possible situation in the present or
future.
If he is late, we'll go without him.
If the phone rings, answer it.
• We can use unless instead of if ... not in a conditional clause. The
verb after unless is always in the affirmative. We do not use will,
would or should in an if·clause.
Unless the weather improves, we'll have to cancel the game.
If the weather doesn't improve, we'll have to cancel the game.
(NOT: If the weather ·.v9R't impFsI'e ... )
• Conditionals type 2 express an imaginary or unlikely situation in
the present or future.
If I had the time, I would take up a sport. (But I don't have the
time, so I can' t take up a sport.)
• We can use were instead of was for all persons.
If John were here, he would help us. (But he isn't here.)
• Conditionals type 3 express imaginary situations which are contrary
to facts in the past. They are also used to express regrets of
criticism.
If she had tried more, she would have passed her exams.
If you drop ice in water, it
floats. (type 0 - law of nature)
If you go to Paris, you will see
the Eiffel Tower. (type 1 -
possible situation in the future)
If I had a lot of money, I would go
on a cruise. (type 2 - imaginary
situation in the present)
If Jane hadn't overslept, she
wouldn't have been late for work
yesterday. (type 3 - imaginary
situation in the past)
Conditionals - Types 0, I, 2 & 3
1
Put t he verbs i n brackets i nto the correct
tense.
A: How do I send an email?
B: If you ~ wait (wait) a moment , I ~ will show
(show) you how.
2 A: I am goi ng to wat ch TV for a while.
B: You .. .. .... .. ...... .. ............ (not/be able to)
get up tomorrow if you ...... .. ............ .. .. . ..
(go) to bed lat e.
3 A: I need some help in t he kitchen.
B: Well, if you ..... .. . .. ....... .. . .. ........ .. (cook)
di nner, I .... ........ .. ...... . (wash) the dishes.
4 A: How long will you stay in France?
B: I .. .......... ........ . .... .. . ........ (not/stay) long
unless I ...... . ............ (find) a cheap hotel.
Fill i n the gaps with if or unless.
1 I'll only call you ~ if there is a problem.
2 .. .... ..... you want a new computer, you had
better save some money.
3 .... .. .. ... you don't leave at once, you'lI be late.
4 I'll have t hat last piece of cheese .... . ...... you
don't want it .
5 I'll come with you t o t he doctor .... ...... . you
want to go alone.
6 I will joi n you later .......... . I have too much
work to do.
7 I can lend you my umbrell a ........... you need it.
8 I won' t tal k to you again ...... .. .......... you tell
2
3
..
5
me t he truth.
Match the situations with the actions, as in the
example.
SITUATIONS
I be t hirsty
I be tired
I feel hot
I be ill
I want a new
computer
ACTIONS
I a call a doctor
\ b save some money first
\ c get a drink
I d open the window
\ e have a rest
If I am thirsty, I wi ll get a drink.
4 What would you do if .. .
you found £ 10 in t he street ?
2 your parents went on holiday?
3 you lost your pet dog?
4 you failed your English exam?
5 you met a f amous person?
6 you saw someone cheating i n an exam?
1 ..... . ............ ... ............ ... ................ .. .. .. .
2
3 .. . .. . .................... . ...... .. ........ .. .. ..... .. .... .
4 ...... .. ........... . . ................. . .. .. . . .. ... . .. . .. . . .
5 . ...... . .... . .. ...... . . ... ...... ... .. ...... . ... .. . ... .. . .. .
6
5
Match the phrases in column A to the ones in
column B. Then, ask and answer, as i n the
example.
A B
[ili] go to Athens a have a party
[IT] win £10,000
b go for a wal k
[IT] get your degree
c visi t the Parthenon
ffiJ
d get a good j ob
pass my exams
e travel around the
[]I] fi nish your
worl d
homework early
~ A: What would you do if you went to Athens?
B: If I went to Athens, I'd visit the Parthenon.
6
Under line the correct item.
1 If t here will be/were no oil in t he engine, the car
would break down.
2 If Mark had fi nished early, he would have taken/
would take us out.
3 If you wanted t o go on a ghost tour, you could
go/will go t o Edi nburgh.
4 You burnt/will burn yourself if you' re not careful.
5 If I had a toot hache, I would go/will go t o t he
dentist.
6 If t he polar ice caps melt, sea levels will rise/rises .
7 If Sam had repaired/repai red t he car, we would
have gone for a drive.
S If you needed money, you could get/will get a
part· ti me job.
73
74
Conditionals - Types 0, I, 2 & 3
7
Read the story and write Type 3
conditional sentences, as in the
example.
Tom's car wouldn't start one morning. He
decided to walk to work. He found a pound
coin on the street. He went into a shop and
bought a lottery ticket. He won the lottery and
bought a new car and a big house.
2
3
4
5
• If Tom's car had started, he wouldn't
have decided to walk to work.
8
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense to form conditionals.
If she • had saved (save) some money, she
would have been able to buy a car.
2 If he had closed the gate, the dog .. . .. . ... ...... ..
............ .. ............... .. . ... .. .... (not/get) out.
3 I ............................. ...... ... ...... (visit) him
if I knew he was in hospital.
4 He'd have passed the exam if he .. . .. . ........ .. .. .
.. .. . .... .. .. . ........ .. ........ ....... . (study) harder.
5 Sara will get lost if she .... .. ................ .. .. .. .. .
.. .... .. .... .. .. .... .. .... (not/take) a map with her.
6 Dave will miss the bus if he .. .... ...... .. .. ........ .
.............. .. .. .. ...... ...... . (notlleave) on time.
7 I .. .. .. ........ . .... .... .. ...... ... .. . (go) to the party
if I hadn't been ill.
8 If I'd known it was his birthday, I .... ........ .... ..
... . ........................ ........ (send) him a card.
9 He ............. . ... .. . .... .. .. . .. (not/break) his leg
if he hadn't fallen off the ladder.
10 If you hadn't been in such a hurry, you ........ .. .
.... .. .. .............. ...... ... (notlleave) your keys.
9
Read the situations and make a conditional
sentence for each, as in the example.
I woke up late. I missed the bus .
• If I hadn't woken up late, I WOUldn ' t have
missed the bus.
2 Tom might come home early tonight. We' ll go to
the cinema.
3 They are making so much noi se. I can't
concentrate on my work.
4 They weren' t driving carefully. The accident
happened.
5 It is raining. I can't play outside.
6 I won't tell you what happened. You must
promise to keep it a secret.
7 Sally may win the race. She will receive a big
prize.
8 Promise to be ready on time. I won' t come with
you.
1 0 Complete the sentences.
1 If I weren't tired, .......... .. ... .. ............ .. .. ... .
2 If you had reminded me, ...... . .. . ... .. . .. . ... .... . .
3 If she knew, .. .... ... .. ........ .. ..... ... .... .. ... .. .. .
4 If he studies, .. . .......... .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. ....... ... .
5 If they had told us the truth, .......... .. .. ....... .
6 If Jane hadn't left, ......... .. ......... ...... .... ... .
7 If Peter meets Alice, . .. . ......... .. ... .. .... .... . ... .
8 If I had a camera, ........ . .. . .. .. ..... ........ .... .. .
9 If you do that again, .. .. ... .... ... .. .... . .. .. ..... .. .
10 If we get lost, ............. ... ......... . ......... .. ... .
Conditionals - Types 0, I, 2 & 3
We can also form conditionals by using words/
expressions such as unless (Conditionals type 1),
providing/provided that, so/as long as, on
condition (that), what if, suppose/supposing,
otherwise (= if not), but for, and, or (else),
even if, in case of/in the event of, etc.
We'd better hurry up. Otherwise we'll miss the
bus. (If we don't hurry up, we'll miss the bus.)
Do that again and /'11 tell Mum.
Don't do that again or (e/se)
/'11 tell Mum.
(If you do that
again, ... )
Mind the structures:
• Unless (= if not) is followed by a verb in the
present simple. We do not normally use will,
would or should after unless.
Unless you come early, we won't go out. (= If
you don't come early, ... )
(NOT: Unless you "'gR't (g"",,, ... )
• But for, in case of, in the event of are followed
by a noun or pronoun.
11
But for your help, / wouldn't have been able
to do it. (If you hadn't helped me, ... )
/n case oflln the event of a fire, use the fire
extinguisher. (If there is a fire, ... )
Underline the c.orrect word or expression.
1 A: Can I borrow your earrings for the party?
B: What if/Otherwise you lose them?
2 Be late again provided/and you' ll get a written
warning.
3 A: Please can I go to the party?
B: OK. In case/As long as you are home by 11 pm.
4 Don't make a lot of noise or/what if you'll wake
the baby.
5 In case of IOn condition that an emergency, dial
999.
6 Even if/But for Peter's help, I'd be lost now.
7 Supposing/Providing we leave now, we can get
there on time.
S He couldn' t help me with my homework even if/
or he wanted to.
• We do not use will, would or should after solas
long as, providing/provided (that), on
condition (that), what if, even if. When the
verb of the mai n clause is in a present or future
form, the verb in the subordinate clause is in a
present form. When the verb of the main clause
is in a past form, the verb in the subordinate
clause is in a past form.
So/As long as you promise to behave yourself,
you can join us. (If you promise ... )
/'11 do the shopping providing/provided
(that) / have time. ( . .. if I have time.)
He agreed to work overtime on condition
that he took some days off. ( ... if he took ... )
"/'11 take Mum's car tomorrow night." "What
if she needs it?" (What will you do if she needs
it?)
/ wouldn't tell her even if she promised not to
tell anyone .
• Suppose/Supposing are followed by a verb in a
past form.
Suppose/Supposing you lost your passport,
what would you do? (If you lost ... )
9 Try to be on time, and/otherwise we'll miss the
train.
10 Unless/Provided the weather is nice, we'll go to
the beach tomorrow.
12
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense.
A: Do you need anything while I' m out?
B: If you ............... (pass) a chemist's,
. ......... ..... (you/buy) some aspirin, please?
2 A: Paul's not speaking to me.
B: Well, you' d better apologise, otherwise he
.................... (never/speak) to you again.
3 A: Unless you ... ... ....... ........... (get) an early
night, you ................ (be) tired tomorrow.
B: You're right. I' m going to bed now.
75
76
Conditionals - Types 0, I, 2 & 3
4 A: Your dad is very busy in the garden. If I were
you, I ................ .. .... ........... (help) him.
B: You' re right. I will.
5 A: If I .. .... ...... .... .. .. .. .. .... .. (not/enter) that
competition, I ....... .. ...... .... .. .. . (not/win)
first prize.
B: Yes. Lucky you!
6 A: Suppose you ........ .. .... .. .. ... .. .. .. ..... (win)
some money, what ........ ...... .. .. .. ...... .. .. ..
(you/do) with it?
B: I'd give it to the poor.
7 A: So, what did he say?
B: He agreed to help us on condition that
we .. .... .. .. .......... .... .. .. (not/tell) anyone.
13
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense.
1 Fred ................. (be) at work by nine o' clock,
provided he catches the 8 o' clock train.
2 If you like rock music, you .... .. .... ............... .
(love) this band.
3 Tom doesn't want to go, but he ...... ............. .
(call) me if he changes his mind.
4 He will be home by midnight unless he .. ........ .
(miss) the last bus.
5 I ....................... (not/do) that if I were you.
6 If he .... ..... ....... .... .......... . (get up) on time,
he wouldn't have been late for work.
7 If she . ........ ...... ... .... .. .... .. (miss) her flight,
she won't be able to leave tomorrow.
8 He would have set off earlier provided he ... .... .
.......... (know) there would be so much traffic.
9 If Wendy . ....... .. ......... . .. (be) older, she could
learn to drive.
10 Harry ....................... ........ (hurt) himself if
he falls off that wall.
14
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to
three words.
1 We wouldn't have been able to do it without your
help.
We wouldn't have been able to do it ............ ..
.. .. .... .. ... . ...... .. ... ................... .. your help.
2 Don't park here or else you'll get a ticket.
You won't get a ticket ................... .. .... ..... ..
park here.
3 You should take up a sport.
If ... ....... ........ .. ....... .... .. .......... .. . , I would
take up a sport.
4 I can't go to the concert tonight.
I wish ... .... .. ........................ .... ... .... to the
concert tonight.
5 I want to buy a car but! can't afford it.
If I ........ .. .......... ...... . ....... ... ....... . , I would
buy a car.
6 You'd better not spend so much money.
If I were you, ... ............ . ...... . ........... . spend
so much money.
7 You can go to the cinema if you promise to be
back before 10 pm.
You can go to the cinema ... ..... ........ .. .... ... . ..
you promise to be back before 10 pm.
8 If you have an appointment, you can see Or Brown.
You can see Or Brown .. .. .. .... .... ........ .. .... .... .
have an appointment.
9 If the teacher came in now, what would you say?
What . . . .. .... .. ............... ........... . ...... .. ...... .
the teacher came in now?
10 If you promise to behave, you can come along.
You can come along .................................. .
as you promise to behave.
11 If you don't finish your homework, you will get in
trouble.
You will get in trouble unless ..... . .. .. .. .. . .. ...... .
your homework.
12 If we don't hurry, we'll miss the bus.
We'd better hurry, .. .. .................... .. .. . we'll
miss the bus.
Speaking
What advice can you give your friend who wants
to lose weight? Tell your partner.
~ If I were you, I'd eat fewer sweets.
Writing
Use your answers from the Speaking activity to
write a short email to a friend about what to do
to lose weight.
We use the verb wish and the expression if only to express a wish. If only is
more emphatic than wish.
• We use wish/if only + past simple/past continuous when we want to
say that we would like somethi ng to be different in the present. We can
use were in all persons.
I wishlff only I was/were rich. (I'm not rich.)
• We use wish/if only + past perfect to express a regret that something
did or didn't happen in the past.
I wishlff only I had listened to your advice. (But I didn' t.)
I wishlff only I hadn't said anything. (But I did.)
Wishes
I
• We use wish/if only + would to express our wish for a change i n a
situation or someone's behaviour, or to ask for something in a polite way.
I wishlff only it would stop raining. (It's annoying. )
I wish I
;
failed my
I wishlff only Paul would stop biting his nails. (He keeps biting his
nails. )
I wish you would stop shouting. (Please stop shouting.)
• After I and we, we use could instead of would.
I wish I could travel abroad.
a) Read the wishes. Which refers to: the
present? the past?
1 If only I had some money.
2 I wish I were taller.
3 I wish I hadn't crashed my car.
4 I wish I could speak French.
b) Which sentences:
• express a regret about something that did
or didn't happen in the past?
• express a wish that something was
different in the present?
Write similar sentences about yourself.
2
Paula is ill. She has to stay in hospital. Read
what she says and make sentences, as in the
example.
• I've got a temperature.
• I have to stay in bed.
• I have to take medicine.
• I have to stay in hospital.
• I want to go home.
• I can't go to work .
1 .. I wish / If only I didn't have a temperature.
2 ..... ....... ...... .... ... ..... .... .. ...... .... .. ....... .... .
3 ..... . .. ...... . .. . ........ .. ... ... ..... . ... .. . ....... .. . ... .
4 .... .. ........... . .. . .. . .. ... . ... ..... ... . .... . . ... .. . ... . . .
5 . . .......... . .... .. . .. . .. . .. ... .. . . .. . .. . .. . .......... ..... .
6 .... .. . ... .. ...... ... ................... .. ......... . .. .... ..
77
Wishes
3
Bob had a job interview yesterday but he
didn't get the job. Use the phrases to write
sentences, as in the example.
\ • I was nervous.
~ . I went late for the interview.
\ . I didn' t know anything about the company.
r. I left my references at home .
• I didn' t answer all the questions.
1 ~ I wish I hadn't been nervous.
2 . ... ........... .. . .. ..... . . ................ ... ... .. ..... . .. .
3
4 . .......... . . .. . ... .. .. . ..... ..... ...... .. . .... . ...... . .... .
5
4
Use Stella's thoughts to wri te sentences, as in
the example.
1 I want to go
'" to Spain.
2 I need to get a
good job.

r 6 I don' t earn
'--- enough money.;., .·
I want to buy a car.
78
2
3
4
5
6
5 I lost my purse. •
4 I f ailed my dri vi ng test.
~ She wishes she could go to Spain.
5
Use the situations to make sentences. Start
with I wishllf only.
• I didn' t pass my exam.
• I didn't wake up early.
• I don't have enough ti me.
• It's raining.
• I have too much homework to do.
• I haven ' t got enough money to go on holiday.
1 ~ I wishllf only I had studied more.
2
3
4
5
6
6
What could these people wish for? Make as
many sentences as possible. Use the verbs.
• lose • have • be • catch • leave • feel
• play • wake
I wish I had some friends. I wish I weren
alone.
2 . ......... . ...... . .... . .. . .. . ... . . . .... . .... . ...... . ...... .
3 . .... .. . . . . ...... . .. ... . ...... . . . ........... .. ... . ........ .
4 ........ . . .................... . .... .. .. .. ..... . .. . .. . .. . .. .
Speaking
In pairs, take turns to tell each other a wish, a
regret and an imaginary situation in the past,
as in the examples.
I wish I was/were rich. If I were rich, I could hell
poor people.
If onlyll wish I hadn't overslept this morning.
If I hadn't overslept, I wouldn't have been late fOI
school.
Writing
Use your answers from the Speaki ng activi t y to
wri te a paragraph about your partner 's wishes
and regret s.
Ann wishes she was rich . ...
Had better - Would rather
1
• We use had better + bare infinitive to give
advice or to say what the best thing to do in a
particular situation is.
You had/'d better buy the tickets today. (= You
should/ought to buy ... )
I'd better not call her now; she'll be busy.
Had better is stronger than should/ought to,
but it is not as strong as must.
You must see a dentist. (strong advice)
You had better see a dentist. (less strong than
'must')
You should/ought to see a dentist. (less strong
than ' had better')
• We use would rather (= would prefer to) to
express preference.
I'm really busy. I'd rather not go to the party
tonight.
• When the subject of would rather is also the
subject of the following verb, we use the
following structures:
a) would rather + present bare infinitive
(present/future)
I'd rather go shopping tomorrow.
b) would rather + perfect bare infinitive (past)
I'd rather have stayed at home last night.
• When the subject of would rather is different
from the subjeGt of the following verb, we use
the following structures:
a) would rather + past tense (present/future)
I'd rather you stopped smoking.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
A: It looks like it's going to rain.
B: I guess I'd better ... . .. . .. .. .. ............. . ...... .
(take) my umbrella with me.
2 A: I'd rather you . ........... . . the TV .. .. ...... . . . .
(turn down). I'm trying to work.
B: I'm so sorry. I'll do it right now.
3 A:
B:
Is Greg at home?
Yes, but you'd better .... ....... .. . .. . .. .... . .•...
(not/call) him now; he's studying.
You had better study
harder this weekend for
the exam on Monday.
b) would rather + past perfect (past)
\
I'd rather Mike hadn't taken his father's car
yesterday.
Study the ways in which we can express preference:
,
a) prefer + gerund + to + gerund (general '
preference) I prefer swimming to
cycling.
b) prefer + noun + to + noun ( general
preference) She prefers tea to coffee.
c) prefer + full infinitive + rather than +
bare infinitive (general preference)
I prefer to watch TV rather than listen
to music.
d) would prefer + full infinitive + rather
than + bare infinitive (specific
preference)
I'd prefer to live in York rather than
(I ive) in London.
e) would rather + bare infinitive + than (+
bare i nfi nitive)
She'd rather have a salad than (have) a
cheeseburger.
4 A: I can iron these clothes for you.
B: That's OK. I'd rather .. . .. ..... .. ... ........... . . .
(do) it myself tomorrow.
5 A: I'm not feeling very well today.
B: You' d better .. . . ......... . . .. .. ............. . ..... .
(not/go) to work then.
6 A: Do you like fish?
B: Well , I prefer .................. . .. ... ... ... ... . . .. .
(eat) meat rather than fish.
79
80
Had better - Would rather
7 A: Did you enjoy the play last night?
B: No, it was awful! I'd rather ................... . .
(stay) at home.
S A: Shall we go to the cinema?
B: Well, if you don' t mind, I' d prefer
.......... .. ... (go) to my favourite restaurant.
9 A: What did you think of the thriller last night?
B: Well, I'd rather ............ ...... ........ .... .... ..
(see) an adventure film instead.
10 A: You'd better ...................................... .
(not/forget) to pay the rent this week.
B: Don' t worry, I won't.
2
Fill in the gaps with would rather, prefer(s) or
would prefer.
1 Do you .............. listening to music to watching
television?
2 I .............. have a salad for lunch instead of a
sandwich.
3 Daniel .. .... .. ...... cake to ice cream.
4 I ............ .. stay at home tonight than go out.
5 Julia .............. to walk home rather than take
a bus.
6 Edward .............. exercising at a gym to
jogging.
7 I think Dad .............. to drive to London rather
than take the train.
S Does Adam .............. coffee to tea?
3
Answer the following questions using would
rather ... because and your own ideas, as in
the example.
Your best friend is planning a day at the beach,
but the same day your school has scheduled a
trip to a museum.
• I would rather go with my friends to the beach
because I love swimming and sunbathing.
2 Your sister is going to rent a DVD. She suggests
either an adventure or a comedy.
3 Your best friend can't decide whether to have a
birthday party at home or at a restaurant.
4 Your parents want to order takeaway. They ask
you whether you'd prefer pizza or burgers .
5 Your cousin has asked you to spend a week with
him in Italy, but the same week your friends are
going on holiday to Disneyland.
6 You don't have much money and your boss asks
you to work on Saturday, but you have already
planned to go to the beach with your friends.
4
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
Why don' t you ask someone to help you?
You had ........................ .. ...... ............... ..
someone to help you.
2 You shouldn't waste your money on snacks.
If I were you, I ........................................ .
my money on snacks.
3 I can't find a job.
I wish ........................................... a job.
4 I didn' t know he was in hospital.
If only someone ...................................... .
he was in hospital.
5 She won't come if you don' t invite her.
She won't come unless ......................... .. .. ..
her.
6 She wanted to stay at home.
She' d .. .... ........ ...... .................... at home.
7 I want you to go to bed right away .
I'd rather .............................................. .
to bed right away.
S They' d rather go camping than skiing.
They prefer ............ ............................... .
skiing.
(Units 12-14)
• Be going to - Will - Present continuous
1 Read the email and look at the highlighted verb forms.
Which expresses:
• an on·the-spot decision?
• a prediction based on what we think or imagine?
• a prediction based on what we can see?
• a future plan/intention?
• a promise?
• a fixed arrangement in the near future?
Dear Harry,
How are you? Sorry I haven't written for a while but I've
been really busy at school. I wish I didn't have so much work to
do. If I weren't so busy, I would write more often. We are
having careers interviews next week. The Guidance Counsellor
is going to help us decide what we want to do when we finish
school. I have always wanted to fly a plane. So perhaps I will
become a pilot! 8y the time I have finished studying, planes
will probably be able to fly themselves!
It was my birthday last week and I would have had a party
if I hadn't had so many tests. Anyway, my parents gave me an
MP3 player. I really needed that.
I will go now as I have homework to do, and if I don't study
enough, I will fail my exams! I wish I could go and play football
with my friends, but it looks like it is going to rain. I'd rather it
didn't rain. Uust hate rainy weather. I promise I'll write again
soon once the exams are over.
Write soon,
Danny
2
Fill in the gaps with will or be going to. Then identify the
use in each sentence.
A: There's someone in the garden.
B: I ... . ................... go and check.
2 A: Please stop talking or I ..... ..... . . ... ..... . have to punish you.
B: Sorry, Miss.
3 A: Take an umbrella with you. It . ...... .. ....... .. .. ... rain.
B: Thanks for the advice.
4 A: What are your plans for the summer?
B: We ... ... ..................... travel around Australia.
5 A: Shall I buy Mum some perfume for her birthday?
8: Yes, she ... . .. ... .... ... ... ... . love that.
• ConditionalslWishes
3
a) Find the conditional and the
wish sentences in the email.
What type are they? What does
4
each sentence express? How
do we form them?
b) How do we express a regret?
Give an example.
c) Think of three more
conditional sentences and two
wish sentences of your own.
Complete the sentences.
If I were you, .. .... ........... .. .. .... .
2 We can go out unless ............... ..
3 If you had tried harder, ...... ...... ..
4 I'd have cooked dinner if ....... .... .
5 Unless you help me, ... .......... .. .. .
5 Underline the correct item.
1 I wish you will/would stop talking.
2 I wish I would have/had a pony.
3 Dad wishes he didn't/doesn't have
to work.
4 Tina and I wish we had/would have
studied more. Then, we would have
passed our test.
• Had better - Would
rather
Find a sent ence in the email
that expresses preference.
b) Whi ch is stronger: should,
must or had better?
c) What constructi ons do we use
when the subj ect of would
rather is the same as/different
from the subj ect of the verb?
Give examples.
81
82
Revision (Units I-I
_ ..... -
1
(hoose the correct i tem.
1 If you study hard, you ........ pass your exams.
A would have B would ( will
2 I like people .. .... .. are polite and honest.
A who B which ( where
3 It's cold in here. I ........ close the window.
A won' t B will ( going to
4 What ........ Pat doing yesterday at t wo o'clock?
A are B was ( were
5 They ........ to Spain last year.
A go B been ( went
6 John ........ his homework at the moment.
A is doing B does ( did
7 I wish he .. ...... us where he was goi ng.
A tells B told ( had told
8 Look at t hose dark clouds. It .. ...... rain.
A is going to B won't ( will
9 He was having a shower when the phone .... .. ...
A was ringing B rang ( ring
10 Pete is .... .. .. on time for school. He's never late!
A sometimes B often ( always
11 I have known Robert .. .... .. I was six.
A for B since ( ever
12 (an I have ........ book back, please?
A its B our ( my
13 Now that she has a job, she .. .... .. move into her
own flat.
A will B is going t o (won ' t
14 Ann usually .... .. .. her room i n the afternoons.
A has tidied B tidies ( t idied
15 Tom was sleeping ...... .. the f ire started.
A as soon as B until ( when
16 If I .... .. .. you, I'd tell him the truth.
A were B am ( had been
17 If only I .. .. .... go to Italy.
A will B could ( would
18
I'd rather ...... .. in than go out.
A stay B stayed
( to stay
19
They ........ house next week.
A moved B are movi ng
(
move
20
She ...... .. here since 1999.
A has lived B lived
( was living
21 We'll go cycling .... .. .. it rains.
A if B since ( unless
22 This is the hotel .... .. .. we stayed last summer.
A which B where ( who
23 I' d rather you ........ now.
A left B will leave
( leave
24 If you lied to him, he ........ angry.
A would have been B was
( would be
25 You'd better ........ her the truth.
A told B tell ( to tell
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
(omplete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use. up to three
words.
1 I will definitely not miss tomorrow's show.
I am definitely ................ .. ..... to tomorrow's
show.
2 Everyone in this school knows Tim (ollins.
Tim (ollins is very ................... in this school.
3 Look at those clouds. It looks like rain.
Look at those clouds. I think it's .... .. .......... , .. .
rain.
4 I don't think we should eat GM food.
We'd ...... , ........ , ........ , ............ eat GM food.
5 I would prefer to watch a film this evening.
I'd .. .. ...... .. .................... a film this evening.
6 We lost the match because we didn't play well .
We could have won the match if we .............. .
............... better.
7 If you travel to an English-speaking country, you
will learn to speak better.
You .. ...... .. ............ .... .... your speaking skills
if you travel to an English-speaking country.
8 You need an Internet service provider to connect
to the Internet.
Unless .... .. .. .................. . an Internet service
provider, you can't connect to the Internet.
9
Next time you do that , I'll tell Dad.
Don't do that again ................ .. ...... tell Dad.
10
Unfortunately, I can't come to your party.
I wish I ........ .. ...... .. ...... .. .. .... to your party.
(
Mark: )
10x3 30
( Total: 80 )
Modal Verbs
The verbs must, can, could, may, might, will , would, shall , should and ought to are modal verbs.
They express meanings such as obligation, necessity, certainty, ability, possibility, lack of necessity,
offer, suggestion, request , logical assumption, permission, prohibition, advice and criticism.
Moda I verbs:
• do not take -s, -ing or -ed. She must work hard. (NOT: She musts wsrk hard.)
• are followed by a bare infinitive, except for ought which is followed by a to-infinitive.
He can't do it. (NOT: He CSR't ts de it.) She ought to listen to you.
• go before the subject in questions and are followed by not in negations.
Can I see you for a moment? He couldn't run very fast.
• do not usually have tenses. They refer to the present or future.
You can go now. (present) You can call tomorrow. (future)
• obligation - necessity - duty
must (= it is your duty to do sth / you are
obliged to do sth)
You must wear a
helmet when you
ride a bike. (you
are obliged to )
• prohibition
mustn't/can't (= it is forbidden to do sth/ you
are not allowed to
do sth/ it is against
the rules / law)
You mustn'Ucan't
park here. (you
are not allowed
to/ it's against the
rules)
$
RKI
ANY
TIME
• strong advice
must (= I strongly advise you to do sth)
(I strongly advise you
to take an aspirin.)
You must
take an
aspirin.
• Must is only for present tenses. We use have
to for all the other tenses.
He had to work late yesterday, so he didn't
come to the cinema with us.
present simple: must/have to
past simple: had to
present perfect : have/has had to
future simple: must/will have to
83
84
Modal Verbs
( Must - Have to )
• obligation - necessity - duty
must (= it is necessary to do sth)
We use must when the speaker decides that
something is necessary.
I must have
some rest.
(The young man has
made the decision
himself. )
have to (= it is necessary to do sth)
We use have to when somebody else other
than the speaker has made
the decision.
A policeman has to wear a
uniform at work.
(Somebody else has made
the decision. )
Questions and negations
with have to are formed
with do, does and did.
( Mustn't - Needn't/Don't have to )
• prohibition
mustn't (= it is forbidden to do 5th / you are
not allowed to do 5th)
Drivers mustn't talk
on their mobiles
while driving.
(Talking on a mobile
phone while driving is
forbidden. )
• lack of necessity
needn't/don't have to (= it isn't necessary to
do sth)
We use needn't to express lack of necessity.
Instead of needn't we can also use don't/
doesn't need to or don' t/ doesn' t have to.
They needn't/don't
need to/don' t have
to wear a uniform at
school. (It isn't
necessary for the
children to wear a
uniform at school .)
( Can/Could - May/Might)
• ability in the present
can (= I am able to)
She can use a computer.
• ability in the past
could (= used to be able to - past repeated
action)
We use could to express general ability in the
past.
I could sail
very well when
I was young.
• asking for permission
Can/Could/May/Might I ... ? (= Do you/Would
you mind if ... ?)
Could and may are more polite than can. Might
is formal.
a) (informal)
b) (formal)
Certainly.
( Could/May/Might I have
." a look at this file?
We normally reply with 'Certainly. 'I'ot course.' /
'Why not. 'I'No, I'm afraid you can't.'
• giving/refusing permission
a) can/may (= you are allowed to do sth)
We use can and may to give permission.
May is more formal than can.
You can go out.
