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Chapter 10 Outline The Renaissance in Italy (1375 – 1527) I) General Renaissance Information 1) Renaissance means “rebirth” in French A) It is a transition

of medieval to modern times 2) Before the Renaissance: Europe had a fragmented feudal government A) Agricultural economy B) Church largely dominated culture 3) During the Renaissance: Europe had national and political centralization A) Urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism 4) How it began: A) Death of Petrarch – “father of humanism” (1374) B) Death of Giovanni Boccaccio – author of the Decameron (1375) (a) Florentine humanist culture (civic humanism) spread throughout Italy and Northern Europe 5) How it ended: A) Spanish-imperial soldiers looted and torched Rome (a) French king Francis I and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V made Italy their battleground II) Italian City-States Growth 1) Why? A) Merchant cities had an advantage because they were geographically centered between East and West B) Italian merchants mastered skills of business that allowed them to be bankers for much of Europe C) Warfare between the pope and emporer and the Guelf (propapal) and Ghibelline (proimperial) fractions prevented one group from fully gaining control of the city-states (a) Italian cities, free of kings unlike northern Europe, remained free to expand on their own 2) Result? A) 5 major states evolved: the duchy of Milan, the republics of Florence and Venice, the Papal States, and the kingdom of Naples (a) As result of intense competition most of the cities developed into governments where the ruler had absolute power (cruel and oppressive way?) (b) Except Venice which developed a patrician senate of 300 members and a judicial body (eventually known as the Council of Ten?) 3) Social Class and Conflict A) Florence had best example of social division with 4 separate groups: (a) Old rich (grandi), nobles and merchants who ruled the city (b) Newly rich merchant class (popolo grosso or “fat people”), capitalists and bankers, * In the late 13th and early 14th century they began to challenge the old rich for power

ruled very chaotic Florence in almost dictatorship (cautious and determined ruler) (a) This is after the assignation of his brother by the rival family. judges. known as the Signoria governed the city (a) Made up of the most powerful guilds in the major clothing industries (wool. along with the colaspe of the great banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi (b) As a rusalt a chaotic 4 year reign by the lower class was established (c) Stable rule did not return until Cosimo de Medici. rose to power in 1434 4) Despotism and Diplomacy A) Cosimo de Medici controlled the city from behind the scenes (Head of Public Debt) (a) Influenced elections to elect council members loyal to him B) A council of six. the anarchy created when the black death cut the city’s population in half. shop owners. who had plotted against the Medicis D) To prevent internal social conflicts and foreign intrigue from destroying their cities ruling groups cooperated to hire strongmen known as despots (podesta) (a) Their sole purpose was to maintain law and order * They held executive. and doctors C) His grandson. military. and judicial authority * Their job was the maintain the normal flow of business which wouldn’t allow any social level to survive or prosper (b) Because they could not count on the loyalty of the population. but the rewards of their success was great * In Milan it was through the despots that the Visconti family came to power and the Sforza family later. which both operated without political opposition E) This political fighting and warfare led to the art of diplomacy (a) Ambassabors represented their city state in foreign affairs such as ceremonies and negoations. and professionals (smaller business people) * Sided with the new rich over the old rich (d) Lower economic class (popolo minute or “little people”) * In 1457 1/3 of Florence’s population were paupers (no wealth at all) B) Conflict Emerged (a) In 1378 an uprising of the poor. bankers. the Pazzi. Lorenzo the Magnificent. they hired mercenary armies obtained through military brokers known as condottieri (c) It was a very dangerous job because they were very popular targets of assignations. a statesman and banker. cloth. known as the Ciompi Revolt occurred * Caused by the fueding of the old and new rich. later eight. they also kept a watch at rival courts F) Patronage to the arts required great wealth III) Humanism 1) General Information A) Meaning: scholary study of latin and greek classics and of the ancvhient church fathers . fur.(c) Middle-burgher ranks of guild masters. and silk).