You may go out. (more formal)
Modal Verbs
b) can't/mustn't/may not (= you are not
allowed to do sth)
We use can't/mustn't/may not to refuse
permission. May not is formal and is usually
used in written notices.
pay by credit card.
YOU MAY
NOT SWIM HERE
( Can/Could/Shall )
• offers
We use these modals when we offer to do
something. (= Would you like me to ... ?)
Can/Could/Shall I get
you some popcorn?
• suggestions
We use these modals when we suggest
something.
do tonight?
We can/could .. .!Shall we ... ? = Let's .. .! How
about ... ?lWhat about ... ?lWhy don't we ... ?
85
86
Modal Verbs
( Can/Could/Will/Would you ... 1 )
• requests
We use these structures to ask someone to do
something for us. Would and could are more
polite than can and will.
Can/Could/Wi/l!
Would you lend
me some money,
please?
We normally reply with 'Certainly.' {'Of course.' /
'I'm sorry, but I can't.'
( Must/Can't)
• logical assumptions
For positive logical assumptions we use must.
(= I'm sure/certain that sth is true/reaL)
For negative logical assumptions we use can't .
(= I'm sure/certain that sth isn' t true/reaL)
They must know each other. (I'm certain
they know each other. )
They can't be strangers. (I'm sure they are
not strangers.)
( Could/May/Might)
• possibility
a) could/may/might + present infinitive (= it
is possible/it is likely/perhaps)
It is used to show that something is likely to
happen in a specific situation in the present
or future.
You could buy "
b) could/might + perfect infinitive (= it was
possible but it didn't happen)
The driver could have been killed. (Luckily,
he wasn't.)
Can is used in the present. Could is the past
tense of 'can'. We use be able to to form all
the other tenses.
I wj{{ be able to move house when I get a pay
rise.
present simple: can, am/is/are able to
past simple: could, was/were able to
present perfect: have/has been able to
past perfect: had been able to
future simple: will be able to
( Could - Was able to )
/- ability in the past
We use was/were able to
(= managed to) to express
what someone managed to
do in a specific situation
in the past (past single
action).
He was able to win the
race. (he managed to)
We use could to show that someone had the
ability to do something repeatedly in the past
(past repeated action).
He could play the piano well at the age of six.
(He had the ability to do this repeatedly in the
past.)
We use could rather than was/were able to
with the verbs see, hear, feel, smell, taste,
understand, remember and guess.
We could see the storm coming.
(NOT: We were BBle te see .. . )
We use the negative form couldn't for both
cases.
I couldn't read when I was two. (past repeated
action)
I tried, but I couldn't open the door. (past single
action)
Modal Verbs
( Should/Ought to )
- giving advice
should/ought to (= I advise you to/you had
better do sth)
You ought to/
(= I advise you to stay in bed.)
We use must to give strong advice.
Compare:
You should talk to your lawyer. (It would be a
good idea to . .. )
You must talk to your lawyer. (I strongly
advise you to . .. )
87
88
I
I
I
1
I
I
1
Modal Verbs
Match the modal verbs in bold to their meanings
(a-j).
1
le
I You can go outside and play with your friends.
2
I
1 I might f i nish my work by 4 o'clock.
3
I
I You must be here by 8:30 tomorrow
morning.
4
I
I You shouldn't talk to strangers.
5 I
You have to wear a seatbelt.
6 I I You don't have to cook di nner this
evening.
7 I
Can you take t he rubbish out, please?
8
I
I You mustn't wal k on t he grass.
9
I
I Can I make a phone call?
1
10
I
I You should accept the job.
a It's not a good idea. f It's forbidden.
b It's a rule/ law. g It's not necessary.
c It's a good idea. h Is it OK?
d It's a responsibility. It's possible.
e It's allowed. j It's a request.
2
Underline the correct item.
A: I don't feel very well .
B: I think you should/can lie down for a while.
2 A:
Can/Must I bring my mobile phone to school?
B: No, you can/can't . You don't have to/ mustn't
bring i t to school.
3 A: I have to/can lose wei ght .
B: You should/might join a gym.
4 A: Must/Can we take photos in the gallery?
B:
No, t he sign on the wall says you don't have
to/mustn't.
5 A:
Were you able to/Could you finish t he race?
B: Yes, but it was diffi cult.
6 A: I'm really tired tonight.
B:
You should/have to have an early night.
7 A:
Dad, can/should we have a party on Saturday?
B: Yes, but you'll have to/can clean up
afterwards.
8 A: Where's Bill?
B: He might/can be in the garage.
9 A: Do we have to/Should we bring lunch with us?
B: No, you don't have to/can't because I've
made sandwiches for all of us.
10 A: What are you going to do this afternoon?
B: I'm not sure. I must/might go shoppi ng.
3 Underline the correct item.
You must/can wear a seatbelt while in a car. It's
the law.
2 We don't have to/can't wake up early tomorrow.
It's a holiday.
3 You mustn'tldon't have to shout at the children.
It upsets them.
4 Tom should/can study harder if he wants to pass
his exams.
5 You can/must leave early today if you want to.
6 You mustn't/don't have to enter the area.
7 Carol could/is able to speak six languages.
8 If it gets colder tomorrow, it has to/might snow.
4
You are going to the
beach for the
day. Look at
the list and
make
sentences
with must
and
mustn't.
.I
put on suntan lotion .I
sunbathe between midday and 3 pm J(
drink plenty of water
eat before you swim
sit under an umbrella
leave any rubbish behind
.I
J(
.I
J(
1 ~ You must wear a hat.
Modal Verbs
5 Match the sentences a-f to the rules in the box, then act out short di alogues.
weather forecast.
ITD Tell someone where
you are going.
ITD Take warm, waterproof clothing wi th you.
[!I:=J Never go sailing without a life jacket.
Never sail close to rocks.
Don't sail near swimmers.
a It could get cold.
b You might get into trouble and nobody will know
where you are.
c You could sail into a storm.
d You could hurt somebody.
e You mi ght fall into the water and drown.
f You could hit one and destroy your boat.
~ A: Why should I always check the weather forecast?
B: Because you could sail into a storm.
6 Use the i deas below to say what you should/shouldn't do to prevent a burglary.
To prevent
a burglary
• lock the doors and close all the windows when you go out
• don't hide a spare key outside your house because a burglar
might fi nd
• eave a light on when you go out at night
• don't leave newspapers in the doorway or letters sti cking
out of the letterbox
• don't keep money or expensive jewellery in your house
• ask a neighbour to keep an eye on your house while
you are out
7
Fill in the gaps with the words/phrases in the list.
Then, match the sentences to the responses.
• you don' t have to • can • must • could
• mustn' t • do we have to
~ ~ Can I go to Mark's party this weekend?
[I[J .......... ........ . bring a camera. I have one.
[ID You .......... .. .... .. .... do that again. It was
very naughty.
[![] .... .... ........ .... .. . pay for swimming lessons?
~ ...... .. .. .. ...... you help me with these books?
m::::J you ........................... pay the bills today.
a Yes , they aren' t free.
b Maybe. We' ll see.
c Oh that 's great.
d Of course I will.
e I know. I won ' t forget.
f I'm sorry!
~ To prevent a burglary you
should lock the doors and
close all the windows when
you go out. You shouldn't
hide a spare key outside
your house because a
burglar might find it.
8 Choose the correct item.
1 ...... you make a photocopy of this, please?
A Should ® Could C Must
2 you ...... take things without permission.
A mustn' t B couldn't
C don't have to
3 Fortunately, he didn' t ...... see a doctor.
A have to B must C may
4 Tanya ...... to beat her opponent.
A can B should C was able
5 you .... .. bring an umbrella. It's not raining.
A don't have to B mustn't
C can't
6 You can go but you ...... be back by 10:00 pm.
A might B must C can
89
90
Modal Verbs
9
Rewrite the sentences using the modals in the
list .
• must(n't) • should • was able to • may
• could(n't) • can • don't have to
Perhaps we will have a barbecue on Saturday .
.. We may have a barbecue on Saturday.
2 Do you mind if I use your phone?
3 It's very important to be on time for work.
4 You are not allowed to park your car here.
5 I had the ability to finish the race.
6 It's not necessary for you to buy them a gift.
7 It's possible that Peter will be late this evening.
8 I advise you to follow a healthy diet.
9 When I was seven, I didn't know how to ride a
bike.
1 0
Rephrase the following sentences in as
many ways as possible.
1 You had better go to bed early tonight.
.. You ought to/ should go to bed early tonight.
2 Would you like me to help you with the dishes?
3 Why don't we go to the beach?
4 I strongly advise you to see a lawyer.
5 Is it OK if I borrow your pen, please?
6 It isn't necessary to bring a camera.
7 We are obliged to obey the law.
8 You don't need to water the plants.
9 Betty is obliged to be at work at 9:00 every
day.
10 They managed to reach the village despite the
rain.
11 You aren't allowed to put posters on the wall .
12 I advise you to study more.
11 Choose the most appropriate response.
Will you help me with the dishes, please?
A Yes, I may. ® Certainly.
2 Could I leave an hour earlier today, please?
A Yes, of course. B No, you COUldn ' t .
3 Shall I carry your bags?
A No, you won' t.
B No, it's okay. I can manage.
4 Could I go out tonight, please?
A Not at all. B Yes, if you like.
5 We could cook pasta tonight.
A That's a nice idea. B No, we might not.
6 Can I use your phone, please?
A Not at all. B Of course.
7 Can you give me a lift to work?
A No, I may not. B No problem.
8 Would you please reply to these emails?
A I' d be happy to. B Yes, I would.
9 Can I park here?
A No, you can't.
B No, thank you. I'm just looking.
10 Could you lend me €10, please?
A Yes, I could. B Of course.
12
Rephrase the following sentences in as
many ways as possible.
1 I advise you to apologise .
.. You should/ought to apologise.
2 It isn't necessary for him to buy some new
clothes.
3 I'm sure John isn't in his room.
4 It is possible that Jane will come tonight.
5 You aren't allowed to have pets.
6 We are obliged to wear a suit and tie at work.
7 I advise you to practise more.
8 Would you like me to get you something to
eat?
9 It 's forbidden to sit here.
10 Ann managed to win the race.
11 How about buying her some flowers?
12 It isn't necessary for Steve to be at the
meeting.
13 It 's possible that Claire will come round
tonight.
14 How about having a snack?
15 You aren't allowed to take photographs in the
museum.
13
........................ .............. .. ...... .... ...... ..
Complete the second sentence so that i t
means the same as the first. Use up to
three words.
1 It isn' t necessary for you to attend the seminar.
You don't ~ have ta/ need to attend the seminar.
2 Students are not allowed to eat in the classroom.
Students ........ .... ...... .. .. .. ........ .. .. . ..... . .. in
the classroom.
3 It's not a good idea to spend so much money on
clothes.
You ............................................ so much
money on clothes.
4 I think it will be a good idea if you join a gym.
I thi nk .......................................... a gym.
5 It's against the law to play loud music at night.
You ................................................. loud
music at ni ght.
Modal Verbs
6 It's OK t o borrow my bike.
You ........................................... my bike.
7 It's our duty to follow the rules.
We ................ . ........... . .. . .. . .. .... .. the rules.
8 I' m sure they are at home.
They .............. .. .... .. ................... at home.
9 You have to have permission to use this room.
You .......................................... this room
without permission.
10 Mum, is i t OK if I bring a friend home?
Mum, ........ ...... .. ....... .... . . ... . .. .... . ..... .. .. . . .
a friend home?
11 It's not a good idea to go there alone.
You .. ... ......................... . .... .. .. there alone.
12 It is against the law to drive without wearing a
seat belt.
You .. .. . ....................................... without
wearing a seatbelt.
13 You don' t have permission to use the lab.
You ............................................ the lab.
14 It 's not necessary for you to finish the report
today.
You ......................... ...... ................... the
report today.
15 Students are not allowed to have Walkmans with
them.
Students ... .... ... .. .......... . ........... . Walkmans
with them .
16 It's OK to go now.
You . . .. ................................. . .. . . ... .. . now.
17 I strongly advise you to see a dentist immediately.
You ................ ... ... .. .... .. ............... dentist
immediately.
18 I advise you to drive carefully when the roads are
wet.
You .......................... .. .............. when the
roads are wet.
19 It is necessary that she hand in the report
tomorrow.
She .......... ... ... .. .. .... ...... .. ... ......... . hand in
the report tomorrow.
20 Why don' t you put an advert in the paper?
You ............. .. ....... .. .................. an advert
in the paper.
21 It 's possible that it will snow this week.
It ........ .... ........ .. ...................... this week.
22 It 's very important not to be late.
You ............. .. .............. .. .......... .. ... .. late.
91
92
Modal Verbs
23 It's better if you have an early night tonight.
You . . ............ .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . ...... .... . .. . an early
night tonight .
24 You aren't allowed to eat on the coach.
You ............ . .. . . ...... . . . .. .. . . .... . on the coach.
25 Do you think it's possible to help me with this
exercise?
Do you think .. .. .. . .. . . ... .. . ..... . .. . .. ... . .. . .. . .. . .. .
me with this exercise?
26 It isn't necessary for Tom to wash the car.
Tom .. .. . .. . . ...... ... .. .. . ..... . ...... .. wash the car.
27 It is forbidden to throw rubbish on the beach.
You . .. . .. . .... . . .. .... . ... .............. .. . . rubbish on
the beach.
28 Why don't we play football?
We . .. . ... .. ..... . . . .. .. ...... . .. . . .. . ..... .... football.
29 I'm certain John is on holiday.
John .. ... . .. . .. .. ... .. .. .......... . .. . .. .. . on holiday.
30 Perhaps Kim has gone to bed early.
Kim .. . .............. . . ..... .. . . ..... . .. . ... . . .. . . to bed
early.
31 You are allowed to park here.
You . . .. . .. . .. . .. ..... .. . ... ... .. . ... .. . . ......... . here.
32 Tony was able to ride a horse when he was six.
Tony . ....... .. . .. .. ..... .... .. . ... ..... . .. . ..... a horse
when he was six.
33 You have my permission to stay out late.
You .. . .. .. .............. . .. . . .. . ... . . .... . .... out late.
34 Shall I help you clean the house?
Would you ... ..... .. . .. . . .... . . .. .. .. ... ...... help you
clean the house?
35 I'm certain Tom didn't stay late at the office.
Tom . .. ... .. ... .. ........ . .. .. . . .. .. .... stayed late at
the office.
36 How about a cup of coffee?
Would . ... . . . .... .... ...... . ... .... . . .. cup of coffee?
37 I don't think you need to hurry.
You . . . ... . .. . . .............. . .... ... .. . . ...... to hurry.
38 Perhaps Pat is still at work.
Pat ..... . ... ... . . .... .... . .. . .. . . .. .. .. .... . .. . at work.
39 He finally managed to persuade them.
He finally was .. .. . .... . . ........ . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . them.
40 I strongly advise you to stop smoking.
You ...... .... . . .. . .. ... ... . .... .. . ... .. . ... .. . smoking.
Speaking
Read the swimming pool rules. Then, in pairs,
ask and answer questions using the
appropriate modals.
Children aged 12 and under can't
use the pool unless supervised.
Everyone has to take a shower before using the pool.
No food or drinks are allowed in the water.
Everyone must keep the pool area clean.
No animals are allowed in the pool area.
No radios or Walkmans are alllovvecl. .. __ ....;.
No running or diving is allowed.
~ A: Can children aged 12 and under use the pool alone?
B: No, they can't .
Writing
Write a li st of driving rules using the phrases
below.
• wear a seatbelt • use a mobile phone
• place children in a child seat
• follow the speed limit • drink and drive
~ While driving ...
you must wear a seatbelt .
you mustn't use a mobile phone.
Reported Speech
Reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We don't use
quotation marks with reported speech. We can use that after the introductory verb (say, tell) or we can leave
it out.
She said (that) she was happy.
Say - Tell
• In reported speech we use say without to
(without a personal object) when we don't
mention the person being spoken to.
She said (that) she was happy.
• We use say with to (with a personal object)
when we mention the person being spoken to.
She said to me (that) she was happy.
• We use tell without to (with a personal object)
when we mention the person being spoken to.
She told me (that) she was happy.
Say and tell are also used with the following
expressions:
say good morning/afternoon etc, something/
nothing etc, one's prayers, so, a few words
tell the truth, a lie, a secret, a story, the
time, the difference, sb one's name, sb
the way, one from another, one's fortune
Reported Statements
In reported speech, personal/possessive pronouns
and possessive adjectives change according to the
meaning of the sentence.
"I'm having my lunch," Susan said.
Susan said (that) she was having her lunch.
The introductory verb is usually in the past simple
and the verb tenses change as follows:
present simple --> past simple
"My plane lands at He said (that) his
6 pm," he said. plane landed at 6 pm.
present continuous --> past continuous
"lam flying to Rome He said (that) he was
todoy," he said. flying to Rome that
day.
present perfect --> past pe;.. rf _e.;..c.;..t,-:--:'I
"I have done my He said (that) he had .
homework," he said. done his homework.
past simple --> past simple/past perfect
"I walked home," he He said (that) he
said. (had) walked home.
past continuous --> past continuousl
past perfect continuous
"I was sleeping," he He said (that) he was
said. sleeping/had been
sleeping.
future (will) --> conditional (would)

"I will see you He said (that) he
tomorrow," he said. would see me the
next day.
,
Certain words and time expressions change according
to the meaning of the sentence, as follows:
now then
today, tonight,
that day, that night, that
this week/
month/year
week/month/year
yesterday,
the day before, the
previous day, the week
last week
before, the week
tomorrow,
the next/following day, the j
following week, the week
next week
after
ago before --J
here there
this, these that, those
Icome go
93
94
1
Reported Speech
Certain modal verbs also change in reported speech
as follows:
can --> could
may --> might
must --> had to
shall --> should
-:----J
will --> would
The verb tenses and time expressions change in
reported speech:
a) when reporting someone's words a long time
after they were sai d. (out·of-date reporting)
ftAnn is coming," John said.
John said that Ann was coming.
b) when we consider what the speaker says to be
untrue.
"Greece is bigger than the US, " he said to us.
He told us (that) Greece was bigger than the
US. (It is common knowledge t hat it is not . )
Fill in t he gaps with say or tell in the correct
form.
Bob .. ... .... .... .. .... ....... me that he was having
a great time at the party.
2 Jim .... ...... ...... .. .... that he needed a holiday.
3 "I ' ll call you later," Lyn ... ..... .... .... ... .. to me.
" Kim .. ..... .. .......... .. .. ... that she was surprised
by the news.
5 Kathy ....... ... .... ...... . to me that she was going
home early that day.
6 Phil ... ..... ...... ..... . John to stop annoying him.
7 He .................... . me to meet him outside the
cinema.
8 He .... ... .............. to me he was having dinner
with Billy.
9 Jane .... .. ..... ... ... ...... me she had fini shed her
homework.
10 Peter ... ... .. ........ ... to David he would be back
before lunch.
\
The verb tenses do not chal9111 RpOrted speech :
a) when the introductory ... 15 III the present,
fut ure or present pe fwcL
The student says "9 .,
The student says IrnlllD'. !JOYS reading.
b) in Conditi onals type 1 __ &
"If he won t he :0(_.;:/
c)
house, " Ryan sa
Ryan said (t hat
after they were
"I'm going lO
said to us.
Mary told us
"The sun rises '
The teacher sa dIU"".
he would
a short time
reporti ng)
....nrrnw " Mary
~ h e theatre
..,Iett,ing which i s
2
Fill in t he gaps
form.
... _ fJfflln the correct
"1) .... .. .. ...... me a .. the little
boy to hi s mother_ you have to
3) ... .... ... ... . goodni ght to your dad and then
come sit next to me. OK. Once upon a ti me,
there was a wooden boy call ed Pinocchio. Even
t hough he was made of wood, you coul dn' t
4) ...... ........ the difference between him and
other chil dren - except for one thing. Every ti me
he 5) .............. a li e, his nose got longer! "
"That's terrible!" 6) .............. the chil d. "Yes,"
7) ... .. ......... his mother. "That' s why it's
important to always 8) ........... ... the truth. Now,
it' s time to go to bed, so 9) .... .... ...... your
prayers and cl ose your eyes."
,
I
3
Fill in the gaps with the correct pronouns or
possessive adjectives.
Mark said, "I want to go out with my friends. "
Mark said (that) ~ he wanted to go out with
~ his friends.
2 "We are taking our dog to the vet," they said.
They said (that) ........ were taking .. .. .. .. dog to
the vet.
3 Jack said, "I need to buy a gift for my sister."
Jack said (that) ........ needed to buy a gift for
.... .. .. sister.
4 "I'll see you tonight at my house," Jim said to.
me.
Jim said to me (that) ........ would see .. .. ....
that night at ...... .. house.
5 "I am marrying Tom and we are going to Hawaii
for our honeymoon," she said.
She said (that) ........ was marrying Tom and
.... .. .. were going to Hawaii for ........
honeymoon.
4
Change from direct speech to reported
speech.
1 "I'm thinking of buying a new car," he said.
~ He said (that) he was thinking of buying a new
car.
2 "You can borrow my pen if'you want," she said.
3 "I'll call you tomorrow," Katy said to John.
4 "We got married two months ago," they said to us.
5 "We aren't doing anything next week," they said.
6 "I'd like to go out tonight," Toby said.
7 "My sister is coming to visit me next week," said
John.
8 Paula said, "I haven't seen my cousin since last
year."
9 "I was washing my car when you called me," said
Dan.
10 Tina said to me, "I'll tell Tom I saw you."
Reported Speech
5
The following people saw an accident in their
town yesterday. Read what they said, and then
1
2
3
4
report their words, as in the example.
The earthquake was very
powerful. We were lucky that
nobody was badly hurt.
John ~ said that the earthquake had been/ was
very powerful. They had been/ were lucky that
nobody had been/ was badly hurt.
~
I saw the lorry coming down the hill.
"
I was so scared I grabbed my
daughter and ran into a shop. We
stayed there until the police came.
Peter . .. . . .. . .. . ..................... ... .. ..... . .. . .. . . . ... .
Pam
"1 was in my car. I saw the lorry
coming torwards me. I didn't have
time to react. The lorry didn't
slow down and hit the car. Luckily,
, wasn't injured.
Sally .. .. . . ..... .. . ..... .. ...... ... ..... ......... . ...... .. .. .
95
96
Reported Speech
6
Underline the correct tense. What were the
speakers' exact words?
A: Peter needs some help with his car.
B: Yes. He told me he couldn't/wouldn't start it.
~ I can't start my car.
2 A: Is Mary going to help us clean the house?
B: No. She said she had to/will have to go to the
doctor's .
.. ...... .............. .. ......... ..... ......... ...... ...
3 A: What ' s Sarah doing?
B: She's sleeping. She said she had been feeling!
felt tired all day.
...... ....... ................. ... ... .... .. ...... .. ... ...
4 A: Where's George?
S
B: He's still at work. He said he was/is going to
be late .
•••.•••••••• •••••••••••••• ••••• ••••• ••••• •• •••••• ••••• o.
A: Will Sally be at the library today?
B: Yes. She said she would see/saw us there.
........................................ ......... .... ...
Reported Questions
• We use ask or want to know to report questions.
We use the affirmative form of the verb. The
question mark is omitted and the verb tenses,
pronouns and time expressions change as in
statements.
"How old are you?" Paul asked Kim.
Paul asked Kim how old she was.
• When the direct question begins with who, where,
when, why, what or how, we use the same
question word in the reported question.
" What is your name?" he asked.
He asked what her name was.
• When the direct question begins with is, do,
have, etc, we use if/whether in the reported
question.
"Is he your brother?" he asked.
He asked if/whether he was my brother.
7
Turn the following sentences into reported
speech.
"Tina was studying all evening," he said.
2 "Charles is going on holiday next week," said the
manager.
3 The DJ says, "I play pop music."
4 "I like potatoes," said Nora.
S The lawyer will say, "My client is not gui lty."
6 "Water boils at 100· C," said the Chemistry
teacher.
7 "Amy has finished all her homework," said Tony.
8 My father has said, "I am very proud of my
children. "
9 "My exams are starting tomorrow," said Jake .
Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions
• We use order/tell + sb + (not) to-infinitive to
report commands.
" Sit down! " she said.
She order ed/told them to sit down.
• We use ask/ beg + sb + (not) to- infinitive to
report requests. Usually, the direct sentence
contains the word 'please'.
"Please don't tell ," she said.
She asked them not to tell.
• We use suggest + -ing form / that sb (should) +
bare infinitive to report suggestions.
"Let 's go for a walk, " he said to her.
He suggested going/ that they (should) go tor a
walk.
8
Yesterday, reporter Jack Carter interviewed
Sophie Winters, a children's nurse. He asked her
the following questions. Turn them into
reported questions, using 'ask' as the reporting
verb.
"Why did you decide to
become a children's nurse?"
~ He asked her why she
decided I had decided to
become a children's
nurse.
2 "Where did you do your
training?"
3 "How many children do you look after?"
4 "Do any of the children need long· term care?"
5 "Do you use hHech medical equipment?"
6 "Is your job well ·paid?"
7 "What do you like about your job?"
8 "Are you planning to do something different in
the future?"
9
Turn the following sentences into reported
speech, as in the example.
1 Don't step out into the road without looking.
~ Mum told Sally not to step out into the road
without looking.
2 Wait for the green man to light up!
3 Look both ways before you cross!
4 Keep looking both ways as you cross!
5 Don't run when you cross the road!
6 Stop if you hear a car beeping!
7 Hold my hand when we cross the road!
Reported Speech
10
Read the speech bubbles and match them to
the sentences. Then complete the
sentences in reported speech, as in the
example.
A
Can you give me
the recipe for
your fish soup?
C
Why don't you take
a few days' holiday?
E
G
Let's go out
for dinner.
Where did H
you buy this?
F
B
You should
exercise more.
D
Could I borrow
your dictionary,
Susan? ~
Turn the light
on, Janet.
*"
I'll talk to
you later.
11 I B I Sarah was worried about her weight, so I ~ told
her that she should exercise more.
I 2 I l it was getting dark, so I .... ... .. . ....... . . .. ... ..
I 3 I I Peter looked very tired, so I ...... ... .. .. . .. .... .
I 4 I I Mary cooked us a delicious meal, so I . .. . .. .. . .
I 5 I 11 needed to look up the meaning of a word, so
I . .. .. .. ... ......... .. ... . .... . . .. . ..... . .. . .. . ....... .
rl 6"'"'"1-----'1 Helen did not want to cook, so I ... ... ... .. .... .
I 71 11 was busy when David came to see me, so I
I 8 I I Jane w ~ s wearing a beautiful new scarf, so I
97
98
Reported Speech
Instead of say and tell , we can use other verbs to introduce the reported sentence. These verbs are followed
by a to-infinitive, an -ing form or a that-clause, depending on the verb. Study the table below:
to-infinitive
agree
offer
promise
refuse
threaten
+ sb + to-i nfinitive
advise
ask
beg
invite
order
remind
warn
+ -ing form
admit to
accuse sb of
apologise for
boast about! of
complain (to sb) of
deny
insist on
suggest
+ that
complain
deny
explain
exclaim/ remark
promise
suggest
"Yes, I'll tell you the truth."
"Shall I carry the books?"
"I promise I'll buy her a gift."
"No, I won't help you again."
"Stop fighting or I'll send you
out. IJ
He agreed to tell me the truth.
He offered to carry the books.
He promised to buy her a gift.
He refused to help me again.
He threatened to send us out if we didn't
stop fighting.
"You should tell your teacher." He advised me to tell my teacher.
"Could you feed the cat?" He asked me to feed the cat.
"Please, please don't go!" He begged me not to go.
"Will you come to the cinema?" He invited me to (go to) the cinema.
"Get out of here!" He ordered me to get out of there.
"Don't forget to buy cheese." He reminded me to buy cheese.
"Don't go near the dog." He warned me not to go near the dog.
"Yes, I ate all the cake." He admitted to eating/having eaten all the
cake.
"You were rude!"
"I'm sorry I broke the glass."
"I'm the fastest runner. "
"I have a toothache. "
"I didn't say that!"
"You must come at once. tJ
"Let's tell her."
He accused me of being rude.
He apologised for breaking/ having broken
the glass.
He boasted of/about being the fastest
runner.
He complained (to me) of having a toothache.
He denied saying/having said that.
He insisted on me/my going at once.
He suggested telling her.
"She's always shouting." He complained that she was always shouting.
"I didn't cheat in the test." He denied that he had cheated in the test.
"You have to do it twice." He explained that I had to do it twice.
"What a beautiful day!" He exclaimed/remarked that it was a
beautiful day.
"I promise I won't forget." He promised that she would not forget.
"You'd better take your pills." He suggested that I (should) take my pills.
11
Fill in the gaps with one of the introductory
verbs from the list below in the past simple.
• advise • refuse • remark • boast
• accuse • promise • deny • offer
• suggest • remind • insist • warn
1 "I didn't cheat in the exam, " said Tony.
Tony ...................... cheating in the exam.
2 "You should take an umbrella with you, " Philip
told Mark.
Philip .......... ...... ..... Mark to take an umbrella
with him.
3 "I won't tidy my room!" Ruth told her mother.
Ruth ...................... to tidy her room.
4 "Don't forget to pack your swimming cost umes,"
Ryan told us.
Ryan ..................... us to pack our swimming
costumes.
5 "Be careful of thieves in the city centre," said
Sam.
Sam ..................... me to be careful of thieves
in the city centre.
6 "I can bake a cake for your birthday if you like,"
said Richard.
Richard ..................... to bake a cake for my
birthday.
7 "You must eat all your vegetables," Emma told
her daughter.
Emma .. ...... ...... ....... on her daughter eating
all her vegetables.
8 "Eric stole the money!" said Robert.
Robert ..................... Eric of stealing the
money.
9 "Susie plays the violin very well," said Stuart.
Stuart ..................... that Susie played the
violin very well.
10 "I' ll water your plants every day," said David.
David ..................... that he would water our
plants every day.
11 "Let 's go to the cinema," she said.
She ..................... going to the cinema.
12 "I' m the best student in class," he said.
He ..................... about being the best
student in class.
Reported Speech
12
First, choose an introductory verb. Then,
report the sentence using that verb.
1 "Sorry I forgot your birthday. " ~ apologise
Mark ~ apologised for forgetting my birthday.
2 "The reason I' m sad is because my dog is ill".
Penny ......................................... . .... . . ... .
3 "I'm the best singer in the family! " .............. ..
Hannah .............. ................................... .
4 "Everyone take cover!" ................ .
The sergeant .......................................... .
5 "George, I'l l give you a detention if you don't
stop talking!" .. ... .......... ..
Miss Scott ............................................. ..
6 "I was the one who broke the window."
~ ~ .................... . .............................. •.
7 "Remember to phone your mother, Tim!"
Emily ................................................... .
8 "I didn't eat the last piece of cake." ............ ..
Julian ................................................... .
9 "Shall we go out for dinner at the weekend?"
Joe ....................... ... ..... .............. ......... .
10 "This lesson is really boring!" .... ... ......... .
The student .................................. ......... .
11 "Please, please let me go to the concert, Dad! "
Susan ........... .... .... .. ...................... . ....... .
12 "Yes, I'll take the dog for a walk. "
Dan ........ .. ........................................... .
13 "You should see a doctor."
Kim ... .......................... ............ . ...... ..... .
14 "Don't touch the fire!"
Mum ........................ . ...... . ...... ..... . ...... . . .
15 "You stole my bag! "
Jennifer ....... .. .. . ..... . . .... .. .. .................... . .
99
100
Reported Speech
13
Match the sentences in column A to the correct reporting verb in column B. Then, rewrite the
sentences in reported speech, as in the example.
A
"No, I won't come with you," she said to us.
"I didn't hit your car, " I said to him.
"You stole the money," he said to Sue.
B
a accuse
b agree
"Yes, I'U give you a hand moving house," said Bill.
"let's go on a trip," said Mark.
c suggest
d deny
e remind
f refuse
"Don't forget to take your swi msuit ," said Lucy.
1 ~ She refused to go with us.
2
3
I
4 ...................... .. .. ..... . . .... ..... .... .. .. . ........... . .... . ...... .... ... ..... . ........... . .. . ........... . ................. . .
5
6 ..... . .............. ......... .. ........... ........... . . .... .... .. . .................. . ............ ........... ... . .................... .
14
Turn the following into reported speech
using the correct introductory verb. Use up
to three words.
"Yes, I' ll come to the cinema with you," she said.
She . ... . . ...... . ............................. ..... come
to the cinema with us.
2 "Sorry I broke your favourite bowl," he said.
He ............... ......... ............ ... .. . ... .......... .
my favourite bowl.
3 "Will you come to my housewarming party?"
Tanya said to me.
Tanya ................................................... .
to her housewarming party.
4 "This soup is too cold!" said Roy.
Roy .......... .......... ... .. .... ... ....... . .... ..... ..... .
soup was too cold.
5 "Don't worry - I' ll make sure I return before
midnight ," said Gloria.
Gloria .................................................. .
before midnight .
6 "Drop your weapons! " shouted the commander.
The commander ...................................... .
the soldiers to drop their weapons.
7 "How about going to the park?" said Luke.
Luke ...... . ...... ..... .... . ............................. .
to the park.
8 "I didn't scratch the car!" said Hannah.
Hannah ........................................ the car.
9 "Martin, could you close the window, please?"
said the teacher.
The teacher ........................................ ... .
close the window.
10 "I'm late because I missed the bus," said Joseph.
Joseph .... ... ...... ..... . ....... .. ....... .. ..... ....... .
he was late because he had missed the bus.
Speaking
In pairs, talk about two things you did
yesterday, two things you have done today and
two things you will do tomorrow. Then, report
what your partner says.
~ John said (that) he (had) visited his grandparents the
previous day. They ordered a pizza and watched TY.
Writing
Now, write a short paragraph about your
partner, based on the Speaking activity.
Include direct and reported speech.
~ John told me that he had visited his grandparents
the day before. " We ordered a delicious pizza and
watched Tv, " he said.
1
(Units 15-16)
• Modal Verbs
Read the article below and underline all the
modal verbs. Which one expresses:
• advice • lack of necessity • strong advice
• obligation • prohibition
TRAVEL AFRICA MAGAZINE
Safety on Safari
Travel expert Henry Hughes gives his advice on
staying safe on safari.
"The first thing to remember is that you should
always do exactly as your guide tells you. He will be very
experienced and will know exactly what to do if a wild
animal gets too close. You must listen to him! The second
thing you should remember is that you mustn't walk off
on your own. If you stay close to the group, nothing bad
will happen to you. My next piece of advice is that some
wild animals are dangerous, so you must respect them.
You mustn't tease a wild animal or corner it. This is
asking for trouble. Africa has many snakes, so if you go
walking, you should wear a good pair of boots. Keep in
mind, however, that snakes are very shy. If they see a
human, they will usually try to get away as quickly as
possible! So you don't have to worry. The African sun is
hot. To avoid sunburns, you should make sure you apply
sunscreen regularly and wear a big hat. Mosquitoes come
out at night, so you must remember to pack medicine
and creams that will protect you against them. Finally,
you shouldn't forget that it is important to keep the
animals safe, too! You mustn't give food to a wild animal,
even if it looks hungry. When an animal gets food from
humans, it starts to lose' its fear of them and this is very
dangerous because it makes the animal a target for
hunters. "
2 Choose the correct modal verb.
1 You should/can put on sunscreen
when sunbathing.
2 We can/must do what the guide
tells us.
3 They don't have to/can't feed
the animals because it 's not
allowed.
4 We don't have to/mustn't wake
up early tomorrow. It's Sunday.
5 Should/Can I take the day off,
please?
6 Do you think I should/must tell
him what happened?
7 They must/can leave now if they
want to catch their flight .
8 You can' t/don't have to come to
the party if you don't feel like it.
9 You shouldn't/can be so impatient.
10 Paul can/must use my computer if
he likes.
• Reported Speech
3
What is reported speech? How does it differ from direct
speech? How do tenses change in reported speech? How do
we report questions? commands?
Change the sentences from direct speech into reported
speech.
1 "I am going to the zoo in the afternoon," Tom said.
2 "James sent you a gift for your birthday," Mary said.
3 "I won't go with you to the dance, " Jane said.
4 "I have been to Africa three times this year," she said.
5 "Are you coming with us?" they asked.
6 "Don' t touch the monkeys!" the keeper said.
7 "Ben was watching TV when you called," he said.
101
-
102
Revision (Units 1-16
1
Circle the correct item.
1 He ........ my friend for ten years.
A has been B is being C is
2 This is the house ........ he was born.
A where B who C which
3 Jeff ........ his uncle in London next Christmas.
A visited
C visits
B is going to visit
4 As soon as we left, it .. .. .... to snow.
A was starting B had started
C started
5 Do you ........ to go to work on Sunday?
A should B must C have
6 I've ........ met the new manager.
A just B since C yet
7 He ........ to go on holiday but he had no money.
A has wanted B wanted
C was wanting
8 If only she ........ earlier. We could have gone out.
A came B had come C comes
9 Were they the match at 9:00 pm last
night?
A watch B watched C watching
10 If she ....... hard, she would have passed the test.
A studied B had studied
C would study
11 That's the boy .. .. .... won the race.
A where B who C which
12 The letter arrived ....... we were away on holiday.
A as soon as B while C until
13 That 's the house ........ he stayed while in London.
A which B who C where
14 you ........ wear a hat in the sun!
A can B could C should
15 Lara is patient! She .. ...... gets angry at anyone.
A never B often C always
16 They ........ to ballet lessons on Wednesdays.
A are going B go C goes
17 ........ you bring me a glass of water, please?
A Can B Should C Must
18 She. ....... me she would be late.
A said B told C asked
19 I feel cold. I ........ on the heater.
A turned B will turn
C am turning
20 He ........ in Paris before he moved to York.
A lived B has lived
C had been living
21 He'll come ........ it rains.
A until B when C unless
22 She has been here ........ May.
A for B until C since
23 Joan ........ come home late tonight .
A may B should C have to
24 He ........ the shopping when the lights went out.
A did B was doing C is doing
25 He asked ........ time it was.
A whether B what C if
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
They don' t let guests enter the room.
Guests are ........ ..... .... ........ . enter the room.
2 " I'm sorry I shouted at you," Kathy said.
Kathy apologised ........................ ..... at me.
3 "How about going abroad?" Fred asked.
Fred suggested .............................. abroad.
4 It was rude of you to lie to him.
You should .. ............................. lied to him.
5 It's possible that Mark took the book.
Mark may .... ........................ ....... the book.
6 There is no need for you to come before 6 o'clock.
You don' t ..................................... to come
before 6 o·clock.
7 "Please Dad, let me go to the party," Paul said.
Paul ..................... to let him go to the party.
8 Please, keep in contact with me.
Please, stay .. .............. ...... .......... with me.
9 He looks after his little brother.
He takes ........................... his little brother.
10 Will you take us to the station in your car?
Will you give ......................... to the station?
(
Mark: )
10x3 30
( Total: 80 )
Adjectives - Adverbs
Adjectives
It is a nice warm day. There is a
young man sitting on a wooden
bench. He's reading a book.
• Adjectives describe nouns. They have the same
form in the singular and plural.
a cheap dress - cheap dresses
an expensive ring - expensive rings
• Adjectives go before the nouns they describe.
Order of adjectives
• Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives.
a beautiful young woman
• When there are two or more fact adjectives in a
sentence, they usually go in the following order:
She is a bright student .
Size Ase Shape Colour Origin Material Noun I
They also go after the verbs: be, look, seem,
smell , sound, feel, taste, etc.
She is short. He seems excited. She feels bad.
• There are opinion adjectives (beautiful, good,
etc), which show what a person thinks of somebody
or something, and fact adjectives (long, strong,
young, etc), which give us factual information
about somebody or something, that is they describe
what somebody or somthing is like in reality.
1 Use the adjectives to describe the objects.
a kitten/ small / black
~ a small black
kitten
3 a cake/ delicious/
chocolate
2 a red/ tasty/ apple
4 gloves / thick/woollen
a large old oval green Greek clay pot
• We do not usually use a long list of adjectives
before a single noun. A noun is usually described
by one, two or three adjectives at the most.
She bought an oval Greek pot yesterday.
2 Put the words into the correct order.
1 a small / porcelain / vase
~ a small porcelain vase
2 a table / plastic / round
3 a blue / box / new / square
4 a poster / colourful / big
5 suits / expensive / modern / Italian
6 black / pretty / shoes
7 an oval / antique / frame
8 a(n) car / expensive / sports
9 a(n) interesting / book / paperback
10 a boring / story / short
103
104
Adjectives - Adverbs
Adverbs
• Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives or other
adverbs. An adverb can be one word (slowly) or a
phrase (in the street ). Adverbs can show manner
(how) , place (where), time (when), frequency
(how often), degree (how much), etc.
Katie speaks French fluently. (How does she
speak? Fluently. - adverb of manner)
Put your bag here. (Where? Here. - adverb of
place)
I'm flying tomorrow. (When am I flying?
Tomorrow. - adverb of time)
Tom never eats seafood. (How often does he eat
seafood? Never. - adverb of frequency)
He is very clever. (How clever is he? Very. - adverb
of degree)
Formation of adverbs
• We usually form an adverb by adding -Iy to the
adjective.
bad - badly
• Adjectives ending in -le drop the -e and take -y.
possible - possibly
• Adjectives ending in a consonant +y drop the -y
and take -i1y.
easy - easily
• Adjectives ending in -I take -Iy.
hopefUl - hopefully
• Adjectives ending in -ic usually take -ally.
basiC - basically BUT public - publicly
• Some adverbs are not formed according to the
above rules. They have either a totally
different form or the same form as the
adjective.
Adjective Adverb
good -+ well
fast -+ fast
hard -+ hard
early -+ early
late -+ late
Order of adverbs
Athletes wake up
early in the morning
and train hard.
• Adverbs of frequency go after auxiliary verbs
and the verb to be, but before main verbs.
She can never beat Kate at tennis.
Ben is always busy.
I occasionally eat alone.
• Adverbs of manner go before the main verb,
after the auxiliary verb or at the end of the
sentence.
He easily answered the questions in the test.
He is anxiously waiting for an answer.
She opened the letter carefully.
• Adverbs of degree (absolutely, completely,
totally, extremely, very, quite, rather , etc) go
before an adjective, an adverb or a main verb,
. but after an auxiliary verb.
She was extremely helpful .
We quite enjoyed the film.
I didn't quite understand what he meant.
• Adverbs of place and time usually go at the
end of the sentence.
Shall we meet outside?
I saw him yesterday.
Some one-syllable adverbs of time, such as
soon, now and then, go before the main verb,
but after the auxiliary verb or the verb to be.
He soon realised that Emi ly was right .
Mr Brawn is now ready to talk to you.
• We can put an adverb at the beginning of a
sentence if we want to emphasise it.
Luckily, he found his wallet . (manner)
In Venice we fell in love. (place)
Now you tell me you lost your essay. (time)
• When there are two or more adverbs in the
same sentence, they usually go in the following
order: manner - place - time.
He watched TV quietly in the living room
until 8:00 pm.
If there is a verb of movement, such as go,
come and leave, in the sentence, then the
adverbs go in the following order:
place - manner - time.
She left home on foot last night.
• Some adverbs have the same form as
adjectives. These include: hard, fast, high,
low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight,
right , wrong.
Ben is a fast runner. (adjective)
He runs fast . (adverb)
• There is a difference in meaning between the
following pairs of adverbs:
She is working hard these days. (hard = with
effort)
I could hardly hear him at the back. (hardly =
scarcely)
Sarah lives quite near. (near = close)
It took nearly one hour to get here. (nearly .=
almost)
Nick arrived late at work. (late = not early)
What have you been doing lately? (lately =
recently)
3 Write the adverb of the following adjectives.
1 easy
2 hard
3 recent
4 beautiful
5 polite
6 good
7 probable
8 heavy
9 automatic
10 early
11 quick
12 i ncredible
13 friendly
14 lovely
15 careful
.. easily
Adjectives - Adverbs
- The kite flew high in the sky. (high = at a high
level)
He is a highly successful politician. (highly =
very)
Children under six can travel free. (free =
without charge)
EU members are aI/owed to travel freely
within Europe. (freely = without restraint)
• The following words end in ·ly, but they are
adjectives: friendly, likely, lively, lonely,
lovely, silly, ugly.
She has a friendly smile.
We use the phrase in a . .. way/manner to form
their adverbs.
He greeted me in a friendly way/manner.
(NOT: He greeted me /-FieRtiI)'.)
• The adverbs 10ud(ly), cheap(ly) , quick(ly)
and slow(ly) are often used without ·ly in
everyday Engli sh.
Don't talk so loud/loudly.
4 Underline the correct item .
1 Someone knocked on my door very hard/hardly.
2 The bus was parked near/nearly our car.
3 The young child looked at her parents nervous/
nervously.
4 You can easy/easily make mistakes when you ' re
in a hurry.
5 She promised herself that she would be more
careful/carefully next time.
6 She drank her juice quick/quickly as she was
very thirsty.
7 Lucky/Luckily, no one was injured.
8 That is the most horrible/horribly creature I
have ever seen in my life.
9 Sophie was dressed in a pretty/prettily orange
dress with matching sandals.
10 Si man looked at his test results happy/happily.
105
106
Adjectives - Adverbs
5
Use the correct adjectives and adverbs to
complete the exchanges.
( expensive, delicious, well , excellent )
A: Did you enjoy our dinner at the restaurant? It was
1) ... ... ... ....... .. .. ..... .. , wasn't it?
B: Yes, but it was rather 2) .............. .. .... .. .... . .
A: Oh, stop complaining! The meat was cooked
really 3) ........................... and the service
was 4) .. ......................... .
(
confusing, really, hard )

A: Did you finish your homework, Macy?
B: Yes, and it was 5) ...................... .. .. .
difficult. I had a 6) ........................ .. . time
understanding the instructions.
A: You can always ask me if you have problems. I
know how 7) .................... . ...... some
exercises can be.
_____ ____
A: He jogs so 8) ...... .. ................... that I can
9) .............. ............ . keep up with him.
B: Well , he's had a lot of practice. He gets up
10) .. ......................... every morning and
jogs for an hour.
A: Really? He works 11) ..... .. .............. . ..... at
everything he does.
(
late, lately, freely, wrong )

A: You have been missing a lot of classes
12) ......... .. .... ... .... ..... !
B: I know. And I'll be 13) .......................... .
today, as well.
A: Is anything 14) ........................... ? You know
you can talk to me 15) ........................... .
( comfortably, enjoyably, interesting )
A: What did you do last night?
B: Alii did was sit 16) .. .. ....................... on my
couch and watch a(n) 17) ........................ . .. .
film on TV. What about you?
A: I spent my evening 18) .............. .. .......... .. .. ,
too.
6
Say the sentences in as many ways as possible,
using the adverbs in brackets.
1 She will go shopping. (tomorrow)
• She will go shopping tomorrow.
Tomorrow she will go shopping.
2 Dad cooks very well . (usually)
3 My teacher is helpful with all the students.
(extremely)
4 I had dinner. (yesterday/on the plane)
5 She hung up the phone with a smile on her face.
(then)
6 Cameron came home. (early/on footllast night)
7 As it was early, we went for a coffee. (quick!
rather)
8 Simon decided to drive. (carefully/then)
9 She has been listening to music. (in her room/for
an hourlloud)
10 Dennis has been busy. (quite/all day)
11 It was horrible to witness the earthquake.
(absolutely)
7 Underline the correct item.
Dear lucy,
I' m so excited! Yesterday was my birthday and I
had such a 1) wonderfuUwonderfully time although,
in the beginning, I thought everyone had forgotten
about it.
In the morning, I waited 2) excited/excitedly for
the postman to arrive hoping that someone would
send me something. 3) Sad/Sadly, the only thing
he brought was a biU. No cards, no presents, no
4) pretty/prettily bouquets of flo wers. I 5) near/
nearly burst into tears .
Just then, there was a 6) loud/loudly knock on
the door. I opened it n slow/slowly and saw aU my
friends holding 8) brightly/bright wrapped gifts
and shouting "Happy Birthday. " I 9) immediate/
immediately cheered up.
I wish you had been here. We had a 10) fabulous/
fabulously time. Maybe next year!
Take care,
Susie
Comparisons
-
Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives Use
• With one-syllable and two-syllable adjectives, we • We use the comparative to compare two people,
form the comparative by adding -er and the
superlative by adding -est.
tal/ - tal/er - the tal/est
• With adjectives of more than two syllables, we
form the comparative with more and the
superlative with the most.
important - more important - the most important
• We can use less in the comparati ve and the least
in the superlative as the opposite of 'more ... than'
and 'the most .. .' .
important - less important - the least important
• With some two-syllable adjectives, such as
friendly, clever, narrow, etc, we form the
comparative and superlative either with -er/-est
or with more/ the most.
narrow - narrower - the narrowest
or narrow - more narrow - the most narrow
Spelling
• With one-syllable adjectives ending in -e, we add
-r in the comparative and -st in the superlati ve.
nice - nicer - the nicest
• With one-syllable adjectives ending in vowel +
consonant, we double the last consonant and
add -er/-est.
fat - fatter - the fattest
• With two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, we
change the -y to i and add -er/-est.
lazy - lazier - the laziest
Adjective Comparative ' Superlative I
f-s-h-or-t--slow slower I the slowest I
adjectives fast faster the fastest
I . I h I
-y easy eaS1er t e eas est
adjectives busy busier the busiest i
more I the most--l
E
IOnger interesting
adjectives interesting
__ ...1.1 __
interesting
animals, things, places, etc. We can use than
with the comparat ive.
A mouse is smal/er than a cat.
• We use the superlative to compare one person,
animal, thing, etc, with more than one person,
animal, thing, etc in the same group.
Sue is the prettiest girl in the class.
We use the .. . of/in with the superlative. We use
in with the superlative when we talk about places.
He's the smartest student of al/ .
Russia is the largest country in the world.
(NOT: e.f tRe w6rl9)
We use adjectives, comparative forms or superlative
forms in the following structures:
• very + adjective/adverb
She was very rude. / She behaved very rudely.
• much/a lotlfar/a little/a bit + comparative form of
the adjective/adverb
He seems much better today than yesterday.
• (not) as + adjective/adverb + as
Lucy is not as thin as Beth.
• by far + superlative
He's by far the fastest runner.
Comparative and superlative forms of adverbs
The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs
are formed in the same way as those of adjectives.
• Adverbs which have the same form as the
adjective usually take -er in the comparative
and -est in the superlative.
hard - harder - the hardest
• Adverbs formed by adding -ly to the adjective
take more in the comparative and the most in
the superlative.
slowly - more slowly - the most slowly
107
108
Comparisons
Irregular comparatives and superlatives
Adjective Comparative Superlative
little less the least
1
many/ much/
the most more
a lot of
good better the best
bad worse the worst
farther/ the farthest/
far
further furthest
Note:
• further/farther (= a longer distance) are used
to indicate distance.
Her house is further/farther away from the
bank than mine.
• further (= more) is also used as an adjecti ve
and is not replaced by farther .
Don't hesitate to call me if you need any
further information.
8 a) Complete the table.
Adjective
~ b i g
expensive
happy
clever
messy
good
Comparative
~ bigger
more quieti
quieter
younger
Superlative
~ the biggest
the most delicious
the highest
Types of comparisons
• We use (not) as + adjective + as to show that two
people or things are (not) similar in some way.
Fiona is not as thin as Sue.
• We use less + adjective + than for two people or
things. It is the opposite of more ... t han.
The bicycle is less expensive than the
motorbike. (= The motorbike is more expensive
than the bicycle.)
• We use the least + adjective + of/in for more
than two people or things. It is the opposite of
the most . .. oflin.
The film we watched yesterday was the least
interesting of all we've watched so far.
• We use comparative + and + comparative to
show that something increases or decreases.
He drove faster and faster until he was
stopped by the police.
As time went by, he got more and more
nervous.
• We use the + comparative .. , the + comparative
to show that two things change together or that
one thing depends on another thing.
The sooner we leave, the sooner we'll arrive.
b) Complete the sentences with adjectives
from the table.
1 Yum! That was ~ the most delicious dish I have
ever tasted!
2 My sister is . .. . .... .... ... . ..... .. ... .. .. .... than me.
Her room is always untidy.
3 Mount Everest is . .... .. ....... ... . ... .... .. mountain
in the world.
4 James is . . ... .. .... ....... .... . . .... . .. ... . than ever.
Just look at the smile on his face!
5 Mark is . . ... . . .. .. ....... .... .... . ... .. . . .... .. .. player
in the team.
6 Joe and Sam are both clever, but if you had to
choose one, who would you say is ... .. .... . . . .. .... ?
7 Five hundred euros! That's ... . .. ... ......... ....... .
than I thought it would be.
8 The children are ............ ......... .......... .. .... ..
than usual today.
9 My sister Lucy is ......... .. . .... ......... . ...... ...... .
in my family.
10 A cheetah is ........ .. . ......... .. . ........... ... than
a cat.
9
Use the adverbs in the list to complete the
sentences. Add any necessary words.
• quickly • carefully • casually • slowly
• easily • calmly
1 Arctic ice is melting . more quickly than ever.
2 David passed the French test ........ .... .......... ..
than the English one.
3 Sally is .......... .... .............. .. .......... dressed
than Joanna.
4 My sister drives ............................... .. .... of
all the members of her family.
5 A snail moves much ................................. ..
than a tortoise.
6 He was angry today and didn' t speak to us as ....
............. ................ ....... as he always does.
1 0
Write comparatives or superlatives and
then answer the questions.
1 Which is • the largest (large) planet in the solar
system?
(£) Jupiter B Neptune C Saturn
2 Which country is ................ (big) than Canada?
A China B Russia C Brazil
3 On which continent is .......... .. .. ...... ...... (high)
mountain in the world?
A Asia B Europe C Africa
4 Which ocean is .......................... (small) in
the world?
A the Atlantic B the Pacific C the Arctic
5 Which is .............. ........... (heavy) animal in
the world?
A elephant B blue whale C rhino
1 1
Comparisons
Read the i nformation below about three
famous footballers, then complete the
sentences using the correct form of the
words in t he list.
• tall • short • old • young • heavy • little
David Beckham
Date of Birth: 2
nd
May, 1975
Height: 1.83 metres
Weight: 75 kilograms
Ronaldinho
Date of Birth: 21" March, 1980
Height: 1.81 metres
Weight: 76 kilograms
Wayne Rooney
Date of Birth: 24'h October, 1985
Height: 1.78 metres
Weight: 78 kilograms
Ronaldinho is • older than Wayne Rooney. David
Beckham is the oldest of all .
2 David Beckham weighs .................... .......... .
than Wayne Rooney. He's 75 kilograms.
3 Wayne Rooney is ........ . ........ .. .. ........... than
David Beckham. He's the youngest of all.
4 Ronaldinho is .......... .... .... .......... ........ than
David Beckham. He's 1.81 metres.
5 Wayne Rooney is ............................... of the
three. He's 78 kilograms.
6 Wayne Rooney is not as ........................... as
David Beckham. He's 1.78 metres.
109
110
Comparisons
12 Make exchanges, as in the example.
1 Athens / Los Angeles / polluted / city i n the world
~ A: Athens is more polluted than Los Angeles.
B: What? I think Los Angeles is the most
polluted city in the world.
2 Pirates of the Caribbean / Star Wars / good / film /
ever made
3 Cindy Crawford / C1audia Schiffer / attractive /
model / in the world
4 Elton John / Robbie WiIliams / talented / singer /
in the UK
5 Selfridges / Harrods / busy / department store /
in London
13
Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the
adjective/ adverb in brackets, adding any
necessary words.
It's much ~ cooler (cool) this week than it was
last week.
2 The Ferrari is ... . .. .... .. . .... ..... . (fast) car of all.
3 Could you speak ...... . .... . .. ...... ......... ....... ... .
(clearly)? I can' t understand what you are saying.
4 I think Maths is ........................................ .
(difficult) than Chemistry.
5 Karen danced ........................................ . . .
(gracefully) than Louise.
6 Tom is a bit .................. .......... (good) today.
7 This is .. . ............ . ..... .. ...... ...... ...... . ......... .
(expensive) house in the neighbourhood.
8 The planet Venus is not ............... ....... . . (far)
from the sun as Mars.
14
Look at the table and compare the three
restaurants.
Restaurants expensive comfortable large healthy
Tony's Pizza • •
..
Asian Buffet
.. ..

...
The Deli
... ... ... ..
~ The Deli is the most expensive of the three.
The Asian Buffet is not as expensive as the Del;'
Tany's Pizza is less expensive than the Del;'
15
Complete the sentences, using one of the
adjectives from the list and the structure
comparative + and + comparative.
• weak • tall • warm • angry • much
• wet • dark • rich
1 While he was walking in the rain, he got ~ wetter
and wetter .
2 As they moved south, the weather got ..... .. .... .
3 As his illness got worse, he felt . . .. . ....... . . ..... . .
4 As Daniel grows up, he gets ......... . .............. .
5 As Isabelle is on a diet, she is losing .. ............ .
.. .... .... .. ...... ... .... weight every week.
6 Elaine's complexion is getting ........... . ...... .. .. .
... .. ............. because she sunbathes every day.
7 He's becoming ........................................ .
because he is very careful with his money.
8 As we waited in the queue, we got . .. ... . ........ .
16
Complete the sentences, using the structure
the + comparative, as in the example.
I wear this dress a lot. It gets worn out .
~ The more I wear this dress, the more worn out
it gets.
2 Grace studies hard. She'll get good marks.
. .... ... . .............. . Grace studies, ............... .
.......... ... .. .... ..... marks she' ll get.
3 People cut down many trees. Forests get smaller .
..... .. .... ......... ... . trees people cut down, . . ... .
........................ forests will get .
4 I read many books by Jack London. I admire his
5
work a lot.
...... .. . ... ... .. ..... .. books by Jack London I read,
....................... . ........... . I admire his work.
If you practise hard, you'll become a good
musician .
..... . ........... . ..... . you practise,
. . .... .. .. .. .. .... .. .... a musician you ' ll become.
6 The snake got close to me. I became terrified.
. ... ...... ...... .. .... .. to me the snake got, .. .. .... .
.................................... I became.
Put the adjectives in the correct form.
Dear Ann,
I'm sorry I haven't written for a while but I've b
really busy with my new job as an office mana een
that's what I'm writing to tell you about. ger. I
1) s you know, I left my job because I got a much
better ,Igood) offer from my new compan I'
now working In a lovely office in 2) ....... .. .... .... ... m
bUilding in the whole city. It's
) ....................................... (close) and 4) ........ ..
;;...... .. . (convenienlly) located to my
ouse than my previous J'ob My ff' .
5) . 0 Ice IS
...................................... (spacious) and 6) .......... ..
.......... ...... ........... (comfortable) than any office I'
had before, so I'm really happy. ve
;ery satisfied with the money I'm earning. I get a
) . ......... .. (hl'Oh) I
H ........ ........... saary now
I have to say that this job is a bii
. ................................. (stresSful) than m
prevIous one. But everyone here is very helpful And my
y
new boss is 9) .
I've ever met. ....................................... (nice) person
Well, that's my news. Write back soon
Love, .
Katie
18
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
1 Joseph is taller than Kathleen.
Kathleen is not as tall as Joseph.
2 I've never seen such a good film before.
It's ..................................................... ..
I've ever seen.
3 Ann speaks very politely to all the customers.
Ann speaks in a ....................................... .
to all the customers.
4 Harry is more hardworking than Alan.
Alan is ...... .............................. than Harry.
5 I've never read such a good essay before.
This is ...... .. ... ... ......... .... ..... I' ve ever read.
6 As he studies harder, he gets better grades.
The harder he studies, the .. ....................... .
he gets.
Comparisons
7 Sue is prettier than Helen.
Helen is not ...................................... Sue.
8 Red meat isn't as healthy as fruit and vegetables.
Fruit and vegetables are ........................... ..
red meat.
9 Karen is less slim than Marianne.
Karen isn't ............................................ ..
Marianne.
10 Rachel doesn' t read as many books as David.
Rachel reads ................................... David.
11 He's not as good as I am at chess.
I am ..................................... him at chess.
12 I've never seen such a bad film.
That's .................................... .............. .
film I've ever seen .
13 This dress is more comfortable than the other
two.
Those two dresses aren't .. ................... ...... .
......... ..................... this one.
14 Those restaurants are more expensive than this one.
This is the ... .. .. .......... ................. ..... ...... .
restaurant of all.
15 Bicycles aren't as fast as cars.
Cars are ................ ........ ... ......... bicycles.
Speaking
Look at the famous people below. Use these
adjectives to compare them.
• talented • handsome • young • clever
• successful • funny • serious • famous
• friendly
J think Rowan Atkinson is more talented than
Leonardo DiCaprio.
Writing
Write a short article comparing two famous
people from your country.
11l
112
1
Too - Enough
Too comes before adjectives or adverbs. It has a negative meaning
and shows that something is more than enough, more than necessary
or more than wanted.
• too + adjective/adverb + to-infinitive
The soup is too hot to eat. (It's so hot that we can' t eat it. )
Enough comes before nouns but after adj ectives or adverbs. It has a
positive meaning and shows that there is as much of something as wanted
or needed.
adjective/adverb + enough
enough + noun
+ to-infinitive
He sings well enough to be in the school choir. (He can be in the choir.)
They have enough money to buy the house. (They can buy the house. )
• not . .. enough + to-infinitive (negative meaning)
He is not well enough to go back to school. (He is still sick, so he can ' t go
back to school.)
• too •. . (for somebody/somet hing) + to-infinitive (negative meaning)
The test was too difficult for me to do. (The test was very di fficult , so
I couldn' t do it. )
Jenny is too tired to continue
working.
She plays the flute well enough
to win the competition.
Rewrite the sentences using too or enough.
7 She isn't very tall . She can' t become a model.
The room is very dark. We can' t see anything.
~ The room is too dark to see anything.