history. worked in papal and princely courts. and moral philosophy C) Leonardo Bruni first gave the name humanitas of “humanity” to this learning (a) Opened the world of greek scholarship to Italian humanists D) First humanists were orators and poets (a) Wrote orignail literate in both classical and vernacular languages (b) Were teachers of rhetoric. Africa. and Boccaccio A) Francesco Petrarch was the “father of humanism” (a) Celebrated anchient rome in his Letters to the Anchient Dead (b) He also wrote a latin epic poem. and avid collector of manuscripts who assembeled an encyclopedia of greek and roman mythology 3) Educational Reforms and Goals A) Petrarch taught that “It is better to will the good than to know the truth” (a) Became the motto of many later humanists B) Other Influential People (a) Pietro Paolo Vergerio – author of most influntuial Renissance pamphlet on education (On the Morals That Befit a Free Man) (b) Quintilian – wrote the Education of the Orator which became the humanist revision of the study for a traditional school teaching (c) Guarino de Verona – streamlined the study of classical languages (d) Baldassare Castiglione – wrote the Book of the Coutiers which explained the perfect man and woman (e) Christine de Pisan – wrote The Trausure of the City of Ladies about the accomplishments of great woman of history 4) The Florentine “Academy” and the Revival of Platonism A) Revial of Greek studies especially of Plato (a) Foundation laid out when the city invited Manuel Chrydoloras from Constanopile to promote greek learning . secretaries. and had boarded intrests (b) Focused more on bibilical and classicals of greek and latin * Called the period between themselves a “dark middle age” 2) Petrarch. poetry. rhetoric. Dante.B) Advocated the studia humanitatis. speechwriters. more lay dominated. and love sonnets to Laura a married woman who he admired from a far (c) Bilographies of famous roman men (lives of illustratious men) B) He was more secular (non-religious) than Dante Alighieri (a) Who wrote Vita Nuova and Divine Comedy C) Along with Petrarchs student Giovanni Boccaccio they were pioneers of humanist studies (a) He wrote Decameron which was a social commentary and sympathetic look at human behavior. politics. more techinal skills of scholars. after roman general scipio africanus. a liberal arts programof study embracing grammar. and diplomats E) Study of classical and Christian anquitiys had occurred before the Italian Rensiasssance (a) However it recovered more mauescripts.

5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) (b) Council of Ferrara-Florence came together to negotiate the reunion of the Eastern and Western churches. and Dionysius the Areipagiate (d) Platonism: flatering view of human nature * Pico’s Oration of the Dignigity of Man (famous Renissance statement in human nature) Critical Work of the Humanist: Lorenzo Valla A) Author of the Elegances of the Latin Language and Donation of Constantine (predestination) (a) Also points out the errors in the Latin Vulgate (bible) * Young humanists were the first supporters of Martin Luther Civic Humanism A) Humanist criticized Scholaitic education because they believed much of it was useless (a) Education should promate individual virture and public service (civic) B) Found in: Coluccio Salutati. Proclus. and conveying facial expressions Raphael A) Painted many pictures of modanna (mar). Porphyry. great inventer and forsaw many modern inventions. great fresco in Vatican (school of Athens) – perfect example of renaissance techineque Michelangelo . advocate on scientific experimentation (disceted corpses). Michaelangelo. Leonardo Bruni. and Poggio Bracciolini (a) Rallied the pople against the aggression of Milan and naples C) Leon Battista Alberti – Florentine archetecht and builder D) Niccolo Machiavelli and Francecso Guicciardi wrote in Italian and made contemporary history their main focus whereas many humanists had bugen to only use pure latin because of their “elite intelligence) Renaissance Art A) During the High Renaissance art and sculpture where at their pinnacle (a) Embrased the natural world and used a symmetrical and perfectly proportional art technique from belief I nthe harmony of the universe (b) Use of shading to inhance naturalness (chiaroscuro) (c) Adjustment of size of figures to give viewer a feeling of convunity with the painting (Linear perspective) * Enabled the artists to portray space realistically B) Giotto – father of Renaissance patining along with Masaccio (painter) and Donatello (sculptor) portraterd the world around them naturally C) Great Masters of the High Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci. master of military engineering. this allowed many Greek manuscripts to come to the West (c) Florentine Platonic Academy flourished under patronage of Cosimo de Medici and the supervision of Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola * Not an actual school but a gathering of influential florentine humanists * Dedicated to the revival of works of Plato’s and the Neoplatonists: Plotinus. and Raphael Leonardo da Vinci A) Great painter.