8 It 's very warm. We can go to the beach.
2 She's so ill . She can' t get out of bed.
3 The bag is heavy. I can't lift it.
4 Their garden is big. They can have the party
there.
5 We haven' t got much money. We can' t go on
holiday.
6 Fred is tired. He has no energy to play football .
9 He is very short. He can ' t play basketball.
10 Bill is clever. He can pass the test.
2 Complete the responses using too or enough.
1 Are you going out today? (cold)
~ No, it's too cold.
2 Can we all fit in your car? (big)
~ Yes, it's big enough.
3 Is Harry going to come first in the race? (fast)
Yes, ... . .. . ... ....... . .................... .. ... .. ...... .. .
4 Are you going to buy that car you liked? (money)
No, ............. ....... ... ..... . ... .... ... ..... . .... . .... .
5 Can he move the desk by himself? (strong)
Yes , . .... .. . ..... . .. . ... .... .. . .... . ... .. ............ . . .. .
6 Did you go to the cinema last night? (tired)
No, ... ... .. ............. .. ....... .... ..... .. .... ......... .
7 Can you reach the shelf? (short)
No, ............. .... ... ...... ..... ... ............... .... . .
3
Use the pictures and the ideas to make
sentences using too or enough, as in the example.
Peter / ti red / work
it/windy/ go sailing
~ It is windy enough to go
sailing.
the baby/young/to walk
they/have/money/buy the car
Sue/tall/reach the top shelf
the lift/small /fit all the people
Too - Enough
4
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
1 This skirt is too small for me.
This skirt isn ' t ~ big enough for me.
2 Paul speaks so quickly that I can' t understand him.
Paul doesn' t ............ .. .... .. .............. . for me
to understand.
3 She is too young to drive.
She isn't .. .. ................................. to drive.
4 The test was so difficult that I couldn't finish it .
The test was .. ................................ ........ .
for me to finish.
5 It's too cold to play outside today.
It isn't ........ .. ........ .. .......... .. ........ . to play
outside today.
6 This CD player is very expensive. We can't buy it.
This CD player is ........ .. .................. .. ........ .
for us to buy.
7 The questions were too difficult for the children
to answer.
The questions weren't .. .... .... .. ....... .......... .. .
for the children to answer.
8 It's so dark that I can't see.
It's .......... .. .... .. .......... .... .. .. . for me to see.
Speaking
You went on holiday last month but you did
not enjoy it . Use the phrases to tell your
partner about it, as in the example.
• hotel room - small • beds - not soft
• hotel food - not fresh • swimming pool -
crowded • other guests at hotel - loud
• flight - long
~ The hotel room was too small .
Writing
Use the information from the Speaking activity
to write a letter to your English pen-friend
about your last holiday. Start like this:
. Dear Fred,
I went on holiday last month, but it was terrible.
113
114
Question Tags
Question tags are short questions at the end of statements. We normally use them in oral speech in order to
confirm something or to find out if something is true or not.
. ~ ~ . ) ....
~ \
~ .
They're reading glasses,
aren't they?
She has got a lot of books,
hasn't she?
Giraffes eat leaves, don't they?
• We form question tags with the auxiliary or modal
verb of the main sentence and the appropriate
subject pronoun.
Gina is /talion, isn't she?
You can speak French, can't you?
• When the verb of the sentence is in the present
simple, we form the question tag with the auxiliary
verb do/does and the subject pronoun. When the
verb is in the past simple, we form the question
tag with the auxiliary verb did and the subject
pronoun.
Helen eats meat, doesn't she?
Frank played football when he was young, didn't
he?
• When the sentence is positive , the question tag
is negative. When the sentence is I _gative, the
question tag is positive.
Janet loves dancing, doesn't she?
He won't come to the party, will he?
• When the sentence contains a word with a
negative meaning, like never, hardly, rarely or
seldom, the question tag is positive.
He never drinks milk in the morning, does he?
• Some verbs/expressions form question tags in a
different way.
I am -+ aren't I? I'm tall , aren't I?
Imperative -+ will /won't you?
Stop yelling, will/won't you?
Don't -+ will you? Don't run, will you?
Let 's -+ shall we?
Let's go to the cinema, shall we?
I have (got) -+ haven' t I? (= I possess)
They have got a dog, haven't they?
I have -+ don' t I? (other meanings)
She has a shower every day, doesn't she?
There is/ are -+ isn' t/aren 't there?
There is a child in the bedroom, isn't there?
This/That is -+ isn't it?
This is Dam's bag, isn't it?
Intonation
• When we are sure of the answer and expect
agreement, the voice goes down in the question
tag.
These are horses,
aren't they?
'"
• When we aren't sure of the answer and want to
check information, the voice goes up i n the
question tag.
She isn't studying at the
moment, is she?
-1
1
Underline the correct item.
1 They have got many cats, have they/haven't they?
2 We have never had so much snow, haven't we/
have we?
3 That is a beautiful coat, isn't it/isn' t that?
4 There are many sweets in the box, isn't it/aren't
there?
S Robert has a big breakfast every morning, doesn't
he/hasn' t he?
6 Sam and Pat went to ballet practice together
yesterday, didn't they/did they?
7 The dog has buried the bone under the tree,
didn't he/hasn't he?
8 Close the window, don't you/will you?
9 Let's stay home tonight and watch TV, shall we/
will we?
10 Jake seldom wakes up late, doesn' t he/does he?
2
Complete the sentences with the correct
question tags.
He loves football, ~ doesn't he?
2 Philip doesn't work on Saturdays, .. .... .. .. .. .... .. ?
3 You will go shopping, ................ .. ............ ?
4 Let's eat out tonight , .. .. ........ .................. ?
S Stop talking, .......... .. ...... ............ ?
6 We haven ' t got enough milk, ....................... ?
7 They weren't at the party last night , .... .. .. .. .... .
.. .. .... .... ?
8 John didn ' t go to Florida with Ann, .......... .. .... ?
9 She looks beautiful, ...... .. ...................... ?
10 Paul can come to the funfair with me, ........... ?
3 Correct the sentences.
1 She can't be serious, ~ she?
2 They have got many friends ,
don ' t they?
3 Let's go dancing tonight , will we?
4 1 am so beautiful , am I?
S Simon didn't pass the test , does he?
6 That is Sheila, isn' t that?
~ can
Question Tags
4
Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs below. Then, write the question
tags.
• drink • speak • run • go • eat • play
• jump • climb • be (x2)
1 He can ~ speak three languages, can't he?
2 He .. .. .......... milk in the morning, ............... ?
3 Kangaroos ................ very high, .. .............. ?
4 Let 's .. ........ ...... . football , .. .. .. ........ ..... ?
S Julie never ...... .... .. .. .. .. .. . trees when she was
a child, ................... ?
6 Just .................... careful , ............ .. ........ ?
7 A puma can ............... very fast , ................ ?
8 She was ill so she ............ .. ........ to school
yesterday, ............ .. ..... ?
9 Children rarely .................... their vegetables,
.................... ?
10 1 solved the mystery! 1 .... .. ........... very clever,
................... ?
5
Match the sentences to the correct question
tags.
c 1 Get me a glass of
- ~ ~
water,
2 She is Spanish,
3 Peter can run fast ,
4 Let 's have a picnic,
S She spoke to Tom,
6 They had dinner,
7 I 1 should study for
the test ,
"8;--0-""1 There aren' t enough
eggs for the cake,
'--;; 9---'--'1 He has never been
abroad,
110 1 1 You 've paid the bill,
I a didn't they?
\ b shouldn't I?
\ c will you?
I d haven't your
\ e isn't she?
I f has he?
\ g can' t he?
\ h didn't she?
I shall we?
\ j are there?
115
116
Reflexive Pronouns
Subject Pronouns Reflexi ve Pronouns
I myself
you yourself
he himself
>--
~
she herself
1-----
-
it itself
>------
we ourselves
you yourselves
they themselves
Use
We use reflexive pronouns:
• with verbs such as behave, burn, cut , enjoy,
hurt, introduce, kill , look at, teach, etc when
the subject and the object of the verb are the
same person.
Subject
,....-
Wondo hos burnt
Object
herself.
• with the preposition by when we mean 'alone' ,
'without company' or 'without help' .
Rita painted the living room by herself.
(Nobody helped Rita paint the living room.)
He likes being by himself sometimes. (He likes
being alone, without company. )
• with the following expressions: enjoy yourself
(have a good time) , behave yourself (be good),
help yourself (you're welcomE to take
something if you want) .
• to emphasise the noun or the pronoun of a
sentence. They usually come after the noun or
pronoun they emphasise or at the end of that
sentence.
1 Fill in the gaps with the correct reflexive pronoun.
1 Ouch! I just cut ~ myself wit h the knife.
2 My mum loves being by .................... .
3 My little brother never behaves ...... .. .... .. ..... .
4 They enjoyed .... ........ ........ last night.
S If you play with fire, you can burn .... .. .... .. .... .
6 We can paint the house by .................... . We
don't need help.
He has cut himself. She made the birthday
cake herself.
She herself made al/ this food for the party.
(She made all the food, not somebody else.)
Mary met Brad Pitt himself. (She met Brad Pitt,
not somebody else.)
Note:
We do not normally use reflexive pronouns with verbs
such as dress, wash and shave. However, we can use
a reflexive pronoun with these verbs when we want to
show that someone did something with a lot of effort.
Although Mr Wood was ill , he managed to dress
himself.
Cindy is only three years old, but she can wosh
herself.
Each other means one another.
Study the following examples:
Janet and Beth af . looking at themselves
in the mirror.
They are looking at each other.
7 My grandmother taught .. ...... .. ...... .. .. how to
knit.
8 He hurt ................ .. .. as he was climbing a
tree.
9 Did you reall y paint that picture by ............ .. ... ?
10 The t wi ns are too young to dress .. .. .... .. .. .. .. . .
Reflexive Pronou
2 Match column A to column B to make correct sentences.
3
I 1 t
1 Kylecut a himself while he was surfing.
1
2
I
1 Ann doesn't like being
b by themselves.
1
3
1 George hurt
c himself how to swim.
1
4
1 Sandra and Jane made their birthday cakes
d themselves today.
1
5
1 The children aren't behaving
1
6
1 Let me introduce
1
7
1 She looked at
1
8
1 My dad taught
1 9 1 I burnt
1
10
1 We enjoyed
Look at the pictures and match them to the
sentences. Then, complete the sentences with
the correct reflexive pronoun.
e
f
g
h
j
4
herself in the mirror.
himself while he was shaving.
ourselves at the party.
myself. I'm Dan Beck.
by herself.
myself on the cooker.
Fill in the text with the correct reflexive
pronoun where necessary.
This morning, my
sister and I woke up early.
I went to the bathroom to
wash 1) .. .... .. .. .. .... .... while my
sister was dressing 2) .... ........ .. .
Then, we went to the kitchen to
make breakfast by 3) .. .. .......... .... .. . It
was a disaster. I cut 4) .................... with a
knife and my sister burnt S) .................. .. on the toaster. To
If he isn't careful, he may burn .......... ........ .. .
2 You should learn how to use a knife properly so
you don't cut ............ ........ .
3 Jim likes going fishing by .. .......... ...... .. .
4 Tara hurt .. .............. .... while she was playing
football.
5 They are enjoying .. .. .... .. .. .... .. .. at the party.
make things worse, our mum came into the kitchen to
~ . see what we were doing, and she made us
promise never to cook 6) .................. ..
again.
-
5
Fill in the correct reflexive pronoun or each
other/one another.
1 A: Who did you speak to?
B: I spoke to the manager ~ himself.
2 A: How is Paul?
B: I don't know, we haven't seen ... ... .. ....... ...
for ages.
3 A: Did you switch the air' conditioner on?
B: No, it switches .. .. .. .... .. ...... .. .... . on every
morning at 7:00.
4 A: Have you kept in touch with Lucy?
B: Yes, we've been emailing ..... .. .............. . ..
for months now.
117
118
(Units 17-20)
1
• Comparatives - Superlatives
a) Circle the comparative and superlative
forms in the text. Use them to fill in the
table. Complete the missing forms.
®#ifJ nu .' j
l
tr en
~ . . . .. \ ~ " . ~ !
I \N1rtt cp ·· ~
- Billionaire Girls!
Twins Mary·Kate and Ashley Olsen are two of America's
most famous celebrities. They are also two of the most
successful businesswomen in the world. At just 21 years of
age, they themselves run a company which makes one
billion doll ars a year!
Mary·Kate and Ashley look very similar but they are not
identical. Ashley is older by two minutes and is sl ightly taller
than Mary·Kate. They have different personalities, too.
Ashley says she is quieter than Mary·Kate. Mary·Kate says
she is more outgoing than Ashley. The girls say they are too
busy to have a nonnal social Ide, because they travel a lot
and run a business.
Like any sisters, Ashley and Mary·Kate can someti mes
argue. But at the end of the day, they love each other
enough to forgive and forget. As Mary-Kate says, "We
couldn't run such a successful business if we weren't close,
could we?"
Adjective Comparative Superlative
b) Which word do we use to compare two
people, things, etc? Is it the same in your
language?
2
Fill in the gaps with the comparative/
superlative form of the adjectives in brackets.
1 That was ...... "." ....... .. ........ " ... (bad) film
I've ever seen.
2 Sue is ... .. .. " .... ... .... ..... (pretty) than Kathy.
3 Philip is ....... ... .... . (fast) runner in the team.
4 This is ..... , .. , ...... , .... " .. , .. ".,,,. (expensive)
restaurant in town.
5 It 's a bit .... , .. , .... (cold) today than yesterday.
6 Which is ... , ...... " ... ... . , ....... (high) mountain
in the world?
• Too - Enough
3
Look at the highlighted phrases in the text in
Ex. 1 a. Which has a positive/negative meaning?
1
2
3
4
5
4
Then, complete the sentences using too or
enough.
They don' t have ............. time to go shopping.
Ben was playing music" ........ loudly last night.
The suitcase is ....... ... ... heavy for me to carry.
She hasn't got ., ... .. ... , .. money to pay the bill .
She is .. ....•. .. ... tired to go out tonight.
• Question Tags
What is a question tag? Find an example in the
text. How do we form them? When do we use
them?
Complete the sentences with the correct
question tags.
1 He looks good today, ... .... ............ ?
2 She didn't cut her hair, ... , ........... ?
3 Let's go to the beach today, ................... ?
4 Help me wit h these bags, ... " ........... ... ?
5 They can't have so much money, ............. .... .. ?
• Reflexive Pronouns
5
Find a reflexive pronoun in the text. When do
we use reflexive pronouns? Then, complete
the sentences with the correct reflexive
pronouns.
The boys are behaving ... .. .. ..... ..... .. perfectly.
2 Did you make this by ................ ... ?
3 I was cooking when I burnt ... ...... .. . , ...... .
4 We enjoyed .. .... ............. at the carnival.
5 She cut " ................. on a piece of broken glass.
1
(ircle the correct item.
1 Jake isn't old ........ to ride a bike.
A enough B too ( more
2 What is the ........ river in the world?
A longest B longer ( long
3 This is ........ restaurant in town.
A cheaper B the cheapest
( cheap
4 Do you think people should ........ more of their
rubbish?
A recycling B recycled
(
recycle
5 I think he ........ a doctor one day.
A will be B going to be ( is being
6 Betty isn't ........ her sister.
A clever as B as clever as
(
clever than
7 Did you enjoy ........ at the play last night?
A yourselves B yours
(
you
8 If only he ........ stop biting his nails!
A will B would
(
had
9 My tooth hurts. I ...... .. see a dentist.
A should B can
(
could
10 (an you keep an eye on the baby ........ I go
shopping?
A until B as soon as ( while
11 The lion cubs ........ while their mother was
sleeping.
A have played B play ( were playing
12 (heetahs are the ........ animals in the world!
A fastest B fast
(
faster
13 That pop concert was the ........ I've ever been to.
A worse B bad
(
worst
14 Peter ........ to Greece two years ago.
A travels B travelled
( was travelling
15 You've finished your homework, ........ ?
A did you B have you (haven't you
16 Ann hasn't ........ Lucy for four years.
A see B saw ( seen
17 If she had had money, she .. .. .... the dress.
A had bought B would have bought
( would buy
18 She ........ work at 5 pm every day.
A finishes B is finishing
( was finishing
19 Mary handed in the report an hour ........
A since B yet ( ago
Revision (Units 1-20)
20 He's ........ tired to go out.
A too B much ( enough
21 you .. ...... go now. Thanks for the help.
A can B need
(
has to
22 There was ........ food for all the guests.
A too B enough
(
very
23 Look at him. He ...... .. to fall down.
A has B is going to
(
must
24 She's ...... .. taller than her sister.
A a bit B very
(
too
25 Laura drives much ........ than me.
A fast B faster
(
fastest
( Mark:
25x2 so)
2
(omplete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
Greece isn't as big as Spain.
Spain ........ .. ................................ Greece.
2 He's still too young to get a driving licence.
He isn't .......... ..... to get a driving licence yet.
3 He always keeps his promises.
He never ...................... ......... his promises.
4 The weather today is better than yesterday.
The weather yesterday was ........................ .
than today.
5 John is older than all the other students in the
class.
John is .......... .................... .. .. . in the class.
6 I can't help you now because I've got too much
work to do.
I am too ........................ .... to help you now.
7 The French team won the match.
The French team were ............................ ..
at the end of the match.
8 Sorry, but I'm too busy to meet you on Saturday.
Sorry, but I can't .......... .......... it on Saturday.
9 Jan is as old as Michael is.
Jan and Michael are .............. .. .. .......... age.
10 Children should never swim alone i n the sea.
Children should never swim by .. .................. ..
in the sea.
(
Mark: )
10x3 30
(
Total :
80
)
119
120
AI An - One/Ones
a + consonant sound (fbi, I dl , Igl, I f I, I l l, I pl, etc)
an + vowel sound (frel, lel, ill , I D/, lal , etc)
We use a/an:
• with singular countable nouns when we talk
about them for the first time, or after the verb
to be to say what someonel something is.
He's a pilot.
It's an apple.
• with the verb have (got).
Nancy has (got) a bicycle.
• in certain expressions when we want to show
how often we do something.
We play football twice a week.
One/Ones
Mrs Smith is a teacher.
Look at her. She is
holding an apple.
We don't use a/an:
• with uncountable nouns or plural countable
nouns. We use some instead of alan.
We need to buy some sugar. (NOT: ~ )
They ate some oranges.
• before an adjective if it is not followed by a
noun. However, if the adjective is followed by a
noun, we use a/an.
It's a car. It's fast. It's a fast car.
This is Tina's house. It's new. It's a new house.
We use one in the singular and ones in the plural to avoid repeating the noun when it is clear what we mean.
My new flat is much bigger than myoid one. (= myoid flat)
I don't usually wear gold earrings. I wear silver ones. (= silver earrings)
A(n)/One
• We use alan to refer to an unspecified thing with
the meani ng ' any' .
He bought a motorbike. (We are not talking about
a specific motorbike. We mean any motorbike.)
We use one when we are counting, to put emphasis
on number.
He bought one motorbike. (He didn't buy two
motorbikes, he bought one.)
• We use alan + adjective + one.
I'm looking for a car. I want a sports one.
• We use one with the words night, morning, day,
time, etc usually in narration.
One day I will be famous.
• We use alan or one with no difference in
meaning when counting or measuring money,
distance, weight , time, etc.
She paid alone hundred pounds for her new dress.
We need alone kilo of bananas.
Mark will be abroad for alone year.
1
Fill in: a, an or some.
1 ~ an alarm clock 2 . .......... banana
3 ......... .. pai ntbrush
4 ........... diary
5 ........... umbrella
6 .... ..... .. popcorn
".. ,.,
/" :J
8 ......... . . aeroplane 7 ......... strawberries
9 ... ........ elephant 10 .......... . cheese
;
11 .... .. .. camel 12 .. ... ... onion
2 Fill in: a, an or some.
A: Would you li ke ~ some tea?
B: Yes, ~ a cup of t ea sounds good.
2 A: I' m going to the supermarket.
Do you need anything?
B: Could you get me .......... tomatoes and
.......... jar of strawberry jam, please?
3 A: What 's thi s?
B: It's ......... . antique wooden radio.
AI An - One/Ones
4 A: I've lost my key. Have you seen it?
B: Actually, I found .. .... ... key on the kitchen
table this morning. It must be yours.
5 A: I need ............. information for my project.
B: Why don't you search on the Internet?
6 A: What 's Phili p's job?
B: He works as .. .. ..... . office assi stant for a big
company.
3
Complete the sentences wi th a, an, one or
ones.
1 I go to Pari s t wice .......... year.
2 Susan only drank ....... . .. glass of Coke, not t wo.
3 Kate is t raining to be ... . ..... . astronaut.
4 That house cost .. ... ... .. million pounds!
5 I don't like these silver shoes - I prefer the red
6 I bought .......... orange jacket yesterday.
7 Did you know that .......... of Hilary's cousins is a
famous actor?
8 We spent ......... . day in Athens before going to
Spetses.
9 There was only .. ........ painting I liked in all of
t he exhibition!
10 I want to buy ... ....... new camera. I' d like
.. ........ digit al . ......... .
4
Fill In: a, an or one.
A 1) . ...... day, I will buy 2) ..... . . house in Oxford.
It will have 3) . ...... garden, so I will be able to
keep 4) ....... pet .
B Diana heard 1) ....... knock on the door. 2) ...... .
old lady stood outside. She was wearing 3) ...... .
black dress and was carrying 4) .. .. . .. black bag
in 5) ....... hand and 6) ....... big suitcase in the
other.
C There were 1).... ... dozen students in the
li brary and not 2) . ...... of them knew how to use
3) . ... ... computer.
D I am looking f or 1) ... ... . backpack. I need a large
2) ... .... as I will be going travelling for 3) . ..... .
year. My sister told me there is 4) ....... shop
that sells them at a discount, but it is 5) ...... .
kilometre away.
121
122
The Definite Article 'The'
We use the:
• with countable and uncountable nouns when
we are talking about somethi ng specific, that
is, when the noun is mentioned for a second time
or is already known.
Jason has got a
sports car and a
bike. The car is
very expensive.
• with nouns that are unique (the sun, the moon,
the Earth ).
• with names of rivers (the Amazon), seas (the Black
Sea), oceans (the Indian Ocean), mountain ranges
(the Alps), deserts (the Sahara), groups of
islands (the Sandwich Islands) and countries when
they include words such as 'state' , 'kingdom' ,
'republic', etc (the United Kingdom).
• with names of musical i nst ruments (the piano,
the violin) and dances (the tango).
• with names of hotels (the Intercontinental Hotel) ,
theatres/cinemas (the Royal National Theatre),
ships (the Titanic), organisations (the Red Cross),
newspapers (The Independent ) and museums (the
Archaeological Museum).
• with nationalities (the Italians) and names of
families (the Smiths).
• with titles when the person's name is not
mentioned (the King, the Queen of England
BUT Queen Elizabeth 11 ).
• with the words morning, afternoon and evening.
They play football in the morning.
• with adjectives/adverbs in the superlative form.
He is the cutest baby I ' ve ever seen.
1 Fill in the where necessary.
We do not use the:
• with uncountable and countable plural nouns
when talking about something in general , that is ,
when we cannot answer the question ' Who?' or
'What?' .
Lions live in the jungle.
(What lions? Lions in
generaL)
• with proper names.
This is Rosa. She comes from Mexico.
• with names of countries (France), tities (Rome),
streets (St Peter's Street ), parks (Hyde Park),
mountains (Mount Everest ), railway stations
(Victoria Station), bridges, (Tower Bridge),
individual islands (Malta), lakes (Lake Erie) and
continents (Asia).
• with names of sports (tennis), games (table tennis),
activities (painting), school subjects (Maths), days
(Monday), months (May), celebrations (New Year 's
Eve), colours (red), drinks/liquids (water), meals
(dinner) and languages when they are not followed
by the word ' language'.
I speak French. BUT The French language is
difficult to learn.
• with the words home, Father/ Mother when we
talk about our own home/ parents.
Father is at work.
• with means of transport: by bus/ car / train/
plane etc I go to work by car.
• with names of illnesses. He's got arthritis.
BUT (the) flu, (the) measles, (the) mumps
1) ~ - Malta is a small island in 2) ....... Mediterranean Sea. It is located
south of 3) . . . .... . Sicily and east of 4) .. . ... . . Tunisia. 5) ..... . .. people who
live there speak both 6) .. . .. .. . Maltese and 7) .. . .... . English. Malta is
8) .. . . .... smallest member of 9) .. .. . ... European Union and there are fewer
than half a million people living t here.
The Definite Article 'The'
2 Fill in a, an or the where necessary.
A: Can you tell me the way to ~ the nearest
supermarket , please?
B: Of course. Turn right here and you'll find it on
.. .... . Ki ng Street.
2 A: Have you ever travelled to ... .. .. Africa?
B: No, but I've been on ..... .. trip to ... .. .. Asia.
3 A: Do you know where .. . . ... Amazon River is?
B: Yes, it is in .... ... South America.
4 A: Is this ... .. .. Nancy's car?
B: No, ..... . . red car over there is hers.
5 A: I saw .. ..... amazing documentary yesterday.
B: Really? What was it about?
6 A: .. .. . . . Tom is going to .. ... . . Spain on business.
B: Is he going to stay at .... ... Ambassador
Hotel again?
7 A: Where are . .. .. .. Browns going for their
summer holiday?
B: They' re going to .... .. . Canary Islands.
3
Read the following text and put a tick (,f) for
every correct use of the and a cross (X) for
every incorrect use of it. Correct the mistakes.
The last month of my holiday was very
exciting. ~ ,I'
2 We went to the Rome for two weeks.
3 We stayed at the Dolores Hotel, which is
4 near the banks of the Tiber Ri ver.
5 We visited the Trevi fountain and the
Colosseum.
6 We also took a trip to the Pompeii ,
7 one of the most popular tourist attractions
8 in the Italy. We also tasted some delicious
9 the Italian food and went dancing
10 at one of the Rome's famous nightclubs.
4 Fill in a, an or the where necessary.
Last month, my fami ly and I went
on holiday to 1) ~ - New York.
is 2) ........ amazing and vibrant city.
~ took us seven hours to get there
by 3) ........ plane. We stayed at 4) .. ...... Dylan Hotel ,
which is in 5) ........ city centre and it is only 6) ... .. ... short
walk from 7). ....... Broadway theatre area. We saw
8) ........ Broadway pl ay, which was 9) ........ special treat
for me. We also visited 10) ........ Empire State Building,
which is one of 11) ... ..... tallest buildings in 12) ....... .
United States. We went all the way up to 13) ........ 86th
floor observation platform. There was 14) ........ great
view of 15) ........ city from 16) ........ top. On the last day
of our trip, we went to 17) .. .... .. Uberty Island and saw
18) ... .... . StaJue of Uberty.
We had 19) .. .. ... . amazing time and it will remain
20) ........ unforgettable trip for all of us.
Speaking
When was the last time you went on a trip to
an interesting place? Tell the class. Talk about:
• place • time • who with • transport
• activities • feelings/ comments
~ Last month, my parents and I went on holiday to
Paris. It's a beautiful and exciting city.
Writing
Write about an interesting tri p you went on.
Use your answers from the Speaking activity to
help you. Use Ex. 4 as a model.
123
124
The Passive
The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC. It was
designed by IcOnus and Callicrates. It is made of marble.
It has been seen as one of the seven wonders of the
world. It will be destroyed if we don't take care of it.
Form to be + past participle (pp)
We form the passive with the verb to be in the
appropriate tense and the past participle of the
main verb.
The passive forms are:
present simple: am/is/are + pp
My house is painted twice a year.
present continuous: am/Is/are being + pp
My house is being painted now.
past simple: was/were + pp
My house was painted last month.
past continuous: was/were being + pp
My house was being painted when I left this
morning.
present perfect simple: have/has been + pp
My house has already been painted.
past perfect simple: had been + pp
My house had been painted by two o'clock.
future simple: will be + pp
My house will be pa inted tomorrow.
Note: The present perfect continuous and the
past perfect continuous are not normally
used in the passive.
Use
The passive is used:
a) when the person who carries out the action is
unknown, unimportant or obvious from the
context .
Mr Smith 's car was stolen last night . (We do
not know who stole Mr Smith's car.)
Coffee is grawn in Brazil. (It is not important
to know who grows coffee. )
The thief was arrested last night . (It is
obvious that the police arrested t he thief. )
b) when the action itself is more important than
the person who carries it out, as in news
headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices,
instructions, advertisements, etc.
Two possengers were seriously injured in a
train accident last night.
c) when we want to make statements more
polite.
My new crystal vase was broken. (more polite
than saying ' You broke my crystal vase.' )
Note: The passive is used more often in written
English than in spoken English.
The Palace of Versailles is situated in Paris. It was built in 1624
by the French King Louis XIII . It has been visited by millions of
people since then. Nowadays, many conferences are held there,
and several international events are going to be organised there
during the next two years.
Changing from active into passive
a) The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the
passive sentence.
b) The verb changes from the active form into the passive form
(the appropriate tense of the verb to be + the past participle
of the main verb) .
c) The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent in the
passive. We introduce the agent with by + person or with +
thinglinstrument.
I ACTIVE
PASSIVE
Ipresent

r-
present
cont.



!past
cont.
l--
present
perfect
simple
past
perfect
simple
future
IS.imple
Subject Verb Object
Paula painted the room.
Subject Verb Agent
The room was painted by Paula.
Active Passive
Tina waters the plants The plants are watered
twice a week. twice a week by Tina.
Tina is watering the The plants are being
plants now. watered now by Tina.
Tina watered the The plants were watered
plants twice a week. twice a week by Tina.
Tina was watering the The plants were being
plants at Z o'clock watered at Z o'clock
yesterday. yesterday by Tina.
Tina has watered the The plants have been
plants twice a week. watered twice a week by
Tina.
Tina had watered the The plants had
plants by Z o'clock watered by Z
yesterday. yesterday by Tina.
been
o'clock
Tina will water the The plants will be watered
plants twice a week. twice a week by Tina.
Note: The agent is often omitted in the passive sentence when
the subject of the active sentence is one of the following
words: people, one, someone/somebody, they, he, etc.
They will build the house next year.
The house will be built next year.
The Passive
• Obj ect pronouns (me, you, him,
etc) become subject pronouns (I,
you, he, etc).
They told me.
t was told.
• With verbs which take two
objects, such as allow, award,
bring, buy, feed , give, grant,
hand, lend, offer, owe, pass,
pay, post, promise, read, sell ,
send, show, take, teach, tell,
throw and write, we can make
two different passive sentences.
However, it is more usual for
passive sentences to begin with
the person.
Mary sent Jose a letter.
aj Jose was sent a letter by Mary.
(more usual)
bj A letter was sent to Jose by
Mary.
• When the verb of the active
sentence is followed by a
preposition, the preposition is kept
in the passive sentence.
A babysitter looks after my baby.
My baby is looked after by a
babysitter.
• When we want to find out who or
what did something, then the
passive question form is as follows:
WholWhat ... by?
Who was the test written by?
(Who wrote the test?)
What was all this smoke caused
by? (What caused all this smoke?)
125
126
1
The Passive
Fill in: is / are, was / were, have/ has been.
The window ~ was broken by the schoolchildren
yesterday.
2 Beatrice ......... taken to hospital with a broken
leg.
3 The film ET . ........ directed by Steven Spielberg.
4 I ...... .•. invited to a birthday party last
Saturday.
5 Air pollution ......... caused by cars.
6 These songs ..... .... written by John Lennon.
7 This restaurant ..... ... . full y booked till next
week.
8 Documentaries by National Geographic ........ .
shown on TV for many years.
9 Visitors ........ . asked not to t ake any pictures in
museums.
10 The lotto winners •... ..... announced tomorrow.
2
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
passive tense.
A: When ~ are your eyes going to be tested
(your eyes/test)?
B: Well, they ............... . . (test) last week and I
have a prescription for glasses.
2 A:
(the criminal/catch) yet?
B: Unfortunately, he's still free.
3 A: All the information .... .. .. ....................... .
.............. (can/obtain) easily at t he library.
B: Really? Let 's go then.
4 A: Shall we watch TV?
B: Yes, my favourite singer ......... ............... .
... ................. (interview) at the moment.
5 A: Did you get the book you wanted?
B: No, it ......... ........ .......................... .... .
(already/sell) when I got to the shop.
6 A: This stunt .......... ... ................. . ....... .... .
(perform) many times.
B: Yes, but I get scared every time I see it.
7 A: Is Georgia coming to the wedding?
B: She .... . .. . ........ . .. . ................... .. .... ..... .
(already/invite) and we're waiting for her
answer.
3
Use the words to write questions and answers,
as in the example.
Coca-Cola / invent / John Pemberton
Who ~ was Coca-Cola invented by?
It was invented by John Pemberton.
2 the Sydney Opera House / open / 1973
When ................................................... .
3 the first aeroplane / fly / in North Carolina
Where ................. ................................. .
4 the Millennium Dome / build / to celebrate the
new millennium
Why .. ..... ........................ ... .. ..... ............ .
5 the Arc de Triomphe / complete / 1835
When ...... ..................... ... ........ ......... . .. . .
6 the Mona Usa / paint / Leonardo da Vinci
Who ..................................................... .
7 Great Expectations / write / Charles Dickens
Who ...................................... ......... ...... .
8 the first Harry Potter film / release / i n 2001
4
When ............................................ ... .. .. .
Make a passive sentence from the words in
brackets.
1 A: That 's a lovely dress .
B: Yes. ~ It was bought by my husband (it/buy/
my husband) on our anniversary.
2 A: Is anyone responsible for buying the birthday
cake?
B: Yes ................................................. . .
. . ................... (itlalready/buy/Samantha)
3 A: What do you know about the Statue of Liberty?
B: ............. ............... .......................... . .
(it/present/to the USA/by France/in 1886)
4 A: Was there an earthquake i n Asia?
B: Yes .................................................. .
(medicine and food/collectlat the momentl
to help the victims)
".
5 A: Have they caught the thieves yet?
B: Yes ................. .............. .................. ..
(two men/arrest/yesterday)
6 A: Are they going to open the new hospital?
B: Yes ................... .................... ........ .. ..
(preparations/make/eventlorganisers/now)
7 A: How did they find the missing boy?
B: ........................................ ............... .
(he/hear/calling for help/passers-by)
5
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
passive tense.

WWF
In the spring of 1961 , a group of scientists and 1
advertising experts 1) were brought (bring)
together by Max Nicholson, and the World Wildlife
Fund 0NWF) 2) .............................. (establish).
Neutral Switzerland 3) .......... ........ ............ (choose)
as the organisation's headquarters, and the panda
4) .......................................... (pick) as its logo. On
11th September 1961, WNF 5) .... ............................ .
................................ ... .. ... .... ...... (officially/form) and
6) ...................... ............. (list) as a charity. Today,
WNF offices 7) ............ ........ .. ............. ....... (set up)
in over 100 countries. Almost 4,000 people
8) ...................................... (employ) by the charity,
and approximately 2,000 conservation projects
9) .............................................. (finance) by it. WNF
l
10) ......... ........ ................. (support) by almost fi ve
million members around the world.
- --.
The Passive
-
6 Put the newspaper headlines into the passive.
1 l Deadly tsunami hit Indonesia!
------
2 Coastguard rescued
twelve fishermen
3 Factory waste
will kill all fish by 2045
......
4 5- -,-
L
Explosion shuts down
railway station
t
Fire has destroyed
Natl:,nal
6
Earthquake hits Japan
1 Indonesia was hit by a deadly tsunami.
2 ............... ............ ....... ....... .. ....... ........ . .
3 ................ .. . .. . . .............. . ...... ... , ........... .
4 .............. , ............. ... .. , ...... . ... ... ..... . ..... ..
5
6 ....... , ... .... ... . , ........... , .... . . , .................. .. .
7 Rewrite the sentences in the passive.
1 Someone gave the inspector useful information.
Useful information was given to the inspector.
2 Did they arrest the thief?
3 The company will not fire the employees .
4 The artist is going to draw a nice picture.
5 Wesley usually answers all the questions.
6 Has the Queen opened the new hospital?
7 The secretaries won't type the report today.
8 The firemen were putting out fires all day
yesterday.
127
128
The Passive
9 The children had mopped the floor before I got
home.
10 When is the delivery service bringing the box?
8 Rewrite the following passage in the passive.
People rescued a young girl from drowning
yesterday. She had been swimming when suddenly a
current caught her. Within minutes, the current had
pulled her 200 m away from the coastline. Luckily,
sunbathers on the beach heard her cries. They called
the coastguard and the coastguard brought her to
safety. Doctors are keeping the girl in hospital
overnight. They will discharge her tomorrow. The
local authorities advise parents never to leave their
children unattended when they swim.
9
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
1 His nanny takes him to the park every day.
He .. is taken to the park by his nanny every day.
2 Valentino designed this beautiful dress.
This beautiful dress .......... .. .. ........ : ........ by
Valentino.
3 Penny has invited them to the wedding.
They .............. .. ... .......... ... . .... ..... .... . .... . .
to the wedding by Penny.
4 Many tourists visit London every year.
London .. .. .. ...... .. ...... ........ .. .... ............ by
many tourists every year.
5 The teacher will give the students their report
cards.
The students will .. .. .. ...... .. ............ .. ........ ..
their report cards by the teacher.
6 Who directed the film?
Who was ........................ . ....... directed by?
7 Lucy has sent Paul an email.
Paul has . .... . . .. ... . .. . .. . .... ... . an email by Lucy.
8 My school organises a story competition every year.
A story competition . ..... .. .... . . . .... . . .... . ........ .
my school every year.
9 Scientists haven't discovered a cure for the
common cold yet.
A cure for the common cold has . . ... ..... ... . . .. .. .
discovered yet.
10 The police arrested the thieves.
The thieves . .. . .. ... , ... ... .. ... .... ... ... .. ........ by
the police.
Speaking
In pairs, use the information and the notes below
to ask and answer questions, as in the example.
• where/ located • what/made of
• when/ completed • who/ designed
• why/ built
Name:
Location:
Made of:
Completed:
Designer:
Reason built:
Statue of Liberty
Liberty Island,
New York
copper and steel
1884
Frederic-Auguste ' ~ . !
Bartholdt
to honour the fri endship
between t
France and the USA
.. A: Where is the Statue of Liberty
located?
B: It is located on Liberty Island, in New York.
Writing
Use the information about the Statue of
Liberty from the Speaking activity and write a
short text about it.
I
I
I
i
I
I
I
I
,
The Causative
We use have + object + past participle to say that we
arrange for someone to do something for us.
Sandra had her hair cut yesterday. (Sandra did not cut
it herself - somebody else cut it for her. )
- . ~
Mary is painting her nails.
Ann is having her
nails painted.
present simple
present continuous
past simple
past continuous
present perfect simple
He repairs his car.
He is repairing his car.
He repaired his car.
He was repairing his car.
He has repaired his car.
present perfect continuous He has been repairing his car.
past perfect simple
past perfect continuous
future simple
modals
He had repaired his car.
He had been repairing his car.
He will repair his car.
He must repair his car.
He has his car repaired.
He is having his car repaired.
He had his car repaired.
He was having his car repaired.
He has had his car repaired.
He has been h a ~ ~ n ~ his car repaired. I
He had had his car repaired.
He had been having his car repaired.
He will have his car repaired.
He must h a v ~ his car repaired. 1
._ _------l
• Questions and negations of the verb have are formed with do/does in the present simple and did in the
past simple.
Do you have your house cleaned every week? Did she have her hair cut?
• We can also use have something done to express that something unpleasant happened to somebody.
Nick had his car stolen yesterday. (= Nick's car was stolen. This sentence shows that this unpleasant
incident happened to him.)
• We can use the verb get instead of the verb have, only in informal conversation.
She must get her car serviced soon. (= She must have her car serviced soon.)
1 Tick (,f) the correct sentence for each picture.
~ Gina is doing her hair.
~ Gina is having her hair
done.
~ Ann is cutting the grass.
~ Ann is having the grass
cut.
~ Tania is repairing her
radio.
~ Tania is having her
radio repaired.
~ Justin is painting his
house.
~ Justin is having his
house painted.
129
130
The Causative
2 Rewrite the sentences using t he causative.
1 Their new TV will be delivered t omorrow.
They will have their new TV delivered
tomorrow.
2 His car was serviced last week.
He .......... ......................... ... ....... .... . ..... .
3 My cat is being exami ned by t he vet .
I ....... . ..................................... . ........... .
4 The Scotts' house had been painted by professionals.
The Scot ts ................................ .. .......... ..
5 The children's bedroom has been cleaned.
The children .............. .. .. ............ ............. .
3
Something bad happened to each of t hese
people. Make sentences saying what happened
to them. Use the causative.
1 George (his scooter/steal) from the mechanic's.
George had his scooter stolen from the
mechanic's.
2 Flora (her car/break into) last night.
3 Mike (his wallet/steal) at work.
4 Peggy (her shop window/smash) with a brick.
5 Ken (his house/ spray-paint) by vandals.
4
1
Look at the shops. Use t he i deas to make
sentences, as in the example.
• computer/fix • suit/clean • hair/ cut
• glasses/ repair • nails/ do • film/ develop
Style Hai,dHSS;N9
3 $ue/SI 9?JetU.Ihf
4 Asville Dry Cleaner's
5 Mareo's Pho
6
I can have my glasses repaired at Optical.
5
the following conversation using the
causat,ve.
Janet : When are you moving into your new house?
Sally: As soon as we 1) ...................... .......... ..
(our new furniture/deliver), but I don' t know
when that will be.
Janet : You 2) .... .. .................. .... .. .... .. .. .. .... ..
(not/it/deliver) yet? What about the repairs
you needed?
Sally: Well , we 3) .. .. .. .. ........................ ...... ..
.. ........ .. ... (our carpets/lay) last week and
they're fantastic!
Janet : Brilliant! 4) ...... .... ............ .. .. ...... .. .. .. ..
(the plumbing/fix) yet?
Sally: Yes, that ' s done. Tomorrow, we 5) .... .. .... ..
(our new appliances/install).
Janet : Good luck!
Sally: Thanks.
6
Read the situations and write sentences using
the causative.
1 Ti na is going to the hairdresser's tomorrow t o dye
her hai r. What is she going to do?
She is going to have her hair dyed.
2 Emma's tap was dri pping, so a plumber fixed it
yesterday. What did Emma do?
3 You fell and you can't walk. Your sister says a
doctor must examine your ankle. What must you
do?
4 A desi gner designs all of Madonna's clothes. What
does she do?
5 A technician is checki ng our comput er now
because we have a black screen. What are we
doing?
6 The people at the garage will wash Mike's car
tomorrow. What will he do?
7 My parents were cooking for my party all day
yesterday. What was I doing?
8 A painter has already painted Olivia's entire
house. What has she done?
9 My brother is going to feed my cat while I'm
away. What am I going to do?
10 The boss will ask the secretary to type the
letters. What will the boss do?
........... ... ... ... ... .... ..... .......... ........... .. ... ..
7
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
1 A thief broke into my uncle's shop last night.
My uncle had ~ his shop broken into last night.
2 A surgeon will operate on her leg next week.
She will ............ ...... ........... ........... .. . .... ..
operated on next week.
3 It's time you cut your hair, I think.
I think you should ................................... ..
cut .
4 Someone has cleaned my windows at home.
I ...... .. . .. . . .............. .. .. . .... .... .............. ... .
my windows cleaned at home.
5 The postman delivers letters to Matthew every
month.
Matthew has .............. ........ ......... .......... ..
every month.
6 Monica's dress was too long so a dressmaker
shortened it yesterday.
Monica's dress was too long so she ............... ..
.. ... .. ............. . .. . ...... yesterday.
7 I'm going to ask the gardener to plant some
trees.
I'm ........ . .. . .. .......... .. ... .... ....... .......... .. . . .
some trees planted.
8 His teacher will correct his composition.
He will .. .... ........... ........ ... ..... ......... . .. .... .
corrected by his teacher.
9 Kyle replaced Brad's shelves because they were
too old.
Brad's shelves were too old so he .. ........ ..... . ..
.......... ........ ....... by Kyle.
10 Diana asked someone to check her fridge last
Monday because it broke down.
Diana's fridge broke down so she .... .......... .. .. .
.......... . .. . ...... ... ..... . .. . . ..... ...... last Monday.
The Causative
--
Speaking
Tom has recently bought a house and is fixing it
up. Look at the pictures. Use the phrases to
make sentences. Tell your partner.
• a pond/ make • flowers/plant
• the house/ paint • the fence/repair
• the roof/ retile • the windows/replace
~ In picture A Tom is having a pond made.
In picture B Tom has had a pond made.
Writing
Mrs Smith is writing a letter to her brother,
telling him about her new home. Look at the
Speaking activi ty again and use the prompts to
write the letter, saying what the Smiths have
done •
131
(Units 21-23)
1
• AlAn - The
Read the text below and fill i n a, an or the
where necessary. Give reasons.
-
THE ICE HOTEL
Imagine staying at 1) .......... hotel made from snow and ice,
where your bed is 2) .......... giant block of ice and you
sleep in 3) .......... special Arctic sleeping bag. That is what
it is like to stay at 4) .......... Ice Hotel in 5) ...... ....
Jukkasjarvi, Sweden. This hotel was fi rst built in 1989. The
owners of this frozen paradise have the hotel redesigned
and rebuilt each year by snow buil ders, using only snow
and ice, since the hotel melts away in spring. More than
30,000 tonnes of snow and 3, 000 tonnes of ice are used to
create this igloo-like building that has over 60 guest rooms.
Even 6) ............. furniture is made compl etely out of ice
blocks. 7) ............. beds are thick pieces of iCE JPped with
foam mattresses, and 8) ...... .... chairs are shaped from
blocks of ice. Reindeer skin blankets are placed over the
beds and chairs to provide some warmth. In 9) .......... main
area of 10) .......... hotel, there is 11) .......... bar where
cocktails are served in ice glasses. 12) .......... first ice
glasses were developed in 1995, and they have been cut
and shaped from pure clear river ice blocks ever since. Thi s
hotel also has 13) .... ...... cinema, 14) .......... ice church for
weddings and 15) .......... reception hall for ceremoni es.
Heated bathrooms and cabins are also located in
16) .......... nearby building for guests who cannot stand
17) .......... cold. But this unique hotel experi ence doesn't
come cheap. The cost for 18) .......... overnight stay starts
from 2,800 Swedish Kronor (£200) per night. No matter
the cost, this incredibl e building is definitely 19) ...... .. ..
most unusual place to stay in 20) ...... .... Sweden.
l32
2 Underline the correct item.
1 Sandra has got an/a great sense of humour.
2 Taylors/The Taylors live in the countryside.
3 They flew to the USA/USA last month.
4 We went to Hyde Park/the Hyde Park yesterday.
5 Pompeii is an/a ancient Roman city.
6 Betty can play piano/the piano very well .
7 Our plane leaves Heathrow/the Heathrow
airport at 3 o'clock.
S Mary bought an/a pair of trousers yesterday.
9 Tom stayed at the WaterfordlWaterford Hotel.
10 He goes to work by car/the car .
• The Passive
3
Read the text again and underline all the verbs
in the passive. When do we use the passive?
When can we omit the agent in the passive?
4
Fill in: is, was, were, has been, have been or
will be.
1 Hamlet ......... written by William Shakespeare.
2 Karen ............ given these flowers tomorrow.
3 The Colosseum ........ .. .......... located in Rome.
4 The first Star Wars film ....... released in 1977.
5 The Pyramids ..... built thousands of years ago.
6 An annual film festival .............. organised in
our town since 1986.
7 Many of my friends ................. invited to my
party so far.
S My handbag ..................... stolen yesterday.
• The Causative
5
When do we use the causative? Find an example
in the text. Complete the sentences with the
causative.
1 Jane .................................................. ..
(wedding dress/make) at the moment.
2 David ................................................ ..
(his bike/steal) last night.
3 Martha ........... .. ............................. ..... ..
(her car/repair) three times this month.
4 They ................................................. ..
(their dog/examine) every year.
Si ...................................................... ..
(my hair/style) for the party last night .
1
Circle the correct item.
1 Mum says we ........ be home by 10 pm.
A shouldn't B have to C can't
2 What time did Emma ........ yesterday?
A left B was leaving Cleave
3 I don' t have ........ time to do that now.
A more B enough C too
4 Do you know John?
Yes, I ........ him for two years.
A knew B know C have known
5 Is Sam here? Yes, he has ........ arrived.
A just B for C since
6 Spain ........ by millions of tourists every year.
A is visited B is visiting C was visited
7 Jake ........ every five years.
A has had his house painted
B was his house painted
C has his house painted
8 He doesn't like being by himself, ........ he?
A d o ~ B ~ C d ~
9 John ........ the house all day yesterday.
A tidied B has tidied C was tidying
10 If only he ........ to me yesterday. He wouldn't be
in trouble.
A listens B listened C had listened
11 He ........ that his plane landed at si x o'clock.
A said B told C tells
12 He ........ to this museum many times before.
A has been B was C were
13 Please don't tell Ben ........ I speak to him first.
A when B until C as soon as
14 Timmy is ........ young to go to school.
A too B more C enough
15 if they' d practised more, they ........ won the match.
A would have B had had C will had
16 This is the girl ........ father is a famous writer.
A whose B where C who
17 If he had had money, he ........ the car.
A bought B would have bought
C would buy
18 We will have the windows ........ by the carpenter.
A fixes B fixed C fix
19 Oliver Twist ........ by Charles Dickens in 1837.
A is written B was written C wrote
20 The blue whale is ........ endangered species.
A an B - C the
Revision (Units 1-23)
21 I wish it ........ raining.
A would stop B has stopped C could stop
22 This is the village ........ he was born.
A which B who C where
23 Kate is shorter ........ Alice.
A than B from C to
24 You ........ enter this area. It's forbidden.
A must B can't C don't have to
25 He .... .... his car stolen last night.
A had B has C was
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
There's a bl ue book on your desk that I want.
I want .... ...... ................. that's on your desk..
2 I think that money should be donated to chalr1ly.
I think that people ...................... ...... .
donations to charity.
3 Global warming is melting the polar ice apL
The polar ice caps are melting .. .. .. .... .
global warming.
4 Charles Dickens wrote A Christmas
A Christmas Carol ................ ...... • .. by
Charles Dickens.
5 All the rooms of the house were 5 7 t apart
from the kitchen.
We had all the rooms of the 5 f".1 .......
... dIe ki t chen.
6 He took his car to the g ~ _ be serviced
yesterday.
He ................ .. .... ......... sernced yesterday.
7 It's hard to find a golden NIle at Loch Lomond.
Golden eagles are ............... at Loch Lomond.
8 They will collect the rubbish tomorrow morning.
The rubbish .. ........ .............. .......... .... ...... .
tomorrow morni ng.
9 He hasn't got many fnends.
He has got only ................. ............. friends.
10 People should turn off the lights when they leave
a room.
The lights should ............. ....................... ..
when leaving a room.
(
Mark: - )
10x3 30
( Total: 80 )
133
134
Nouns (singular/plural)
The plural number of nouns is formed as follows:
Regular Plurals
book -> books
bus ->
buses
glass
-> glasses
watch -> watches
box -> boxes
video -> videos
tomato
->
tomatoes BUT piano -> pianos
baby
-+
babies
BUT
boy -> boys
leaf --+ leaves BUT roof --+ roofs
knife
--+
knives BUT gi raffe -> giraffes
Irregular Plurals
child
--+
children mouse
--+
mice
man
--+
men sheep
--+ sheep
woman --+ women ox
--+
oxen
foot --+ feet deer
--+
deer
tooth -+ teeth fish
--+ fish
goose
--+ geese louse
--+
lice
person --+ people
We use singular verb forms with:
• mass nouns: butter, cheese, flour, bread,
water, coffee, tea, air, gold, wood, paper, etc.
There is some bread on the table.
• school subjects: Maths, Physics, History, etc.
Maths is my favourite subject at school.
• games: football , billiards, darts, dominoes, etc.
Darts is my favourite game.
• diseases: measles, mumps, flu, pneumonia,
etc. Mumps is a childhood disease.
• some other nouns: news, advice, information,
weather, furniture, hair, accommodation, money,
homework, seaside, work, rubbish, jewellery,
traffic.
Her hair is long and blonde.
To make a pizza
you need four
tomataes, an
onion,
two peppers,
cheese and five
mushrooms.
• plural nouns when we t alk about an amount of
money, a time period, distance, weight, etc.
A hundred thousand dollars is a lot of money.
(We refer to the total amount of money.)
Two hours is a long time to wait.
• group nouns, such as family, team, group,
crowd, class, company and government , when
we refer to the group as a unit . However, we use
plural verb forms when we mean the individuals
that make up the group.
The team is one of the best. (We refer to the
team as a unit. )
The team are training hard to win the cup.
(We mean the individual members of the team.)
We use plural verb forms with:
• nouns such as clothes, people, police, stairs,
etc.
The police are looking for the bank robbers.
• nouns which refer to objects that consist of two
parts, such as trousers, pyjamas, binoculars,
scissors, shoes, shorts, gloves, glasses, socks, etc.
We can use a singular verb form and the phrase
a pair of with nouns that consist of t wo parts.
Compare: Where are my shoes?
There is a pair of shoes under the bed.
1
Write the plurals.
1 pen
2 mouse
3 lady
4 leaf
5 ball
6 baby
7 knife
8 sausage
~ pens 9 bus
10 man
11 toy
12 strawberry
13 frog
14 party
15 box
16 tooth
2 Underline the correct item.
1 A: My hair / a r e a mess today.
B: Don't be silly. You look fine.
2 A: Why are you so late?
B: The traffic was/were really bad.
3 A: Can I borrow a pencil, please?
B: Of course, there is/are one in my bag.
4 A: Did you see Paula at the concert last night?
B: No, there was/were too many people there.
5 A: What happened with the robbery?
B: The police is/are still looking for the suspect.
6 A: These shorts is/are very old.
B: You should buy a new pair.
7 A: Did you have a nice holiday?
B: Yes, thank you. The weather was/were great.
8 A: How much milk is/are there in the fridge?
B: Two cartons, I think.
9 A: My trousers was/were dirty, so I had to wear
this dress.
B: It really suits you.
lOA: Where is/are the scissors?
B: In the drawer.
3 Underline the correct item.
1 History is/are my favourite subject at school.
2 Watch out! Those knives is/are sharp.
3 These jeans is/are far too tight.
4 Measles is/are a childhood disease.
5 Yum! These cherries is/are so juicy!
Nouns (singular/plural)
6 Your new pyjamas is/are lovely.
7 The stairs in the new house is/are made of wood.
8 The weather is/are going to be bad tomorrow.
9 The news is/are on at six o'clock.
10 The information is/are not correct!
11 Gi na's family has/have got a farm in Wales.
12 The government is/are thinking of ways to
combat poverty.
13 There was/were too many people in the queue.
14 Her clothes is/are eccentric.
15 My advice is/are that you should stay at home.
16 Maths was/were my favourite subject at school.
17 Four days is/are not enough time to see Paris.
18 Our furniture is/are from France.
19 Where is/are your luggage?
20 A hundred thousand pounds is/are a lot of money.
Speaking
Look at the pictures for a minute. Close your
books and try to remember as many items as
possible.
1 ~ There is a baby.
2 ~ There are six women.
135
136
Countable/Uncountable Nouns
COUNTABLE NOUNS
Singular Plural
Affirmative There is an apple. There are some apples.
Negative There isn't an apple.
There aren't any apples.
Interrogative Is there an apple?
Are there any apples?
Nouns can be countable and uncountable.
• Countable nouns are nouns which can be
counted. They have singular and plural forms.
a/one bottle, two bottles, three bottles
• Uncountable nouns are nouns which cannot
be counted. They have only singular forms.
(some) cheese (NOT: eRe chee&e, twe cheese)
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
There is some apple juice.
There isn't any apple juice.
Is there any apple juice?
Countable nouns:
• can take singular and plural verbs.
They had a cheeseburger and some coffee
during their lunch break.
The car ;s new.
The cars are new.
J
• can be used alone or with some/any/many/
few in the plural.
Some nouns can be used as countable or
uncountable with a difference in meaning.
She loves bananas.
I'm going to buy some potatoes.
Uncountable nouns:
• always take singular verbs.
The meat ;s fresh.
Olive oil comes from olives.
• can be used alone or with some/any/much/
little/the/my etc.
Remember to buy (some) butter.
We can use both uncountable nouns and plural
countable nouns after phrases of quantity: a can/
jar / bottle / glass / carton / cup / bowl! packet / slice /
loaf/ kilo/ barllump/ tin / piece, etc + of.
She usually drinks a glass of orange juice in the
morning.
Please buy two packets of spaghetti.
• / want a glass of water.
That statue is made of glass.
• She found a hair on his jacket.
He combed his hair.
• /'11 go and buy a paper.
/ want some paper, please.
• We've got to buy an iron.
The table is made of iron.
• We've got a spare room in our house.
Sit here. There's plenty of room for all of
us.
Countable/Uncountable Nouns
1
Fill in: a, an or some.
1 A: Do you want .. some sugar on your cereal?
B: No, thanks. It's sweet enough!
2 A: Shall I buy ... .. ........ . .. loaf of bread?
B: Yes , please. And ... . .. ... .. carton of milk, too.
3 A: Can I have .. ..... ... .... .. orange, please?
B: Of course. Help yourself.
4 A: I want to make .. . .... . . . ... ... apple pie but
there are no apples in the fridge.
B: I' ll go and buy .. . ..... .. .. . ... .
S A: What did you buy?
B: I bought . .... .. . . . .. .. .. lovely trousers and
...... ... .. .. beautiful skirt .
6 A: I would like .. . .. ... . .. . . ... lemonade.
B: Sorry, there isn't any left.
7 A: Did you get ... . ....... . .. . . birthday present for
Steve?
B: Yes, I got him .. . .......... anorak.
8 A: Would you like .. .. . . .. . .... fruit?
B: Yes , please. I' ll have ...... .. . .. . . .. . banana.
9 A: What's that?
B: It's . .... . . . ... .. old suitcase full of clothes I
found in the attic.
10 A: I saw ... ... . ...... nice jewellery and
.. .. . ...... . . beautiful gold watch in a shop
yesterday.
B: Did you buy anything?
2 Underline the correct item.
1 The meat isn' t/aren't fresh.
2 Will you remember to buy some/a bread?
3 She loves apple/apples.
4 They had a/some hamburger for lunch.
S Cranberry juice comes/come from cranberries.
6 I usually drink a/some glass of milk in the
morning.
7 Waiter ! There's allittle hair in my salad!
8 Can I have a lump/tin of sugar in my coffee,
please?
9 There is too much/many salt in the soup.
10 There were only a few/a little people at the
park.
3
Complete the sentences using a/an, where
necessary, and the words i n bold.
hair
a Jane has short, blonde ......... .. .... . . . ....... .
b I found . . . .... .... ... . .. ... .. ... . . .... in my soup!
2 room
a They booked . .... .... ... .. . .. .. . ..... . . ..... in an
expensive hotel.
b There's not enough .. .... . ..... . . .... . •. .. ... . for
everyone in the house.
3 paper
a He bought .... . ... .. . .. ..... . on his way home.
b Oh, no! We've run out of ... ....... . . .......... .
4 glass
a Could I have ... ...... .. . ...... of water, please?
b After the accident, there was broken ... . .... .
. ..... . ..... . all over the place.
S i ron
a Jenny bought ...... . . .. .. ... ...... in the sale at
the electrical store.
b The castle gate was made of ... . .. . .. . .•• .. . •. .
4
Fill in the gaps with the words from the list in
the correct form.
• cup • packet • tin • bottle • loaf
• kilo • carton • jar
For one week only, we have
hundreds of special oilers,
Including:
• 20% off all 1) .. packets of bi scuits.
• Three 2) ....................... of lemonade for the price of two!
• All 3) ........ .. .. ............ .... ... of baked beans half price!
• Two 4) .. ....... ..... ........ ........ of bread for the price of one!
• Three 5) .... .......... .......... of bananas for the price of two!
• Buy one 6) ...... .. ... .. ...... .. .. ... .. ..... of jam. Get one free!
• Get two 7) .. ... .... ... ..... ........... of milk for the price of one!
Plus ALL sIIoppen are entitled to a free
') ............. III CGIIIe at our In-atore caf6.
137
138
Some - Any - No
• We use some and any with uncountable nouns (juice, water, etc)
and with plural countable nouns (glasses, books, etc).
/ need some milk and some onions.
• We use some in positive statements.
They've got some cheese. They gave her some flowers.
• We use any in questions and not any/no in negations.
Has he got any coffee?
We haven't got any sugar. (= We have no sugar.)
They haven't got any tea. (= They' ve got no tea.)
• We use some in questions when we make an offer or
a polite request.
Would you like some water? (offer)
Can / hQve some juice, please? (request)
Affirmative
Negative
Countable and Uncountable
some
not any/ no
There is some cheese. There isn't
any bread. Are there any eggs?
No, there aren't.
Interrogative any
1
Fill in the gaps with some or Qny.
A: We have to go to the supermarket ,
Mike. Let's make a list of what we
need.
B: Good idea. Well , we need 1) ~ some
eggs, bread and 2) .. .. .... . rice. We
don't have 3) .. ....... biscuits or
crisps either.
A: OK. Have we got 4) .... .. .. . tinned
vegetables left?
B: No. We have to get 5) .......... But
we also need 6) ........ . f resh
vegetables.
A: OK. Do we have 7) ......... cheese
left?
B: Yes, we have plenty. But we
haven't got 8) ...... .. .... ... butter
or 9) .. .. .... . yoghurt.
A: OK. What about lemons? Do we
need 10) .......... .. ...... ?
B: No. And I think we are OK for
everything else.
2
Look at the menu. Use the words to ask and answer
questions, as in the examples.
• salad • pizza • chicken • pasta • sandwiches • beef
• lemon juice • ice cream • meat lasagne • apple pie
• soup • coffee
DESSERTS
Chef's Salad €4.00 Apple Pie € 2.50
€ 2.00 Chocolate Cake €2.00
Ice Cream (per scoop) € 1.00
MAIN COURSES
Pasta with Vegetables €4.50 DRINKS
Vegetable Lasagne € 5.00 Tea/Coffee € 1.80
Indian Vegetables (spicy) € 4.70 Mineral Water € 1.50
Veggie Club Sandwich €4.00 Fresh Juice (orange) € 2.40
~ A: /s there any sQlad on the menu?
B: Yes. There's chef's salad on the menu.
A: /s there any pizza on the menu?
B: No, there is no pizza on the menu.
A lot of - Much/Many - A few/Few - A little/Little
• We normally use a lot of /lots of in positive statements with plural countable
nouns and uncountable nouns. We omit of when a lot/lots is not followed by
a noun.
John's got a lot ofllots of friends. There's a lot of water in the glass.
BUT Have you got many photos? Yes, I've got a lotllots. (NOT: 9 l et eft l ets ef)
• We normally use much and many in questions and negations. Much is followed
by uncountable nouns and many is followed by plural countable nouns.
Liz has got a lot ofllots
of apples.
Is there much coffee in the pot? There isn't much butter left.
Have you got many DVDs? I haven't got many DVDs.
• We use how much and how many in questions.
how much + uncountable noun (amount)
How much milk do you want? Not much.
how many + countable noun (number)
How many close friends do you have? Three.
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
Countable
a lot (of) / Iots (of)
many
how many
Uncountable
a lot (of) / lots (of)
much
how much
• Too many can be used with plural countable nouns and has a negative
meaning. It shows that there is more of something than is wanted or
needed. There are too many cars in the street.
• Too much can be used with uncountable nouns and has a negative meaning.
It shows that there is more of something than is wanted or needed.
There's too much traffic today.
We use a few/few with plural countable nouns (oranges, dogs, etc).
• A few means not many, but enough.
I've got a few oranges. 1'1/ make some juice.
• Few means hardly any/almost none, and can go with very for emphasis.
(Very) few people eat in this restaurant because the service is bad.
We use a little/little wi th uncountable nouns (milk, honey, water, etc).
• A little means not much, but enough.
I' ve got a little money. Let's have a coffee.
• Little means hardly any/almost none, and can go with very for emphasis.
I
, ,
I ,.
Liz has got a few apples.
She can make an apple pie.
Liz has got (very) few apples.
She can't make an apple pie.
Lynn has got a little
sugar. She can make a
cake.
Lynn has got (very) little sugar.
She can't make a cake.
139
140
A lot of - Much/Many -A few/Few -A little/Little
1
2
3
4
5
Complete the sentences with much, many, a
lot of, how much or how many.
A: Let's go for a walk.
B: Sorry, I can't. I've got ~ a lot of work to do.
A: ..... .. .. ..... sugar do you take in your coffee?
B: Just a spoonful , please.
A: There isn' t ... .......... . . ...... . .. .. cheese left.
B: Well , I' ll buy some.
A: .. .. . .............. oranges are there in the bag?
B: Six, I think.
A: Are there . ............... children in your class?
B: Yes, about thirty.
2 Fill in the gaps with too much or too many.
Don't eat ~ too much chocolate. It isn ' t good
for you.
2 You have invited ...................... .. people. We
don' t have enough chairs.
3 Tom has .......... . ............... food on his plate.
He can' t finish it.
4 There is . ... . ........... .. ....... noise in the room.
5 There are ................ . ........ cars on the road.
6 You put ............ . ............ sugar in my coffee.
I can' t drink it now.
3
Fill in the gaps with a few or a li ttle.
A: Have you got many COs?
B: Only ~ a few.
2 A: Can you turn the radio down ............ . ..... . .
bit, please?
B: Of course. I' m sorry if it was too loud.
3 A: May I have .... .. ... ....... . . more time, please?
I haven' t finished yet.
B: You can have five more minutes.
4 A: Who can give me .............. . ........ ideas for
my project?
B: You can ask Adam.
5 A: Have you had any ideas, yet?
B: Yes, I' ve had .................... We can discuss
them later tonight if you li ke.
6 A: Do you want some honey in your tea?
B: Just .. ...... . ......... ,. ,
4
Change the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first . Use up to three words .
The soup is really salty!
There is ~ too much salt in the soup.
2 Shall I put sugar in your tea?
Would you like ., .. , .. , ... , .... . , . . , . . " in your tea?
3 Can you tell me the number of people who are
coming to the party?
Can you tell me . .... , .. , . .. ,., . . , . . . , .. , . . , .. , .. .... ,.
are coming to the party?
4 I haven't got much spare time today.
I've got very .. , .. , .. .. . " .. ,., . . " .. , .. , .. "". today.
5 There is no milk left in the fridge.
We haven' t got ... , ... , .. , .. ,., ... , .. , .. . , . . .. , ... , .. ..
in the fridge.
6 Does this restaurant serve vegetarian dishes?
Are there .... ,." .. , .. , .. "." . .... , .. ' ... , ... . ... " . .. .
on the menu at this restaurant?
Speaking
a) Interview your partner and fill in the
questionnaire, as in the example.
FOOD
0·2 3·4 5-6 7+
QUESTIONNAIRE
times! times! times! times!
week week week week
Fish
,/
Fruit
Milk
Sweets
Vegetables
Orange juice
~ A: How often do you eat fish?
B: Once a week.
b) Tell the class about your partner's eating
and drinking habits.
~ Sa{{y doesn't eat much fish every week.
Both/Neither - All/None - Either
Both Maria and
Lucy like
reading.
• Both refers to two people, things or groups (of
people or things). It has a positive meaning
and is followed by a plural verb.
Both children are very good students.
Both of these children are very good students.
• Neither refers to two people, things or groups
(of people or things) and has a negative
meaning. Neither of + plural noun phrase can
be followed by either a singular or plural verb
in the affirmative.
Neither of the girls/Neither of them is/are
drinking coffee.
BUT Neither girl is drinking coffee.
• All refers to more than two people, things or
groups (of people or things). It has a positive
meaning and is followed by a plural verb.
All the people are here.
All of them are here.
• None refers to more than two people, things or
groups (of people or things). It has a negative
meaning and is followed by either a singular or
plural verb in the affirmative.
None of these cars is/are mine.
None of them is/are mine.
• Both/All can go:
a) after the verb to be.
They are both/all very polite.
b) after the auxiliary verb, but before the
main verb.
They have both/all tried hard.
-- -"'" .' I
Either PauL or
Patrick is going
to pick up
the children
from
the airport.
• Either refers to two people, things or groups
(of people or things) and is followed by a
singular countable noun.
Mary and Jane are doctors. Either doctor can
heLp me.
Either of + plural noun phrase can be followed
by either a singular or plural verb.
Either of those two books is/are interesting.
BUT Either book is interesting.
We can use not •.. either (of) instead of neither
(of).
! Looked at two dresses, but ! did not buy
either of them./! bought neither of them.
Either can also be used at the end of a
negative sentence and it means 'me neither' .
John doesn't like tea, and! don't either.
• Both ... and is followed by a plural verb.
Henry is smart. Stephen is smart. Both Henry
and Stephen are smart.
• Neither ... nor/Either ... or take either a
singular or plural verb in the affirmative,
depending on the subject which follows nor
and or.
Neither Mary nor Jeff likes tea.
(NOT: Neither Mary nor Jeff eeR't U!w tea.)
Either my friends or my parents are throwing
me a surprise party.
141
142
BothlNeither - AlIlNone - Either
1
Circle the correct item.
1 "Which of these jeans are you buying?"
" ......• actually. They're both very expensive."
A Either B Both C Neither
2 "How did your students do in their exam?"
"Oh. they did very well; they ...... passed."
A all B none C neither
3 "Do you ever go to the gym?"
"No. I never work out and none of my friends do
"
A either B neither Call
4 "Did you find a babysitter yet?"
"Well. I interviewed two last week but they were
.... .. quite inexperienced."
A all B both C either
5 "Are you bringing anyone to the wedding?"
"No. not really. It would be great if ... ... Helen
or Susan wanted to come but they ...... said no."
A either. both B neither. both
C either. all
6 "Why didn't you buy any of those shirts?"
"Because ...... of them fit me."
A both B none C all
7 "Why was your lesson cancelled?'
"Because ...... of the students could make it."
A none B all C either
8 "Where do you want to go on holiday this year.
Spain or Morocco?"
"To be honest •...... place would be fi ne. "
A all B both C either
9 "Which is your favourite school subject. History
or English?"
"I like them .... .. the same."
A all B both C none
10 "Who do you like best. Enrique Iglesias or Justin
Timberlake?"
........ actually; I think they are ...... terrible. "
A Either. all B Neither. all
C Neither. both
2
Rewrite the sentences using both ... and.
neither ... nor or either ... or.
1 Jeff likes cooking. Tom likes cooking. too.
2 Jane hasn't got any friends. Pauline hasn't got
any. either.
3 Lucy has got blue eyes. Tom has got blue eyes.
too.
4 Lee doesn't li ke going to the gym. Karl doesn·t.
either.
5 Petra will go to the supermarket. or else I will.
6 Kim doesn' t know how to read music. Richard
doesn' t know. either.
7 My mum is watering the plants. or else my
granddad is.
8 Lucy is going to type the letters. or else Martha
is going to.
9 Jack is cleaning the attic. or else I am.
10 I haven't got any money. My friends haven·t.
either.
3 Fill in the gaps with either or neither.
I looked at the dresses. but I didn' t buy
............ ... of them.
2 ............... of her parents let her go out.
3 He'll buy ....... .. . .. ... a Mercedes or a BMW.
4 My mum has two irons but. .............. of them
works.
5 My sister hates horror films and I don't like them.
Both/Neither - All/None - Either
4
Fill in the gaps with both, al/ , neither, either
or none.
Dear Mike,
Thanks for your email. It was great to hear about
1) ...... ............... your adventures in New Zealand,
and I thought some of them were very funny, too.
Your email s are always funny, but 2) ...... .............. .
of them has ever made me laugh so much!
Here nothing has changed. 3) ................. .... Oliver
and I are still in Barcelona, working hard and
trying to learn Spanish. 4) ..................... of us is very
good at it though, and we have 5) ......... ............ got
a bit tired of speaking a foreign language
6) ... ...... .. .......... the time. We' re not very happy
with our jobs 7) .. ................... , so we are thinking of
moving back to the UK. 8) ... .................. Oliver nor
I are very excited about this prospect.
The good news is that we will be in London when
you come back from New Zealand; we will book a
ticket 9) ................ ..... for the first or the second
week of May, so in any case we'll get to see each
other again. I just can't wait! If you have any cool
pictures, email them to me, will you?
10) .. ................... Oliver and I really look forward to
seeing you.
With love,
Kate
5 Make true sentences about you.
1 Both my friend and I ... ..... .. .... .. ... .. ...... ... . .. .
2 I' ve got lots of ............ .. ... .. ..... .... ... .. ... .. .. .
3 Neither I nor ... ... ... .... ........... .. .............. .. .
4 I' ve got a few .... .. ... .... ... .. ............ .. .... .. ... .
5 All of my friends ................ .. ............... .. .. ..
6 None of my friends .... ...... . .... ... .. .......... .. .. ..
7 Either I or my friends ..... ... .... ... ................. .
Speaking
A travel agent is comparing two package
holidays. Make sentences from the ideas below
using both or neither, as in the example.
- very good value for money (,I)
- offer fi ve·star accommodation ()Cl
- include flight in the price (,I)
- offer a free tour of the sights ()C)
- include two meals in the price (,I)
- offer free transport to and from
the airport ()Cl
~ Both the weekend break in Paris and the weekend
break in Venice are very good value for money.
Writing
You are a t ravel agent. You have a customer
who you think would be interested in the
package holidays above. Send him an email
using the information in the Speaking activity.
Start like this.
~ Dear Mr White,
I am writing to inform you about two
interesting package holidays offered by our
agency. There is a weekend break in Paris and a
weekend break in Venice. Both are very good value
for money.
143
--
144
1
(Units 24-25)
• Countable/Uncountable Nouns, A lot of -
Much/Many - (A) Few - (A) Little -
BothlNeither - AIVNone - Either
a) Read the text. Underline all the countable nouns and
circle all the uncountable nouns.
When you think about a chef, you might
imagine a man wearing a white uniform and
a funny hat, but that is not always the case!
In the UK, journalist and cookery writ er Nigella
Lawson is known as the 'Domestic Goddess'. She
has both starred in a few TV programmes and written
a lot of books, full of her delicious recipes. Much of her success is
due to her laid-back attitude towards food and her easy-to-
follow recipes. Even a person with very little time can try them
out. Nigella is famous for making 'comfort food' . This is the type
of food which people eat when they want a special reward, or to
help them relax.
Have you got any favourite recipes? One of Nigella's is for
'Chocolate Cloud Cake' . You need neit her many ingredients nor
much time to make it. You will need to pop to the shops
though, and buy some dark chocolate, some butter, a few eggs,
some sugar, an orange and a little vanilla essence. Unlike many
other cakes, you don't need any flour to make this one.
Chocolate Cloud Cake is delicious and Nigella often
makes it on special occasions. None of her friends
is left unimpressed by its taste, and t hey all end
asking her for the recipe.
b) Put the words and phrases i n the li st below in
the correct box. Fi nd examples in the text.
• (a) little • (a) few • very little • a lot of
• much. many
c) Identify all the examples of the quantifiers (bot h/
neither, all/none, either) in the t ext . Explain their use
and if they're followed by a singular or plural verb.
Rephrase them in as many ways as possi ble.
2 Underline the correct item.
How many/much does this skirt
cost?
2 There was much/a lot of food left
over after the dinner party.
3
4
How much/many tomatoes do we
need to make the sauce?
I've got a little/few eggs. Let's
make an omelette.
• Some-Any
3
a) When do we use some? When
do we use any? Fi nd examples
in the text.
b) Fill in the gaps with some or
any.
We haven't got .. ... .... .. .. milk.
2 They ate .. .. .. .. .. ........ apples.
3 Are t here ...... .. ........ chairs in
the garden?
4 Can I have .............. .. . orange
juice, please?
• Plurals
Read the t ext in Ex. 1 and
underline all the plural forms.
What are the singular forms of
these words?
1 .......... ............ .... .... .. .. .... ..
2
3 ..... . .. . .... ... . ... ....... ...... .. ... . .
4 . .. . .. ... . . .... . .. . ... ... . .. .. , . .. . .. . . .
5 .. . ...... .. . ... .. . ..... . ... . ........... .
6 . . ... ..... . ... ..... . .. . . .... . ...... . .. . .
7 . ........ . .. .. . ...... . .... .. .. ... . .. . .. .
8
9 .... .. .. . ........ .. . .................. ..
1
Circle the correct item.
1 Can I have ...... .. water, please?
A any B no C some
2 Chris usually ... . ... . home from work at 6 o' clock.
A is getting B gets C get
3 you .. ... ... eat or drink in the library. It's not
allowed.
A have to B must C mustn't
4 It's hot in here. I . ... .... open the window.
A going to B will C won't
5 I' ve got very ... ..... time to finish the project.
A few B a little C little
6 If they had enough money, they .... .. . . to a bigger
flat.
A would move B moved C had moved
7 How ....... . did your new computer cost?
A much B little C many
8 Are there ..... . .. tomatoes in the fridge?
A some B no C any
9 He . .... . .. eats meat. He's a vegetarian.
A always B sometimes C never
10 The baby . ....... every three hours.
A feed B is fed C is feeding
11 I'll call you as soon as I . .. . .....
A has finished B will finish C finish
12 Paul is ...... . . than his brother.
A short B short er C shortest
13 ... .. .. . does he live? In New York.
A Where B Why C Who
14 Do you want ..... ... sugar in your coffee?
A few B a few C a little
15 If only I .. .. . .. . to my mother's advice.
A listened B listen C had listened
16 you .. . .. ... respect your elders.
A have B could C should
17 They .. .. .... the car repaired yesterday.
A had had B had C have had
18 I'll call you ........ there's a problem.
A unless B if C where
19 How . .... . .. COs have you got in your collection?
A much B few C many
20 Joel is the tallest boy ... .... . the class.
A of B from C in
21 The police . . .. . ... investigating the crime.
A is B has Care
Revision (Units 1-25)
22 Jason is the one .. .. . .. • informed t he police about
the accident !
A which B who C where
23 Traces of ice have . .... ... on the surface of Mars.
A be discovered B been discovered
C discovered
24 Catalan is . .... ... in Catalonia in Spain.
A speak B spoken C spoke
25 It's . ....... expensive to travel by plane.
A much B too C enough
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the fi rst . Use up to three
words.
1 These shoes are too big for me.
These shoes don't .. , ....... . .. . , . . . , .... .... , .. ,. me.
2 Let me give you a good piece of advice on
shopping for clothes.
Let me give you .... .... ,. , . . .. . .. . . , ..... advice on
shopping for clothes.
3 The food we eat can sometimes cause changes in
our mood.
The food we eat is sometimes responsible . , .. , .. ,
.. .. . ... . , . . ...... , . . .. . .... . in our mood.
4 He spends all hi s free time in front of his TV.
He is such . . , . .. , . . , . . , .. , . . , .. , .. ". , . .. ,. , . . potato,
5 She never brushes her hair.
Her hair . .. " .. , .. , . . , . . . ,. , . . .. . . , .. ,. always messy.
6 The concert started at 8 pm and ended at 11 pm.
The concert ... .. ... . .. . ........... . ... . three hours,
7 Why don't you call me if you have some time?
Why don't you give ....... . . .. . ... . , ........ , . .. . . .. if
you have some time?
8 There will be a lot of food at the party.
There'll be lots t o . .. .......... . .... ... at the party.
9 I can't wait t o see you again.
I am looking forward , ....... . " . .. .. , .. you again.
10 There should be fewer eggs in this cake.
There are too . . , . . ... " .. ,. , . . , . . . , .. ,. in this cake.
(
Mark: )
10x3 30
( Total : 80 )
..
Infinitive
The infinitive is the basic form of all verbs. There are two types of infinitives:
a) to-infinitive (infinitive with ' to' ). She wants to become a doctor.
b) bare infinitive (infinitive without 'to' ). She'll study Medicine.
1
We use the to-infinitive:
She wants to buy a
bracelet.
• after the following verbs: advise, agree, decide,
expect, hope, manage, offer, plan, promise,
refuse, seem, want, etc.
He promised to take them to the zoo.
• after be + adjective (happy, nice, sorry, etc) .
It will be nice to see them again after such a
long time.
• with the adverbs too and enough.
It's too expensive to eat there.
He wasn't clever enough to go to university.
• after verbs like ask, know, learn, remember,
want to know, when they' re followed by the
question words who, what, where and how, but
NOT why.
Do you know how to play the piana?
I don't know why he is crying.
• to express purpose.
She went out to buy some bread.
Fi ll in the gaps wit h a verb f rom the list below
in the correct form.
• need • borrow • finish • take
• answer • sleep • post
1 He managed ~ to finish the project on time.
2 Karen might ............... .. ...... ... some help
with the shopping.
3 It's too hot ...... . ... .. . .. . ... ....... these days.
4 Could you ............ •............. this letter for
me, please?
5 Dad promised ................... ....... us to the
beach this weekend.
6 Tim won' t let me ............. .. .. ........ . his bike.
7 She refused ........... .. ............. his questions.
She must be tired.
We use the bare infinitive:
• after modal verbs (can, may, should, etc).
She should ask the teacher.
• after the verbs let and make.
She let me use her computer.
You can't make her do it!
• after would rather and had better.
I'd rather stay in than go out.
I'd better go home. It's getting late.
Note:
• If two to· infini tives are joined with and, the 'to'
of the second infinitive can be omitted.
He decided to go out and buy some fresh fruit.
• We form the negative infinitive with not .
She decided not to buy a new house.
He must not talk loudly.
2
Write sentences about yourself using the
correct form of the infinitive.
I hope ~ to be a singer one day .
2 I can ................................... . ........... ... .. .
3 I'm too young ...... .. ... .. ..... .. .......... .. ....... .. .
4 I have promised .................. .. ...... .. ..... .. ... ..
5 I know how .................... .. ....... .. ............ ..
6 I forgot .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... ........ ............ .
7 I' d better .. .. .......... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ........ ... .... ..
3
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
infinitive form.
A: What can we ~ do (do) this evening?
B: I know! Let 's . ...... ....... .. . (play) table tennis.
2 A: What do you want ............... . .. . .. .. (study)
at university?
B: Law. I've decided . . ...... .. •..... . ......... . . .. . ..
(become) a lawyer.
3 A: Mark seems .. .. ... .......... .. .... ... .. (be) a bit
upset today.
B: It's because his parents made him ... .... . ... . .
... . .... . ... .. . . .. .. . .. (do) his homework before
he went out.
Tenses of the Infinitive
Infinitive
4 A: It's not warm enough .• . .... ........ . .... (go) to
the beach today.
B: Let's .... .... ..... .... . ... .. . .... .. . .. . .... . ......... .
(go) shopping instead.
A: No, I' d rather .. .... .. ..... ...... .. . ........ (stay)
at home and watch a film.
5 A: Did Joe manage . .... ... ...• .. •...• . ..... . (get) to
work on time?
B: No. He got up too late
(catch) the bus.
6 A: What time will you ..... ..•. .... (arrive) home?
B: I expect .................. . ...... . .. .. . . (be) there
before lunchtime.
The infinitive has four tenses in the active and two in the passive .
Active Passive
present (to) play (to) be played
present (to) be playing
continuous
perfect
(to) have played (to) have been
played
perfect (to) have been
continuous playing
• present infinitive: it refers to the present or
future.
Ross wants to go home now. (present)
He wants to move to a new house next year.
(future)
• present continuous infinitive: (to) be + -ing.
It describes an action happening now.
He seems to be having a great time.
• perfect infinitive: (to) have + past participle.
It refers to the past and shows that the action
of the infinitive happened before the action of
the verb.
She claims to have travelled to Tibet. (First
she travelled to Tibet , then she claims that
she has been there. )
• perfect continuous infinitive: (to) have been
+ -ing. It refers to the past and emphasises
the duration of the action of the infinitive,
which happened before the action of the verb.
She is wet. She must have been walking in
the rain. (We emphasise that she has been
walking in the rain. )
The perfect infinitive is used with verbs such
as: appear, believe, claim, expect, know,
seem and the modal verbs.
The verb tenses corresponding to the tenses of
the infinitive are as follows:
Verb tenses Infinitive
he plays/ will play -> to play
he is playing -> to be playing
he played/has played/
-> to have played
had played
he was playing/
has been playing/ -> to have been
had been playing playing
147
148
4 Fill in the correct infinitive tenses.
1 I think she left. She must .......................... ..
2 I hope he will come. He may .............. .. ....... .
3 I think he is working hard. He must .............. ..
..................... hard.
4 I think she was ill. She must ........................ .
..................... ill.
5 I think he was driving carelessly. He must ........
..................... carelessly.
6 I think he has broken the vase. He must ..........
..................... the vase.
7 I think she had written the poem. She must ......
.................................... the poem.
5
Complete the exchanges using the correct form
of the verbs in bold.
1 A: Why is Sophie so grumpy?
B: She claims ................................ (sleep)
badly lately.
2 A: What's that man over there doing?
B: He seems .................. ............ ..... (look)
for something.
3 A: Do you know where Brian is going on holiday
this year?
B: Yes - he's decided ....................... ....... ..
(travel) round Spain.
4 A: I'm planning ............................... (visit)
my grandmother this weekend.
B: Send her my love!
5 A: Well done! They've chosen you for the team.
B: Thank you! I'm very happy ..................... .
(be) a member of the team and .............. ..
(help) my town.
6 A: Did you know Dad's bought a mountain bike?
B: Yes. He claims ............................ (cycle)
every day lately.
7 A: Tom seems ............ .. .. (work) hard all day.
B: Yes, he hasn't even stopped for lunch.
a A: The manager wants ........................ (see)
you now.
B: Oh dear! I hope it's not bad news.
6
Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the
verbs in bold.
My sister seems 1) .................... .... (spend) all her time
at work these days. She is a lawyer, which means she
must 2) ........................ (be) at her desk by 7:30 am
every morning, and can't 3) ...................... (leave) until
9 pm! She claims 4) ........................ (enjoy) it, but I
know I would rather 5) ........................ (have) more
spare time and be able 6) ........................ (relax) than
7) ........................ (work) as hard as she does. She is
doing well, though, and is one of the youngest
lawyers ever 8) ........................ (select) for promotion
by the firm. I'm happy for her because she has always
wanted 9) ........................ (be) successful in whatever
she does.
7
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
1 Philippa doesn't mind collecting Tara from the
station.
Philippa is happy .................................... ..
Tara from the station.
2 Paul says that he has been studying all day.
Paul claims to ....................................... ..
all day.
3 I'm sure the thief has robbed several banks.
The thief must ...................................... ..
several banks.
4 Neil is going to Hawaii next week.
Neil is planning ...................................... .
to Hawaii next week.
5 Journalists believe that the celebrity is staying
at the Ritz Hotel.
The celebrity is believed to ....................... ..
.. ................. at the Ritz Hotel.
6 It looks like our cats were fighting all night.
Our cats appear to .................................. .
all night.
7 Rita said she will take care of my cat.
Rita promised to .................................... ..
my cat.
a I'm certain she isn't telling the truth.
She can't ........................ .......... .... .. ..... .
the truth.
1
The -ing form is the form of the verb that ends in -;ng.
going, playing, working
We use the -ing form:
• as a noun.
Dancing keeps her fit and slim.
• after the following verbs: like, dislike, love, hate,
enjoy, prefer, start, begin, finish, stop, etc.
I don't like listening to pop music.
• after the verb go when we talk about activities.
She often goes shopping on Saturdays.
• after prepositions.
I'm tired of watching TV:
Martin likes painting.
Painting is his favourite hobby.
• after the following phrases: be busy, it's no use, it's (not) worth, there's no point (in) , what's the use
of, can't help, can' t stand, have difficulty (in), look forward to.
It's no use phoning him because he isn't at home.
• after the following verbs: avoid, admit , confess, deny, continue, imagine, involve, mind, regret, risk,
spend, suggest, etc.
Betty spent all day shopping.
Note: We use the to-infinitive and not the -ing form after the expressions would love/would like/
would prefer.
I would like to go to the cinema this evening. BUT I like going to the cinema.
(specific preference) (general preference)
Match column A to column B to make correct sentences, as in the example.
ITlil
I can't stand
a denying it. I saw you do it.
m=:J
He likes b surfing often?
CID
Do not start
c is my favourite sport.
[IT]
Thank you for
d writing until I tell you.
[ID
Do you go
e helping me with my homework.
[IT]
f playing basketball in his free time.
Yes, I admit
g listening to country music.
[ID
She's looking forward to
h going on holiday.
[IT]
It's no use
feeling hurt by what you said.
[IT]
Swimming
149
150
Infinitive/-ing form
2
Fill in the gaps. Then, answer the questions
about yourself, as in the example.
What sports do you enjoy ~ playing (play)?
~ I enjoy playing tennis and volleyball.
2 What countries do you look forward to . .. . ....... .
...... . ... ..... (visit)?
3 What kind of music do you like . . ...... ...• .... ... ...
. .. . . .. ..... . (listen to)?
4 Name one thing you have regretted .. . .. ... •. .. . .. .
............. (do) in the last year.
5 What foods do you avoid ......•. . .... . .... ... (eat)?
6 How often do you go ....... . . .. ... . ... ..... (shop) ?
3 Underline the correct item.
1 She admitted breaking/t o break the vase.
2 He agreed buying/to buy the house.
3 Tracy enjoys going/to go to parties.
4 I can' t help to laugh/laughing at her jokes.
5 You are advised not gOing/to go out in the sun.
6 Read/Reading is fun as well as educational.
7 I'm busy cooking/to cook at the moment.
S They decided selling/to sell their old house.
4
Put the verb in brackets into the correct
infinitive or -ing form.
1 A: What would you like ~ to have (have) for
dessert?
B: I' d like a fruit salad, please.
2 A: Are you sure we must .. . ..... ...... .. . (attend)
the seminar on Friday?
B: Yes, I'm sure. Mr Si mons said t hat if we want
. ........ . .... .. . .. . ... (pass) the course, we had
better ..... .. ..... ........ (go) .
3 A: I can't decide what . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. ... .. .. (wear)
to the party.
B: Why don' t you wear your red dress?
4 A: Can you call me back later? I' m in the middle
of .. ... ... ... .. . ........ . (bake) a cake.
B: No problem. What time do you want me
......... . ...... .. .. (phone) you back?
5 A: There's no point .... ... ... ..... . .. .......... (try)
to convince her. She has made up her mind.
B: Maybe. But I' d prefer .................. . ......... .
(try) anyway .
6 A: Brian is planning ... ... . . . ..... . .. . . ........ (buy)
Mr Evans a birthday present.
B: Really! Well , I think he'd like Brian .. . . .. ... .. .
. ........ (get) him a book.
5
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first. Use up to three
words.
1 Sam is happy to work late tonight.
Sam doesn' t mind ~ working late tonight.
2 I don' t mind wal king the dog.
I'd be happy ................ .. ...... .... .. .. . the dog.
3 They're very excited about going on holiday.
They are looking ......... ..... . ..... .... . on holiday.
4 Sally is t ravelli ng abroad this summer.
This summer, Sally plans .. . ................ abroad.
5 They didn' t let her go out last night.
They made her ... ... ... .. ... . .. ... . ...... last night.
6
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
infinitive or -ing form.
Carol is an athlete who can 1) .... ... ......... .. (run)
very fast indeed. She really enjoys 2) .
....... (compete) in athletic competitions and
hopes 3) . . .. .... (be) at the next Olympics.
In the meantime, she's looking forward to
(take part) in the European
Championships.
Carol loves 5) .
............... (represent)
her country.
Infinitive/-ing form
Verbs taking the to-infinitive or -ing form with a change in meaning
• forget + to-infinitive = not remember to do
sth
I'm sorry, I forgot to post the letter.
forget + -ing form = not recall doing sth
I'll never forget visiting the Taj Mahal.
• remember + to-infinitive = not forget to do
sth
Remember to come home early tonight .
remember + -ing form = recall doing sth
I don't remember taking my wallet with me.
• go on + to-infinitive = then I did sth else
He finished his speech and went on to thank
his assistants.
go on + -ing form = continue doing the same
thing
She went on crying for hours.
• mean + to-infinitive = intend to do sth
She means to open her own shop.
mean + -ing form = involve
Being a pilot means travelling a lot.
• regret + to-infinitive = be sorry to do sth
I regret to inform you that you failed the
exam.
regret + -ing form = feel sorry about sth I did
I regret making that mistake; it cost me my
job.
• try + to-infinitive = attempt, do one's best
She tried to convince him.
try + -ing form = do sth as an experiment
Why don't you try drinking more water?
• stop + to-infinitive = stop briefly in order to
do sth else
I stopped to make a phonecall on my way
home.
stop + -ing form = finish, give up
Sean stopped eating salt because the doctor
advised him to do so.
• be sorry + to-infinitive = apologise for a
present action
I'm sorry to interrupt, but can I ask you a
question?
be sorry for + -ing form = apologise for an
earlier action
I'm sorry for shouting at you.
• like + to-infinitive = think that sth is good or
right to do
I like to think that he is innocent.
like + -ing form = enjoy (general preference)
She likes relaxing after work.
would like + to-infinitive = want (specific
preference)
I would like to talk to Jane, please.
• be afraid + to-infinitive = be unwilling to do
sth
He is afraid t a take the test in case he fails
again.
be afraid of + -ing form = be afraid sth may
happen
She doesn 't want to ride the horse. She is
afraid of falling and hurting herself.
151
152
Infinitive/-ing form
7
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
infinitive or -ing form.
He' ll never forget . ... . .. . ........ . ... (go) on a
cruise to the Caribbean.
2 I didn' t mean ................. (hurt) your feelings.
3 I'd like ..... .. . ....... .... . (thank) you for helping
me with my homework.
4 You had better stop . ......... ... . .. .. .. (drink) so
much coffee.
5 I tried . .. ..... .. ..... ..... (warn) you but you
wouldn' t listen.
6 I like .... . ............... (be) with my friends.
7 I forgot .................... (lock) the door before I
left home.
8 We stopped ................ .... (take) a few
pictures of the beautiful scenery.
9 Being a doctor means ... ................. (have) to
be very responsible and ....... .. .. . . ... ... . (work)
long hours.
10 Why don' t you try . .... .. . .... ........ (go) to the
gym if you want to lose some weight?
8 Circle the correct item.
1 She' d prefer ... . . . at the beach right now.
A being B be © to be
2 The doctor advised me ...... plenty of rest.
A get B to get C getting
3 We often go ...... in the winter.
A to ski B ski C skiing
4 The day was too nice .. ... . indoors.
A to stay B stay C staying
5 His father made him .. .. .. for his bad behaviour.
A apologising
C apologise
B to apologise
6 Erica denied ... ... the wi ndow.
A breaking B to break C break
7 Simon has offered ...... me to t he airport.
A take B taking C to take
8 I'd be happy ...... you carry your bags.
A helpi ng B help C to help
9 He might .... .. upset about what you said.
A to be B be C being
10 Sue had better ...... a job soon.
A findi ng B find C to find
9
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
infinitive or -ing form.
A: Do you like . .... .. ... .. .. .... ... . .. ... (exercise)?
B: Yes, I like . ..... . .. . .. . . .... .. (jog) and
. . . .. .. .. .. .. ... .... (work out) in t he gym.
2 A: Did you remember .................... (turn off)
all the lights?
B: Yes, but I can't remember ............... .... .
(lock) the back door and the windows.
3 A: Would you like .. . .. .. .. .. . . .... .. . (stop) for a
burger or a pizza?
B: Actually, I stopped ... . .. . .... ..•...... (eat) junk
food a long time ago.
4 A: Would you like .. .. . . .. ............ (do)
somethi ng this weekend?
B: Sure. Would you fancy . .. .. ............... (go)
to Cornwall?
5 A: I tried .................... (pass) my drivi ng test
for the third time, but I failed again!
B: Oh dear! Have you tried .. ..... . ....... .•. ..
(take) lessons?
6 A: Which would you rather .. ..... . . ....... . . .. (do)
toni ght, watch a DVD or go to the cinema?
B: The second of course! You know I love
. .... .. .... . . .... .. . (go) to the cinema.
7 A: Is everything ready for the party tomorrow?
B: Yes, almost. I've bought the cake but I forgot
. ... ..... ... ... . ......... .. .. (buy) some balloons.
8 A: It 's no use .................... (give) him advice;
he's too stubborn!
B: Yes, I know, but I don't mind ............. ..... . .
(try) anyway.
9 A: I' ll never forget . ... .... ..... . ..... . ... ... (meet)
Sharon Stone.
B: Yes, but you forgot . ........................ (ask)
her for an autograph.
1 0
Change the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
Vanessa's mum insisted that she tidy her room.
Vanessa was made .. . ....... .... ... ........... .. . her
room by her mum.
2 You shouldn't worry about the exam. It 's easy.
It's not worth ......................................... .
about the exam. It's easy.
3 Somebody has to clear the table.
The table must .............. . .................... .... .
cleared.
4 I'm sure they will finish the project on time.
They must ...... ....... .. ..... . ........ . ............... .
on time.
5 I think it is raining outside.
It seems to .. ......................................... ..
outside.
6 I'm sure she wasn't sleeping when I called.
She can ' t ............................................. ..
when I called.
7 "Why don't we go to the new museum this
weekend?" suggested Wanda.
Wanda suggested ... .................. ...... ......... .
to the new museum at the weekend.
8 Bobby has been able to swim since he was 9.
Bobby learnt ... ................ . .. ................... ..
when he was 9.
9 I'm certain they haven' t arrived yet.
They can' t ................ .... ...... .. ........... ..... .
yet.
10 I rushed to the shop after work, but when I got
there I found it was closed.
I rushed to the shop after work, only ............ .
... .. ............................ was closed.
11 Helping me with my homework was very kind of
you.
It was very kind of you ........................... ... .
wi th my homework.
12 I am not allowed to go out on weekdays.
My parents don' t let .. ...... .. ... .. .... ............. .
.......................................... on weekdays.
13 Eating is not allowed in class.
Nobody is ............................................. .
in class.
Infinitive/-ing form
14 Spending a lot of money on clothes is foolish.
It is foolish .............. .... . .. .......... ........ .... ..
.. ........................ a lot of money on clothes.
15 My visit to the Great Wall was an unforgettable
experience.
I'll never forget ................................. .... ..
the Great Wall. ' •
16 I'm certain they had paid the bill.
They must ............................................. .
the bill.
Speaking
Complete the questions with the verbs from
the list in the correct form. Then, tell the
class about yourself.
• play • travel • learn • listen • chat • watch
Greenfields Leisure
Centre Questionnaire
Yes No
Do you like ... ... ............... .. .. ... ... ... games?
Do you expect .... .. ... ...... ............ ... abroad
this year?
Would you like .. ... .................. ..... another
language?
Do you enjoy ..... ... ...... ...... .. ...... to music?
Do you like ................................ with your
friends online?
Do you spend time ...... .. ...... ...... .. ........ TV
every day?
~ I like playing games like Monopoly.
Writing
Write a paragraph about what you like/don't
like doing in your free time. Use your answers
from the Speaking activity.
153
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
154
Participles
Participles
The participles are:
a) present participle. playing, running
b) past participle. repaired, written
c) perfect participle. having made
Present and past participles can be used as
adjectives.
o The present participle (-i ng) describes what
somebody or something is, that i s, it answers
the questi on ' What kind?' .
Underline the correct item.
A: Did you enjoy the Philosophy lecture?
B: Yes, it was very interested/interesting.
A: Paul is a very talented musician, isn't he?
B: Yes, we were all very impressed/impressing
by his performance.
A: Good morning, how can I help you?
B: Hello, I am interesting/interested in
volunteering for your charity.
A: Did you visit the Picasso exhibition?
B: Yes, the paintings were amazing/amazed.
A: Did you see Beatrice at the party?
B: Yes, but it was so embarrassed/embarrassing
- I couldn't remember her name.
A: Did you enjoy the film?
B: No, it was really boring/bored.
A: Do you like windsurfing?
B: Yes, it find it really exciti ng/excited.
A: Has the recycling scheme been successful?
B: Yes, the results have been very encouraged/
encouraging so far.
o The past participle (-ed) describes how
somebody feels, that i s, it answers the
question ' How do you feel ?'.
It's a very boring film. (What kind of film?
Boring.)
He's very bored. (How does he feel? Bored. )
2
Make true sentences about yourself, using the
participles below.
o boring 0 i nterest ed 0 embarrassed
o relaxi ng 0 tiring 0 bored 0 interesting
o relaxed 0 tired 0 embarrassi ng
1 ~ The film I watched yesterday was really boring.
2 ................................. .......................... .
3 ... . . . .. . ... . .... . ..... .. .. .. . . .. .. . . . .... . . . ... . . . . ....... .
4 ........ . .... . . .. ........ .. ... . . .. ... ... ......... . . . .. . .. . . .
5 ...... ... . ........ . ......... .. . .. . .... .. . .... . . ..... . ... . .. .
6 .... ..... . . ..... . ....... ..... .. .. . . ... .. ........ .. . ........ .
7 .. .. ... ... .... . ... ...... . .. .. . .... ... .. . .. ... .. .... ..... .. . .
8 .... .. ... ....... ... ........ ... ... ..... ... ..... ... .... .. ... . .
9 ........ .. . .... . .. . ...... . . ... .. ..... . ...... .. ............. .
10 .... . . ... .. .... ........... ... ... . ...... . ..... . ...... .. . .... .
Prepositions of Movement, Place & Time
Prepositions of Movement
<LJ&
into out of

z
x
along across
1
Underline the correct item.
1 A: Why are you out of breath?
B: I have just run !!E/out of the hill.
2 A: Have you seen Or Peters?
B: Yes, he's just gone across/into his office.
3 A: Excuse me, how do I get to the library from
here?
B: That's easy, walk straight through/over the
park and it is opposite the exit .
4 A: Where's Ben?
B: He's just coming int%ut of the cafe over
there.
5 A: Can your dog do tricks?
B: Watch this. I' ll make him jump along/over the
bench.
6 A: Where's my ball gone?
B: I' m really sorry. It rolled down/towards the
hill and fell into the river.
7 A: Watch out! There's a car coming straight
across/towards us.
B: Thank goodness you saw it!
8 A: Where is the post office?
B: Go across/down the road to the traffic lights
and it's on the right .
9 A: How about going for a walk across/along the
seafront this afternoon?
B: That sounds great!
"., . '> ...•
/ D " ~
towards over through
IT
up down
2
Fill in the gaps with along, up, through, down,
out of, over and across. Then, say how you can
get from the supermarket to the cinema.
A: Excuse me. Where is the cinema?
B: Well , you go 1) ~ along Green Lane and
2) .... .... ....... the tunnel. When you come
3) .......... .. ... the tunnel, turn left. Walk strai ght
on until you get to the big bridge. Go 4) .. .......... .. .
the steps, 5) .. . ...... ... . .. the bridge and
6) .. .. .. ...... ... the steps on the other side. Then go
7) ............... Apple Street and the cinema will be
right in front of you.
A: Thank much.
Speaking
Use the map in Ex. 2 to give directions from:
• the cafe to the supermarket.
• the post office to the cafe.
• the bank to the chemist 's.
I!
156
Prepositions of Movement, Place & Time
Prepositions of Place
[!]
in/ inside
n
on in front of
·0
outside
rel
under
r-
below behind


-
above
n
over
DD
next to/by/
S·.'·
beside
.' ••• : •• among
••••••
.ID against

opposite
· 0

At
We use at:
• when we refer to a particular point or
position. There were a lat of people at the
party/at the meeting/at the concert/at the
theatre.
• to say where an event takes place.
Janet is sitting at her desk.
• in the expressions: at schooVuniversity/college,
at work, at home, at the top of, at the bottom of,
at sea (= on a voyage), at the station/airport, at
the seaside, etc.
• with addresses when we mention the house
number.
I live at 7 Rose Street. BUT in Rose Street
• when we talk about a person's house or
business. at Janet 's (house), at the doctor's, at
the newsagent's
In
We use in:
• in the expressions: in the middle, in the sea, in
the sky, in bed, in hospital, in prison, in a
newspaper/magazinelbook, in a picture/photo, in
a street, in the world, in the lesson, in the
country, in one's hand, etc.
• with names of towns , cities, countries and
continents.
in Manchester, in Rome, in Spain, in Europe
near
0 - 0 between
Note: We use in when we refer to the inside of a
building. However, we use at when we refer to
the normal function of the building.
It was very hot in the theatre. (= inside the
building)
My friends are at the theatre. (= they are
watching a play)
On
We use on:
• in the expressions: on the left/right, on a
platform/page/screen/islandlbeachlcoast, on a
map, on a farm, on a menu, on the first/second
floor, etc. on a chair BUT in an armchair
on/at the corner of a street BUT in the corner
of a room; go/ run round a corner
Note: When we want to refer to a means of
transport, we use the preposition by.
by car/bus/ train/ taxi / plane/boat BUT on foot
When there is an article (a/ an/ the),
possessive adjective (my, your, etc) or
possessive case (Mary's ), we do not use the
preposition by in front of the means of
transport. on the train (NOT: By the tl'6iR)
in your car (NOT: BY yellr esr)
on the eight o'clock bus, in a taxi, on the plane,
in Tony's car
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
Prepositions of Movement, Place & Time
Prepositions of Time
AT IN ON
months in March/ July, etc
on Monday the time at two o' clock
at Christmas
in (the) spring/summer /
autumn/winter
days
on New Year's Day
holidays at Easter
---j
seasons
on 3rd June
at the weekend
-, at the moment
at present
at dawn
expressions at noon
years J in 1998/ 2004
centuries in the 21st century
in the morning/
afternoon/ evening
expressions
in an hour
in a minute
dates
specific part
of a certain
day
, adjective +
day
"" F rid" m ; " , I
on a cold day
at lunchtime
at night
at midnight
-=------'
in a week/ few days/
month /year
Notes:
a) We use the prepositions from ••. to/till/until to show duration.
She works from 10:00 am to/till/until 6:00 pm every day.
b) We use the preposition in when we want to say how long it takes to do something.
She typed the letters in twenty minutes. My motorbike will be repaired in a week.
c) Prepositions of time are not used:
i) with the words today, tomorrow, tonight and yesterday. 1' 1/ see you tonight.
ii) with the words this, last, next, every, all, some, each, one and any.
She's visiting her grandparents this Friday.
Circle the correct item.
2
Fill in the gaps with at, in, and on where
necessary.
I left school ..... .. .. . 3:00 yesterday.
1 A: What time is your job interview?
A on B at C in
B: It's ...... 3:00 ... . .. the afternoon.
Georgia goes to school .......... foot .
2 A: Where is Jeff?
A by B in C on
B: He' s .... .. home. He has to study.
We're leaving for Brighton .... ...... Monday.
3 A: Are you going anywhere for the summer?
A in B on C at
B: Yes. We're going to France .. . ... July.
Jason hung the mirror .. •• ... .. . the fireplace.
4 A: Lynn and Jack are moving house ...... October.
A over B under C up
B: Yes, I know. Lynn told me yesterday, ...... work.
The student kept looking at the dock .• ....• ...
5 A: When do you finish school?
the wall.
B: .. . .. . two weeks.
A on B at C over
6 A: Do you want to meet me ...... the park .....•
I wrote the address .......... the envelope.
lunchtime?
A at B in C on
B: OK!
7 A: What's .. .... the box?
B: A diamond ring.
157
lS8
Prepositions of Movement, Place & Time
8 A: Are you having a Spanish lesson ...... this week?
B: Yes. My teacher is coming ...... Tuesday.
9 A: When does the train to Edinburgh leave?
B: It leaves ...... quarter past six.
10 A: When did you speak to Laura?
B: I spoke to her ...... Wednesday.
11 A: How did you meet Chris?
B: We met ...... a party.
12 A: What happened to you?
B: The chair I was sitting ... ... broke, and I hurt
my elbow.
13 A: Can you tell me where the post office is?
B: It 's round the corner, ...... the left.
14 A: You've been ...... bed all day. Are you all right?
B: I just feel a bit sick.
3 Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.
Dear Jennifer,
How are you? I am
having an awesome
time here 1) ........ .
summer camp.
2) ........ the moment
I' m writing to you from a tree house!
Right 3) .......... the middle of the forest here, there
is this large tree and they built this little house
4) .......... the top. It 's great! I got here 5) ......... .
Friday. 6) ... ... .... the evenings, we usually sit
around a fire and tell stories or sing songs.
7) .......... the weekend, we're going canoeing. I
can't wait! Oh! Before I forget , I have to tell you
what happened to me 8) .......... the first day. I
was sitting 9) .......... my tent reading a book
when I heard a camp leader calling my name. He
told me that someone was 10) .......... the office
waiting for me. When I went, I saw my mum! She
had brought me my sunglasses! I had accidentally
left them 11) .......... the kitchen table 12) ......... .
home. Anyway, that 's all for now!
Talk soon,
Ellie
4
Fill in the gaps with between, on (x5), in, above
or in front of.
This is Sophie's
bedroom. It's
nice and
spacious and
has a very
comfortable
bed. 1) .. ................ .
the left side of the
bed, there is a bedside table with a
lamp 2) ...... .. ........... it. 3) ................... the right of
the bed, there is a large window. There is a
fireplace 4) ................... the two armchai rs and
5) .............. ..... the fireplace there is a picture.
There is a fan 6) ............ ....... the ceiling and a
large rug 7) ... ... ............. the fl oor 8) .................. .
the middle of the room 9) ................... the bed.
5 Find the mistakes and write the corrections.
1 We were for four hours.
on the beach
2 My grandpa lives at a farm and I often visit him
there ................. ... ........ .
3 Shall we meet on a cafe or in a restaurant?
4 Sally doesn't like walking home late in night.
5 Bridget is playing basketball on 2 o' clock
tomorrow ............................ .
6 My sister found a puppy in our doorstep
yesterday . ........................... .
7 I left you some dinner at the table, if you're
hungry ..................... ... .... .
8 I' ll meet you at the car by fi ve minutes.
9 They hid the present on this big box.
10 There was a bee at the room and we couldn' t get
it out. ........... ................ .
Prepositions of Movement, Place & Time
6 Fill in the correct prepositions.
(
r------------------------------'
A Jason was running late. He went 1) ...... . ... . . .
the bathroom and quickly washed his face. He
put 2) ........... .. a pair of trousers and a dean
T·shirt. He rushed 3)............. the door, but
forgot his keys 4) ............. the kitchen table.
When he realised what had happened, the bus
had already arrived 5) ............. the bus stop. ;
B One of my favourite places is our holiday house.
It is 1) ............... the coast and has been built
2) ............... a sea cliff. This means that we have a
great view of the ocean. I love sitting 3) .............. .
the living room 4) ............... summer nights with
the balcony doors wide open, and a light summer
breeze coming 5) ............... .
J
C My bedroom is quite large. There is a bed 1) ..... .. .. . .. .. . the
wall 2) ......... ....... the bedroom door as you enter.
3) ..... ........... to my bed there is a bedside table with a lamp
4) ..... .. ....... rt. 5) .. .. ............ the left, there is a large desk
with shelves 6) .... ........ .... it and two beautiful drawings
hanging 7) .. ............. . the wall. 8) ............ .... these two
drawings there is a bunch of flowers that my sister gave me
9) ... ............. my 16th birthday.
D 1) ................ the weekend we will go to the
theatre. The performance starts 2) ............... .
8 o'clock 3) ................ Saturday evening. After
the play, we will eat 4) ................ one of the
trendy restaurants 5) ................ the city centre. I
am so looking forward to this.
E When we went to Paris, we took a stroll
1) ................ the Seine River. 2) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. the
left bank, we met some friends and visited the
Notre Dame. As we came 3) ................ the
cathedral, we saw a riverboat sailing
4) .. .............. a bridge and the people
5) ................ board happily waved to us.
7
Fill in the gaps with at or in and one of the
places from the list.
• the theatre • the cafe • university
• the airport • hospital • the world
I arrived ................. .. .... ... . .. ... right on time
to catch my plane.
2 He's .. .... .......................... watching the new
production of Romeo and Juliet .
3 Let's meet .. ........ . ...................... We'll have
coffee and chat for hours.
4 Jack is ...................... .. . ..... .. with a broken
arm.
5 She's the best singer ................................ .
6 He's studying .. . ..... ... .......... .. ......... hoping to
become a doctor.
Speaking
Look at the picture for two minutes. Then,
close your books and, in pairs, try to remember
what there is and where it is in the room, using
prepositions of place.
~ There is a table in front of the sofa.
Writing
You've moved to a new area and a new house.
Write a letter to your friend describing the
area and your house, both outside and inside.
Use prepositions of place. Start like this:
~ Dear .... ........ ,
I've just moved to my new house. The area is
perfect and I really love it here.
159
l
lfiO
Some/Any/No/Every + body(one)/thing/where
Affi rmative
Adjectives Pronouns Adverbs
people things place
some
someone/ something somewhere
somebody
Negative
Adjectives Pronouns Adverbs
people things place
no one/ nothi ng/ nowhere/
no/ not any
not anyone not anything not
nobody/ anywhere
not anybody
• Someone/somebody (person), something (thing)
and somewhere (place) are normally used in
positive sentences. They can also be used in
questions to make an offer, a polite request or
when we expect a positive answer.
There is someone in the garden.
Can I get you something to eat?
• Any and its compounds (anyone/ anybody,
anything, anywhere) are normally used in
questions and negations.
There aren' t any bananas left . (negation)
Is there anything I can do for you? (question)
They can also be used in posi tive sentences
meani ng 'whoever/ whatever/wherever' .
You can ask anybody to go with you.
(= whoever)
The children are
somewhere in the
countryside. The
teacher is saying
something.
Everybody is
looking at her.
Interrogative
Adjectives Pronouns Adverbs
people things place
any anyone/ anything anywhere
anybody
• No one/nobody, nothing and nowhere are
used in negations.
There's no one in the room.
(= There isn' t anyone in the room.)
• We use every before si ngular countable nouns.
Every student must be at school on time.
• We use everyone/everybody and everything in
affirmative, interrogative and negative
sentences. We use a si ngular verb with these
words.
Everything you need is on your desk.
Has everyone been served?
Some/Any/No/Every + body(one)/thing/where
1
Fill in the gaps with the words given.
• someone • anyone • something (x2)
• nothing • anywhere • nowhere • anything
A: How was the gallery opening?
B: Very disappointing. Hardly ~ anyone turned up.
2 A: Why don't you drive to work?
B: Because I can never find ............ ... to park.
3 A: Would you like ............ .. .. .. . else to eat?
B: No, thank you. I've had enough.
4 A: Can you please pick ............ ....... up for
dinner tonight on your way home?
B: Sure. Is an Indian takeaway OK?
5 A: Do you like living in London?
B: Yes, it's nice. But .. .... .......... .. . is better
than New York!
6 A: I'm bored. There's .. .. . .... .. .. . . . ... to do!
B: Why don't we watch a DVD?
7 A: Can I see you now? I have . .. . ... ........... . very
important to tell you.
B: Of course. I can come to your house now if
you want .
8 A: There's ...... .. .. ...... .. . staying with Katie at
the moment. Do you know who it is?
B: Yes. It's her cousin.
2 Underline the correct item.
Are you going nowhere/anywhere nice for your
holidays?
2 What's the matter? Have I done something/
nothing wrong?
3 There is anyone/someone for you at the door.
4 I thi nk I've seen her somewhere/nowhere before.
5 If you need nothing/anything, please tell me.
6 I don't know anything/nothing about it.
7 Are you looking for someone/no one?
8 Can I say something/anything, please?
9 If anybody/nobody needs me, tell them they can
call me on my mobile.
10 There is nowhere/somewhere as exciting as Rio
de Janeiro.
3
Fill in the gaps with every or one of i ts
compounds, and the correct form of the verbs
in brackets, as in the example.
Help me please! I have looked everywhere (look)
and I can't find my wallet!
2 It was a disaster! ... .................... (go) wrong!
3 We can start now .... . ..... ... .. .. . ..... . .. . ... .. . . .. . .
.. ......... ..... . (arrive).
4 Katie is a very popular girl. .. . .. .. .. . .. .... ...... . ..
(like) her.
5 We had to tidy up. Rubbish ....... . .......... . (be).
6 The party was a huge success! ..... ....... . . .. .. .. .
... . .. ... ..... .. . . . (enjoy) themselves!
7 I really enjoyed my stay. . .... . .... .......... .. (be)
perfect.
4
Circle the correct item.
1 A: Do you need any help?
B: No, thanks. I have . ... . under control.
A anything ® everything C every
2 A: Can ... .. please help me?
B: Of course! Let me carry these bags for you.
A everyone B someone C no one
3 A: Did you find your sunglasses?
B: Yes. After looking . ... . , I finally found them!
A everywhere B everyone C everything
4 A: Why are you so tired?
B: Because I've been out ... . . night this week!
A some B any C every
5 A: Where shall we go?
B: We can go .. ... you like!
A nowhere B anywhere C everywhere
6 A: Why is there smoke .... . ?
B: Because I burnt the toast I was making.
A everything B anywhere C everywhere
7 A: Where do you want me to put all my things?
B: Put . ... . in the living room for the time being.
A everything B everyone C everywhere
8 A: Are many people going to the twins' birthday
party?
B: I think so. They have invited ... .. they know.
A anyone B everyone C someone
161
162
1
Clauses of Result
Clauses of result are used to express the result
of somethi ng.
They are introduced with:
so, so/such ... (that), as a result, therefore,
consequently/as a consequence, etc
• so I was tired, so I didn't ga to the party.
• such a/an + adjective + singular countable
noun
She is such a clever girl (that) she gets only
As in exams.
• such + adjective + plural/uncountable noun
They are such lazy people (that) they never
do any housework. It was such good weather
(that) I went for a swim.
• such a lot of + plural/uncountable noun
Thomas had such a lot of friends (that) he
never felt lonely.
• so + adjective/adverb
Jack is so fast (that) no one con catch him. He
speaks so loudly (that) I can't stand it.
Fill in: so, such or such af an.
Celia is ................. wonderful person that
everyone at school likes her.
2 It was ................. hot that we coulon' t sleep at
night.
3 He pays .... .......... ... much attention to detail
that he never makes any mistakes.
4 It was ................. interesting performance that
everyone in the audience loved it.
S There was ................. long queue outside the
theatre that we decided to leave.
6 It was ................. cold weather that we
decided to stay in.
7 She has ................. much work that we never
get to see her.
8 There were ................. many applicants that it
was difficult to make a choice.
9 They've got ................. expensive furniture in
their flat that they decided to insure it.
10 He earns ................. little money that he
cannot pay his rent.
There was a lot of traffic
in the street. As a
result/Therefore/
Consequently, I was late
for work.
• so muchllittle + uncountable noun
so many/few + plural noun
He had so much work to do (that) he felt
great pressure. Mary had so little time
(that) she had to run. James met so many
children at school (that) he immediately
made friends. I had so few eggs (that) I
couldn 't make a coke.
• as a result/therefore/consequently
Lucy was ill, and, as a result/therefore/
consequently, she didn't take the test .
Lucy was ill. As a result/Therefore/
Consequently, she didn't take the test .
2
Complete the second sentence so that it means
the same as the first. Use up to three words.
I was very busy. I couldn't take a lunch break.
I was .............. .................... I couldn't take
a lunch break.
2 She fell ill. The meeting was cancelled.
She fell ill and ........................................ .
the meeting was cancelled.
3 The book was fascinating. I couldn't put it down.
It was ............................................ . book
that I couldn't put it down.
4 There is a lot of noise. We wi ll not be able to
sleep.
There is ................................ .. that we will
not be able to sleep.
S Tom doesn't pay much attention to his diet. He
may put on weight.
Tom pays ................................... to his diet
that he may put on weight.
Exclamations are words or sentences used to express admiration, surprise, etc. To form exclamatory
sentences, we can use how, what (a/an) , so, such (a/an) or a negative question form.
1
• how + adjective/adverb
How expensive this is!
How quickly she reads!
• what a/an (+ adjective) + singular countable
noun
What an excellent meal!
What a tragedy!
• what (+ adjective) + plural/uncountable noun
What kind children! What tasty spaghetti!
I. + adjective/adverb
is so beautiful! Fred works so quietly!
Fill in: how, what (a/ an), so or such (a/an).
1 ........................... beautiful day!
2 ........................... clearly he writes!
3 That is ........................... terrible news!
4 This camera was ........................... expensive!
5 ........................... lovely jeans!
6 ........................... dark it is!
7 This is ........................... fantastic opportunity!
8 Eleanor learns ........................... fast!
9 ........................... boring film!
10 This is ........................... amazing bargain!
2
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first, using how, what
(a/an), so or such (a/an) .
1 It's such a tiring day!
.... ................ ........................ a tiring day!
2 Doesn't Harry cook well!
Harry cooks ............................................ !
3 Those earrings are so pretty!
....... .. ......................... .............. earrings!
4 That building is so amazing!
That's .... ...... .......... .......... .......... building!
5 Isn't it wonderful to swim in the sea!
.............................. it is to swim in the sea!
• such alan (+ adjective) + singular countable
noun
This is such an interesting book!
• such (+ adjective) + plural/uncountable noun
She's wearing such fashionable shoes!
This is such rare porcelain!
• negative question form
_ _____ J
6 The film was so sad!
What . . ... .......... ... ............. •...... •....•. •....•. !
7 It was such a hard exam.
The exam .............................................. !
8 He plays the violi n so beautifully!
How ........................................ the violin!
3
Rewrite the sentences in as many ways as
possible, as in the example.
1 You're so clever! How clever you are! What a
clever person you are! You're such a clever
person! Aren't you clever?
2 What terrible weather! .............................. .
3 How pretty Sarah is! .............. .................... .
4 What a delicious meal! .............................. ..
5 He's so kind! ............ ........ .. .. .................. ..
6 It's such an interesting book! ...................... ..
7 Isn't it cold today! ............................ .. ...... .
163
1
164
(Units 26-29)
• Infinitive/-ing form
a) Circle the infinitive (full & bare) forms and underline the
-ing forms. Whi ch of t he t wo forms can be used as a noun?
Can you imagine cli mbing on ice in below
freezing condrtions? Would anyone want to do
that? Most people would be too afraid. Not
Roger Will iams - thi s is such a thrilling experi ence
for him that he wouldn't miss rt for the world. At first
glance, you wouldn't think this 22-year-old could cli mb up
an icy mountain slope, hanging from his fingertips hundreds of feet from the
ground, but Roger is an 'extreme' ice climber.
As a d , Roger loved doing sports. He started cl imbing when he was 12
years ol d. At 18, he travell ed across Europe to take part in an ice climbing
competition. He did so well that he decided to become a professi onal ice climber.
Roger is someone who likes a challenge and isn't afrai d of the dangers
involved. He says that climbing makes him feel good. He enjoys reaching the
top of a difficult and steep mountain, because rt gi ves him a sense of
achi evement. How unimportant money is in this srtuation! He believes that if
someone is good enough at something they like doing, then success will surely
follow.
Roger could be one of the top ice climbers in the worl d. Last year, he
won every major competition he entered. Thi s winter, he is looking forward to
taking part in the annual ice climbing competitions around the world, and he
hopes to win the Ice World Cup one day.
b) Put the verbs in brackets i nto t he correct infinitive or
-ing form.
Betty hates .... ......... ... ..... . (watch) scary films late at night.
2 Mark agreed .. .. ...... ............ (sign) the cont ract.
3 The t eacher expect ed Mary ....................... (work) hard.
4 Jimmy is old enough .... .. .......... ... .. (learn) how to drive.
5 It 's no use .. .. .... .. ........... (call ) Linda; she isn't at home.
6 Philip would rather .... ... .. .... ........ . (buy) a flat in the
city than in the country.
7 Kell y refused ............. ... ...... (lend) Cathy her bike.
S They go .. .. ... .... .. ... .... .. (jog) every morni ng.
9 I disli ke ..................... . (go) to the ci nema alone.
10 Karen can .. ...... ......... .. ... (speak) three languages.
• Prepositions of
Movement
2
Find two prepositions of
movement in the text. Give more
examples •
• Some/Any/No/Every +
body(one )/thinglwhere
3
a) Find three compounds i n the
text. Which ones are used for
people and things? Which
compounds are used for places?
b) Underline the correct item.
1 Are you doing something/
anything this evening?
2 There is somebody/anybody
waiting outside the classroom.
3 There isn' t no one/anyone in the
building.
4 There is nothing/anything to eat
in the fridge.
5 I have looked anywhere/
everywhere but I can't find my
keys.
• Clauses of Result -
Exclamations
4
a) Find the examples of clauses
of result in the text. How are
they formed?
b) Find an example of an
exclamation in t he text. How is
it formed?
c) Underline the correct item.
1 HowlWhat easy this exercise is!
2 The weather was such/so hot that
we spent the day at the seaside.
3 Isn't/Doesn't he drive carefully!
4 SuchlWhat a cute dog!
5 There was so/such a lot of traffic
that we got stuck.
1
Circle the correct item.
A new factory will . .. .. ... by the river.
A be built B build C be building
2 We had .... .... nice weather during our holidays!
A such a B such C so
3 That's the restaurant .... .. .. serves Chinese food.
A who B which C where
4 .. ...... Lisa go to the party yesterday?
A Would B Did CHad
5 I'll call you as soon as I ...... .. in town.
A has arrived B will arrive C arrive
6 She .... .... the dishes when the phone rang.
A has been washing B washed
C was washing
7 Kim is as ........ as her mother.
A pretty B prettier C prettiest
8 .... .. .. you spoken to Alison yet?
A Did B Does C Have
9 Brian had his car .........
A servicing B service C serviced
10 We are looking forward ........ on holiday.
A to going B going
C to go
11 Philip is ........ shorter than Steve.
A much B more C most
12 She ...... .. to Paris twice this year.
A is going B has been C has gone
13 You .. ...... enter the area. It's forbidden.
A mustn' t B shouldn't C couldn't
14 That house was ........ by the fire.
A destroying B destroy
C destroyed
15 How ...... .. sugar do we need for the cake?
A many B much C a lot of
16 .. ...... beautiful necklace she's wearing!
A What a B What CHow
17 My sister is .. .. .. .. than me.
A young B youngest C younger
18 There was ........ smoke in the room that she had
an asthma attack.
A so many B so little
19 Can you buy .... .... milk?
C so much
A a few B a little C many
20 Maggie would like ...... .. out tonight.
A go B going C to go
21 If I ...... .. you, I'd ask her out.
A were Bare C had been
Revision (Units 1-29)
22 Has ...... .. seen Tom?
A anyone B anything C something
23 you ........ be rude to people.
A has to B can C mustn't
24 He'll come to the party ...... .. he's tired.
A if B when C unless
25 Listen! There's .... .... in the garage.
A someone B anything C nowhere
(
Mark: )
25x2 50
2
Complete the second sentence so that it
means the same as the first . Use up to three
words.
1 It's hard for some people to do extreme sports.
Some people have difficulty .. .. ...... ...... .. .. .. .. .
extreme sports.
2 I would try parkour if I had the chance.
I wouldn't mind ...... ........ .............. .. parkour
if I had the chance.
3 It is pointless to try to persuade him to come
with us.
It's no use .. .. .. ...... .. .. .... .. .. ........ ........... .. .
to persuade him to come with us.
4 Are there any tickets at a lower price?
Do you have any tickets that .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ... .. .. .
less?
5 I have to tidy my room every weekend.
My parents ...... .. .. ........ .......... .... .. ....... .. . ..
my room every weekend.
6 Look! There's someone coming our way.
Look! There's someone ........ ............ ...... us.
7 If I were you, I would try to eat fewer sweets.
I think you'd better .. .... .. ........ ............ .... .. .
so many sweets.
8 I think they will arrive any time now.
I expect ........ .. .. .. ......... arrive any time now.
9 There isn't anything you can do about it.
There is ........ .. ............ .. you can do about it.
10 I don't want to play this computer game any
more.
I'm tired ......... ....... .. .. .. this computer game.
(
Mark: - )
10x3 30
( Total: 80 )
165
166
break down: 1) stop working, 2) lose control of
feelings
break in: enter by force (break into a building)
break into: start singing, smiling, etc suddenly
break out: 1) begin suddenly (BUT a storm breaks) ,
2) escape
break up: (of schools) stop for holidays
1
Underline the correct item.
A fire broke in/out in the kitchen because
someone had left the oven on.
2 My car broke down/up on the motorway and I had
to wait for help.
3 Tara was so happy that she suddenly broke in/into
singing.
4 Our school breaks up/out for the holidays on 12th
June.
5 Georgia broke up/down in tears when she heard
the terrible news.
6 The prisoners are planning to break up/out of
their cells tonight.
7 A thief broke in/down and stole lots of jewellery.
bring about: cause sth to happen
bring out: make a new record, book, etc available
bring sb round: 1) cause sb to regain consciousness,
2) persuade sb
bring up: 1) raise a child, 2) rai se a new subj ect
2 Underline the correct item.
1 It took five minutes to bring Eleanor round/about
after she fainted.
2 At first, Rachel didn' t want to come with us, but
eventually we brought her out/round.
3 My grandmother brought out/up six children.
4 Robbie Williams has not brought out/about a new
album for a while.
5 The Internet has brought about/round great
changes in the way we communicate.
6 It 's bad manners to bring out/up religion or
politics at dinner parties.
7 I wanted to tell Eva that I was annoyed with her,
but I found it difficult to bring it about/up.
carry on (with): continue
carry out: do, complete sth
hold back: contain one's emotions
hold on: wait
hold up: 1) delay, 2) rob a place
3 Fill in the gaps with the cor rect particles.
1 The police carried ........... an investigation into
the crime.
2 We were held ........... by heavy traffic on the
motorway.
3 Can you hold ........... while I just go and get my
umbrella?
4 The bank was held ........... by three armed
robbers.
5 The singer carried .......... . singing even though
her microphone was broken.
6 The doctor carried ........... a careful examination
of the patient.
7 Tom and Hayley' s wedding was so moving that I
couldn't hold ........... my tears.
get away: escape
get on: 1) make progress, get along,
2) enter a bus, trai n, etc ( .. get off)
get on with sb: have a friendly relationshi p with
sb, get along with sb
get through: 1) reach sb by telephone,
2) manage to finish sth
4 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles.
1 I booked a flight to Greece to get ........... from
the rainy British summer.
2 Lots of passengers got .......... . the bus and it
became very crowded.
3 Helen tried several times to get .... ....... to the
customer service helpline, but didn't manage it.
4 My brother and I didn't get .... ....... each other
when we were children.
S We got ........... the whole cake in half an hour!
6 We have to get ........ .. . the train at the next
station.
7 How are you getting .......... . with your school
project?
give sb away: betray sb
l
give sth away: 1) reveal sth, 2) give sth free of
charge
give back: return
give off: emit (a smell , gas, etc)
give out: come to an end
give up: l) abandon a habit, 2) stop doing sth
give oneself up: surrender
5 Underline the correct item.
1 The criminal gave himself up/back after three
days of hiding from the police.
2 Don't tell Hannah about the surprise party - she
might give the secret away/out!
3 I've given off/up drinking coffee because it's bad
for me.
4 The engine is giving off/away a funny smell - I
think we should check if it's all right.
S Bobby has six books to give back/up to the library.
6 I listened to my CD player till the batteries gave
up/out .
7 The mobile phone company is giving up/away free
phones!
8 I gave up/out trying to persuade my dad to eat
less.
go in for: enter a competitioll,. .....
go on: 1) continue, 2) happen
go through: examine sth in de a
go out: 1) stop burning, 2) become IelI5 ( 75 IiiIbIe
go off: 1) explode, make a suddefl I1OI!r 2 III
bad
6 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles.
1 That skirt went ........... of fashion years ago!
2 Please go .. ......... ! We' re very interested in
what you have to say.
3 I think the milk's gone . .......... - it smells bad.
4 Polly ran out of the house in tears so Jason went
.. ... ...... her.
S Eleanor went ...... .. ... Ben's CD collection to work
out what music he liked.
6 The teacher demanded to know what had gone
........... while she was out of the classroom.
7 My dog started barking when the fireworks went
8 The fi re went ........... and we all got cold.
9 Did you hear Tim's going ... .... .... the London
marathon next year?
10 Meg is going ........... the top position in the
company.
look after: take care of sb/sth
look for: search for sb/sth
look forward to: anticipate with pleasure
look into: investigate
look out (for): watch for sb/sth
look through: read
look up: look for an address, name, word, etc in a
book, list , etc
167
168
Phrasal Verbs
7 Underline the correct item.
1 Tom's on the sofa looking after/through a
magazine.
2 I'm going to look into/up the possibility of taking
Spanish classes in my area.
3 Will you look through/after your brot her while I
pop to the shops?
4 I didn't recognise that word so I looked it for/up in
the dictionary.
5 Julie is really looking for/forward to her party!
6 Sandra has been looking through/for her glasses
for ages and still hasn't found them.
7 Can you look out for/after signs to the airport?
r---------------------------------- ~
make out: 1) see sth with difficulty, 2) understand
make up: 1) invent, 2) put cosmetics on, 3) become
friends again after a quarrel
make up one's mind: decide
8 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles.
You have to make ........... your mind whether you
want to come to the party or not.
2 Josie and George had a big argument but now
they've made ........... .
3 As the boat was approaching the island, I could just
make ..... ...... the snow·covered mountain peaks.
4 Don't trust what Irene says. She's always making
things ... .. .... . . .
5 I can' t make ........... what this letter says - the
handwriting's terrible.
6 The actors have to dress and make ......... ..
before the performance.
put down: write I
put forward: propose ~
put off: postpone
I
put on: 1) dress oneself in sth, 2) increase in weight
put out: extinguish (a fire, cigarette, etc)
put through: connect by phone
put sb up: provide sb wi th a place to stay
9 Underline the correct item.
The company put down/forward a proposal of a
pay rise to the striking workers.
2 Anna put me up/off while I was staying in Berlin.
3 The teacher asked the pupils to put down/
forward their answers on a piece of paper.
4 "Hello. Could you put me through/on to the
manager, please?"
5 I put on/up a black dress for the party.
6 Make sure you put off/out the candle before you
go to bed.
7 Eating a lot of chocolate is a sure way to put
forward/on weight.
S Don't put off/up until tomorrow what you could
do today.
I .
run across: fmd sb/ sth by chance, come across
run away (from): leave a place due to
unhappiness
run down: 1) hit and injure sb with a vehicle,
2) say bad things about sb/ sth
run into: meet sb unexpectedly
run out (of) : reach the end of a supply of sth
run up against: start to experience problems
1 0 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles.
1 Kelly got run .... .. .. .. . by a car and taken to
hospital.
2 We ran ........... some problems when we were
installing the new computer system.
3 Teenagers are prone to run ...... .. ... home if their
parents push them hard.
4 I ran ..... . ..... Steve on my way to the
supermarket.
5 Susie ran ........... milk so she went to the shop to
buy some more.
6 I don't like Warren - he's always running people
fall behind (with): fail to keep up with
fall for: 1) be deceived by sth, 2) become strongly
attracted to sb
fall in with: agree with a plan / decision, etc
fall through: fail to happen
fall out (with): quarrel
11 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles.
1 Georgia fell .... ..... .. Jose the moment she met
him and now they' ve been together for a year.
2 Linda fell . . .. .. .. .. . with her flat mate because he
never washed the dishes .
3 We were intending to go to Bermuda but our plans
fell ... . . . .... . .
4 Fred has not been studying and has fallen
........... his schoolwork.
5 Martin fell .. . ..... . .. the plan to go to the cinema.
6 Unfortunately, Megan fell ... ...... .. Irene's lies.
7 I'm not falling .. . ... . . . .. that old trick!
set aside: save money or reserve a specific time
for sth
set (sb/sth) back: to cause a delay
set off: begin a journey, set out
set out: 1) begin a journey, set off,
2) (+ to·infinitive) start trying to do sth
set up: 1) start a business, 2) put together a
temporary structure
12 Underline the correct item.
1 Rob and Philip set out/up a courier business in
Cambridge.
2 We set up/off for the beach, armed with sun
cream and swimming costumes.
3 I must set out/aside some time to reply to all of
myemails.
4 The project was set up/back after we met some
unexpected problems.
5 The politician set off/out to improve people's
lives but got corrupted by power and money.
6 A large tent was set up/aside on the lawn to hold
the graduation ceremony.
7 Go to bed early because we're setting back/out
at 6 am tomorrow.
stand by sb: support sb, esp in a difficult
situation
stand for: support an idea, policy, etc
stand in for : replace sb temporarily
stand up: rise to one's feet
stand up to: defend oneself against sb
13 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles .
Amy was grateful that her friends stood ......... . .
her while she was having financial difficulties.
2 Rick stood .. . . .. .... . his manager and told him he
was being unreasonable.
3 Someone had to stand ...... . .... the usual actor
because he was sick.
4 Nobody is sure what the government stands
. .... . ..... any more.
5 At the end of the interview, we stood . .... . .. .. .
and shook hands.
6 Carla can't come to the meeting tomorrow, so
someone will have to stand . .. . .. ... . . her.
7 Amnesty International stands .. . ... . .. .. justice and
human rights.
8 The audience stood .. . . ....... and cheered when
the band came on stage.
9 Children can find it difficult to stand .... . .... . .
bullies.
10 I'm lucky because I know my family will always
stand .. .... .. . . . me in a crisis.
169
170
Phrasal Verbs
take after sb: look or behave like a relative
take away: remove
take down: write down
take off: 1) remove an item of clothing ( ~ put on ),
2) (of aeroplanes) leave the ground
take sb out: take sb to a restaurant , etc
take over: fill a position after sb else has left
take up: begin a hobby, sport, job, etc
14 Underline the correct item.
1 Our boss is taking us off/out to dinner on Friday!
2 Oliver wanted to lose some weight, so he took
up/down swimming.
3 Bob takes after/over his grandfather. They both
love gardening.
4 Who will take up/over as manager when Chloe
leaves?
5 The plane took off/up at 9 am and will land in
Berlin at 11 am.
6 The refuse collectors are on st rike and haven ' t
taken away/after the rubbish for a week.
7 Please, hold on while I take off/down your name
and number.
S It was hot so I took off/out my jacket.
9 Can you take up/over the driving? I' m tired.
turn down: 1) refuse sb' s offer, 2) reduce
(volume, heat, etc) ( ~ turn up)
turn on: switch on (lights, a radio, etc) ( ~ turn off)
turn to: go to sb for help
turn up: 1) (of an opportunity) arise, 2) arri ve,
3) increase (volume, heat , etc)
turn sth out: produce sth
15 Fill in the gaps with the correct particles.
1 Could you turn .. .. .. ..... the TV volume, please?
I'm t rying to sleep.
2 David turned .. .. .... .. . at the party uninvited.
3 Helen turns ........... her mother in times of
trouble.
4 Zach was cold so he turned the heating ........... .
5 Don' t forget to turn ........... the lights when you
leave!
6 Carrie turned ........... Aidan's marriage proposal.
7 There are no good jobs available at the moment,
but I' m hoping something will turn ........... .
S Can you turn the lights ........... , please? It 's
getting dark.
call for : require, demand
call in: visit sb briefly
call off: cancel
call out: 1) shout, 2) send for sb in an emergency
call over: ask sb who is not nearby to come closer
16 Underline the correct item.
The cricket match was called out/off because of
bad weat her.
2 I' ll call in/over at Granny's later and see how she
is.
3 The earthquake calls for/in rapid action from the
government to help those left homeless.
4 The police were called in/out to a robbery in
Smitham Road.
5 Emma called me off/over to her desk to ask me
something.
6 The child called out/in to his friend across the
street.
7 You passed your dri vi ng test. That calls outlfor a
celebration!
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with Prepositions
absent from (adj) aim at (v) arrest sb for sth (v)
according to (prep) amazed at/by (adj) arrive at (a small place) (v)
accuse sb of (v) angry about sth (adj) arrive in (a town) (v)
accustomed to (adj) angry with sb for doing sth (adj) ashamed of (adj)
A advantage of (n) annoyed about sth (adj) ask for (v) (but: ask sb a question)
(but: there's an advantage in) annoyed with sb for doing sth (adj) astonished at/by (adj)
advice on (n) answer to (n) attitude to/ towards (n)
afraid of (adj) apologise to sb for sth (v) aware of (adj)
agree with sb/sth (v) apply for sth (v)
bad at (adj) blame sb for sth (v) borrow sth from sb (v)
B
begin with (v) blame sth on sb (v) brilliant at (adj)
believe in (v) (someone is to) blame for sth (v) bump into (v)
belong to (v) bored with (adj)
capable of (adj) collide with (v) consist of (v)
care about (v) communicate with (v) contact between (n) (but: in
care for sb/ sth (v) complain to sb about sth/sb (v) contact with)
(take) care of (n) concentrate on (v) cope with (v)
C cause of (n) concerned about (adj) crash into (v)
charge sb with (v) congratulate sb on sth (v) crowded with (adj)
cheque for (n) connection between (n) cruel to (adj)
clever of you (to do sth) (adj) (but: in connection with) cure for (n)
close to (adj) conscious of (adj) cut into small pieces (v)
damage to (n) die of (v) divide into (v)
decide on (v) die in an accident (v) do sth about (v)
0 decrease in (n) difference between (n) dream about (v)
delighted with (adj) different from/ to (adj) dream of (v) (= imagine)
demand for (n) disadvantage of (n) drive into (v)
depend on (v) disappoi nted with (adj) due to (prep)
E
engaged to (adj) excellent at (adj) explain sth to sb (v)
envious of (adj) excited about (adj)
fall in (v) forget about (v) furious about sth (adj)
famous for (adj) forgive sb for (v) furious with sb for doing sth (adj)
F fed up with (adj) (un)friendly to (adj)
fight for (v) frightened of (adj)
fond of (adj) full of (adj)
G
generous of sb (to do sth)(adj) glance at (v) good to sb (adj)
generous to sb (adj) good at sth (adj) good of sb (to do sth) (adj)
H
happen to (v) hear from (v) (= receive a letter) hopeless at (adj)
hear about (v) (= be told) hear of (v) (= learn that sth or sb
exists)
impressed by/ with (adj) insist on (v) invitation to (n)
I incapable of (adj) intelligent of sb (to do sth) (adj) invite sb to (v)
increase in (n) interested in (adj)
-
171
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with Prepositions
J I jealous of (adj)
K
I keen on sth (adj)
I kind of sb (to do sth) (adj)
kind to (adj) key to (n)
I laugh at (v) live on (v)
L leave for (v) look at (v)
I
listen to (v) (have a) look at (n)
I -
M married to (adj) mean of sb (to do sth) (adj) mean to (adj)
N need for (n) nice of sb (to do sth) (adj) nice to (adj)
0 optimistic about (adj)
pay for (v) point at (v) prevent sb from (v)
photograph of (n) (im)polite of sb (to do sth) (adj) protect against / from (v)
p
picture of (n) (im)polite to (adj) proud of (adj)
(un)pleasant to (adj) popular with (adj) provide sb with (v)
pleased with (adj) prefer sth to sth else (v) (put) pressure on sb (n)
reaction to (n) (but : a good relationship responsible for (adj)
reason for (n) with sb) rise in (n)
R receive from (v) rely on (v) rude of sb (to do sth) (adj)
regard as (v) remind sb of I about (v) rude to (adj)
relationship between (n) remind sb to do sth (v)
reply to (n / v)
-.
satisfied with (adj) silly of sb to do sth (adj) split into (v)
save sb from (v) similar to (adj) stare at (v)
scared of (adj) smile at (v) stupid of sb (to do sth) (adj)
5 search for (v/ n) solution to (n) succeed in (v)
sensible of sb (to do sth) (adj ) sorry about sth (adj) suffer from (v)
sentence sb to (v) sorry for sb (adj) surprised at/by (adj)
shocked at/by (adj) sorry for doing sth (adj) surrounded by (adj)
short of (adj) speak to (v) suspicious of (adj)
shout at (v) spend money on sth (v)
shout to (v) spend time doing sth (v)
talk to (v) throw at (v) top of sth (n)
T terrified of (adj) throw to (v) translate from .. . into (v)
think about/of (v) tired of (adj) turn sth into sth else (phr v)
U
unreasonable of sb (to do sth) upset about (adj)
(adj)
W
wait for (v) warn sb not to do sth (v) write to sb (v)
warn sb against/about/of (v) worried about (adj)
L----L
172
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with Prepositions
!
At
at the bottom of at least at 4, Rose Street
at first at the weekend
by accident by chance by Rembrandt
by bus/train/car/taxi / by cheque by Shakespeare
I coach/ship/boatlsea/ by mistake by t he time
By air/plane/helicopter by postl (air)mail
(but : on a/the bus/train/
coach/ship/boat/plane,
in a car/taxi/plane/
helicopter)
j
-
for breakfastllunch/dinner for help for a swim
For for a drink (go to a place) for a holiday/my for a walk
I
for fun (= for amusement) holiday(s) for a while
I
-
I
from time to time from that day on
From
from now on
I
in agony in the countryside in love (with)
in an armchair in disbelief in one's opinion
in cash in the distance in other words
In in the (city) centre in one's free time in power
in the/a city in the fresh air in time
:
.1
in common in a hurry
'N __ ' __ ~ , _ , ____
Into into pieces
---1
_N··· _______
. __ ..• _ .... _"----,
on business on a farm (but: in a field) on page 4
on the (west) coast on fire on the phone/telephone
I
On
on a cruise/excursion/ on the 4th floor (of) on the radio/TV
trip/tour on foot on the rightlleft
on a diet on the other hand on strike
i
on an expedition on holiday
- ~
Out of out of control out of date out of order
--
To to one's relief to one's horror
---
Under under control under repair under threat
173
174
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with Prepositions
1
Use the prepositions in the list below to
complete the sentences.
• from • of • at • to • with • for • by
1 Who does this coat belong .. .......... ?
2 Tom is very bad ............ Maths.
3 Angela blamed Joanne ............ breaking the
vase.
4 Are you aware ............ the dangers of smoking?
5 According ............ the weather forecast, it will
rain tomorrow.
6 The children were amazed the
magician's tricks.
7 Warren accused Keith .... ........ stealing his
wallet.
S I'm applying ............ the job in the sales
department.
9 Tracey borrowed a skirt ............ her sister.
10 I don't agree ............ using animal fur for
clothes.
2 Underline the correct item.
1 Sandra ignored her sister and concentrated on/in
her homework.
2 It's difficult to communicate to/with people if
you don't speak their language.
3 I must congratulate Emma on/for her exam
results!
4 Take care of/for your little brother while I'm
gone.
5 The neighbours complained about/on the noise
outside.
6 People are increasingly concerned with/about
the environment.
7 The cinema is on Broadwick Street, close to/by
the supermarket.
S Joseph finds it difficult to cope at/with stress.
9 Virginia is cruel with/to other people.
10 Jason gave me a cheque for/about the money he
owed me.
11 Susan bumped int%nto Richard at the theatre.
12 Why was Rachel absent at/from school today?
13 If you need more paper, ask the teacher for/to
some.
14 I'm annoyed by/with Josie for keeping me awake
last night.
15 My li ttle sister still believes in/into fairies.
3 Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.
1 Tamatha was delighted ........... her birthday
present.
2 I'm very excited ........... my holiday this year.
3 Derek dreamt ........... wi nning the lottery last
night.
4 My father is excellent ........... cooking.
5 Alex drove ........... a wall last night and ruined
his car.
6 You can hardly tell the difference .......... .
designer clothes and hi gh street clothes these
days.
7 Two people died ........... a boating accident last
night.
S Hayley got engaged ........... Tom last December.
9 You can depend ........... Vera to arrive on time.
10 The disadvantage ........... wind farms is the
noise.
11 Scientists are working hard to find a cure
.. ......... cancer.
12 Evie is bored .... .. ..... her job.
13 Fred used to be afraid ........... spiders when he
was little.
14 William is stil l angry .. .. . ...... not being allowed
to stay out late.
15 Irene has a bad attitude ... . .... ... her colleagues
at work.
4 Underline the correct item.
1 The new teacher is very kind with/to his students.
2 The meeting was boring and Henry kept glancing
to/at the clock.
3 Roy was furious of/with Thomas for losing his MP3
player.
4 I' m so jealous about/of Penny's new car.
5 Please forgive me on/for forgetting your birthday.
6 I'm so hopeless at/in Maths!
7 Did you hear from/about the fire at the hospital
last night?
S Have you been i nvited to/at Arnold's party?
9 Our cat is ill so the vet is looking for/after him.
10 I' m frightened for/of going out alone after dark.
11 Simon was disappointed with/for his exam
results.
12 Ann is capable t%f getting any job she wants.
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with Prepositions
13 The bus was crowded with/from people.
14 The police arrested the girl about/for shoplifting.
15 Mum blamed her bad mood in/on the weather.
5
Use the prepositions in the list below to
complete the sentences.
• at • in • for • of • to • about • with • on
My father got married ... .... .. .. . my mother in
1981.
2 It was nice . .... ... .... Harriet to buy me a
birthday present!
3 Please remind Juliet .. . .. . ... ... meet me after
work.
4 How rude ...... . . .. . Martin to tal k to you li ke that !
5 Paul was very pleased . .. . .... ... . his new bicycle.
6 Be nice . .. .. . . ... .. Virginia - she's not well .
7 Mr Ladbury is very popular .. ... ....... his
students.
8 Faye felt optimistic ... .. .. . . . .. her exam.
9 The child pointed .. ........ .. the balloon.
10 Hannah is responsible ... . . .. . .... training new
staff.
11 Hard work is the key ...... . . . ... success.
12 Harold has been looking ... .. .. . .... his keys for
half an hour.
13 Julie insisted ..... ... ... . my coming to dinner.
14 I don't like Irene because she's always mean
....... ... . . people.
15 Julian is very interested . .. . ........ jazz.
6 Circle the correct item.
Rory was so angry that he .... .. .. Eric.
A shouted at B shouted to C smiled at
2 What's the ..... ... the problem?
A disadvantage of
C solution to
B increase in
3 Ursula is ... ... . . arguing with Valerie.
A tired of B interested in C rude of
4 Did you .. ... . .. persuading Gillian to come with
us?
A suffer from B succeed in C speak to
5 I was ... ... .. the strange man in the shop.
A proud of B suspicious of C stare at
6 William was .. ... . . . the other students.
A popular wi th B furious about C bad at
7 Many people are ........ spiders.
A surprised by
C warned about
B afraid of
8 Lilian was ........ not getti ng the job she applied
for.
A upset about B exci ted about C sorry for
9 It was .. .. .. .. you to get an early ni ght before
your exam.
A stupid of B silly of
C sensible of
10 Charlotte was ....... . the awful news.
A shocked by B worried about
C impressed by
11 Did you hear what ... .. ... Tilly yesterday?
A wrote to B threw to
C happened to
12 Briony is very ..... .. . teaching.
A brilliant at B good at C hopeless at
13 It was . .. .. ... our boss to take us out for dinner.
A generous of B generous to C nice to
14 Women are still ..... .. . equal rights.
A popular with
C fighting for
B disappointed with
15 There is a ...... . . global warming and extreme
weather condi ti ons.
A connect ion between B contact between
C demand for
7 Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.
We' re visiting my grandmother .. .. ... .... the
weekend.
2 What do you like to do ......... .. your free time?
3 Hannah went ..... .. . ... a swim after lunch.
4 I crashed the car . . . .. .. . . .. accident.
5 Terry was ... ........ agony after he injured himself
at netball .
6 Ann liked her job .. . .. .. .. .. first, but now she
hates it.
7 ... .. . ... . . my horror, I discovered a spider in my
shoe!
175
176
Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns with Prepositions
8 Drew disagrees with hunting animals .......... .
sport.
9 The drinks machine is out ........... order.
10 The teacher kept the class ........... control.
11 Matt and Libby have nothing ........... common.
12 The vase fell to the floor and broke ...... .... .
pieces.
13 Julie's been ........... a diet for two months.
14 I promise to work harder ........... now on.
15 Tracey posted the wrong letter ........... mistake.
8 Underline the correct item.
1 The machine is into/under repair and cannot be
used now.
2 We're planning to go to the beach at/on the
weekend.
3 Greg sent the letter by/in airmail.
4 I'm going to go to Crete on/for a while.
5 I can see a ship on/in the distance.
6 Rachel made me toast for/at breakfast.
7 ForlTo Wendy's relief, the children weren't
harmed in the earthquake.
8 Miss Rouse, there's someone on/in the telephone
for you.
9 I met Fred by/for chance in the street this
afternoon.
10 Florence can't wait to go int%n holiday.
11 I still see my friends from primary school in/from
time to time.
12 Harriet's mother is away on/for business.
13 The road is in a bad condition, so you have to go
on/by foot.
14 Peter is into/in a hurry to catch the bus.
15 This painting is out of/by Van Gogh.
9 Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.
A: No one is to blame ........... what happened
yesterday.
B: I know. I think it's unfair they blamed it all
........... Cathy.
2 A: It was so good .......... . Mandy to help us.
B: I know. Mandy is always good ........... us.
3 A: It was so kind ........... Martin to pay for his
friends' cinema tickets.
B: Martin cares ........... his friends a lot . He
loves being generous ........... them.
4 A: What's wrong? Are you worried .......... .
something?
B: I' m afraid it's impossible to concentrate
.. ......... my work with all this noise.
5 A: Have you heard ........... Jill 's accident?
B: No, what happened ........... her? I haven't
heard ........... her for ages.
6 A: We must congratulate Beatrice ...... ..... her
exam results.
B: I know. She succeeded ........... coming top of
her year again. Her parents must be so proud
........... her.
7 A: Is Laura popular ........... her students?
B: Yes, she is. The headmaster is really pleased
her. She is excellent ........... her
job.
10
Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions
to complete the letter below.
Dear Alice,
Hello from Vienna. Paul and I arrived 1) ............. this fantastic
city three days ago, and I thought I'd write 2) ...... ..... you to tell
you how great it is.
Yesterday we went to the Albertina Museum and saw some
amazing paintings 3) ...... .. ... famous artists. We were so
impressed 4) .............. what we saw that we stayed at the
museum for three hours. We also walked around the city and were
astonished 5) .............. the beauty of the houses. In fact, they
reminded us 6) .............. home.
This morning we met a nice Austrian couple, and they've invited
us to have dinner 7) ...... .... .... them toni ght. They live 8) ............ ..
a houseboat so the evening should be fun.
Anyway, tomorrow afternoon we're travelling 9) ............. .
Bratislava. Paul insisted that Vie travel 10) .............. coach. As
you know, he's frightened 11) ........ .... flying I You'll hear
12) .............. us again in a few days.
Lots of love,
Lucy