frescos in the Sistine chapel are the most famous (a) His later works are examples of mannerism * Allowed for individuals preceptions and feelings (mannerd or affected) * El Greco and Tintoretto are representatives of mannerism 11) Slavery in the Renaissance A) Slavery of prisoners of war captured was common (a) Worked in the house or on a plantation (cut sugarcane) * Served as a model for the New World and the Mediterrian B) After the Black death labor shortages called for more slaves (a) Taken randomly from conquered people * Were all races of people * Were dominated my their owners (b) Tatars and Africans were worst treated * Some accectped as a family member IV) Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions 1) Treaty of Lodi – alliance of Italian city-states (Naples. and emperor Maximillian I with Ferdinand against the French * Ludovico now saw that the French threatened Milan so he too joined the league of venice and drove out Charles . the papal states. and Florence) A) The three would fight against the papal states and Venice (a) Against foreign threats all five would unite 2) Under Milanese despot Ludovico il Moro hostilities between Milan and Naples resumed A) The treaty ended in 1494 when Naples along with Florence and the Borgia Pope Alexander VI threatened Milan 3) Ludovico made a huge mistake when asking the French for help because they had claims not only to Naples but also Milan 4) King Louis XI resisted the temptation to invade Italy but his successor Charles VIII jumped on the oppturnitity A) Within five months his army crossed the alps and invaded Naples then to Florence B) Florence’s ruler Piero de’ Medici who allied with naples against Milan attempted to pacify the French King by giving his Pisa and other Florentine possesions (a) This did not stop the french but only lead to his exile by the citizens C) Girolamo Savonarola. convinced the Florentines that the French king was sent by God for a fully justified divine vengeance on their immortality (?) * Allowed Charles to enter the city without resistance * A payment of a large ransom along with Savonarolas flattery saved the city * He ruled Florence for four years afterward until the italian cities united and he was ousted and killed D) Ferdinand of Aragon was frightened by Charles march through Italy that he was afraid of the his possesions in sicily and that he was vulenable to the French (a) He called together a counteralliance called the Leauge of Venice * It brought together Venice.A) Scultpted david in Florence. a Domincan preacher. Milan.

so they could drive out foreigners * Others didn’t want such a challenge. the popes ally when in the league of venice. Emperor Maximilian I and the Swiss formed a second Holy League to rid Italy of the French (a) Swiss defeated them in 1513 at Novara C) French returned under Francis I. or the ablitlity tot act decisively and heroically for the good of their people (b) Wanted to reunite Italy by any means necessary. successor of Louis (a) French armies massacered Swiss soliders at Marignano in September of 1515 * The victory won the Concordant of Bologna from the pope in august 1516 ~ Gave the French king control of French clergy in recognition of the popes superoritiy over church councilsand the right to collect annates in france ~ Helped French catholics during the prostant reformation 7) Niccolo Machiavelli A) Impressed by romes rulers ways of defending their homeland (a) They possessed virtu. Louis’s favorite clergic a cardinal (c) Most importantly he droppepd out of the leaugue of venice which made it weak enough for conquest by the french * In exchange his son Cesare would recive the king of Navarre’s sister Charollete d’Albret – this strengthend his familys military power (Borgia) ~ Cesare also revieved land grants from lousis XII and French militart aid in Romagna 6) Pope Julius II A) A strong oppose to the Borgia family succeded alexander VI rule as pope (a) Placed the Borgias land under papal juridistiction and raised the papacys military to its peak * Was given the nickname “warrior pope” B) United with Ferdinand of Aragon. Venice.5) Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family A) The most corrupt pope now invited the French ruler Louis XII. Anne of Brittany * He did this as a political move to keep britanny French * Made Rouen. into Italy (a) He also promoated the political careers of his two children to secure a powerful political base in Romagna in northern Italy B) Venice. continued to contest the papal states for loyalty (a) Alexander saw that siding with the French would allow him to reestablish control over the region (b) He also annulled Louis XII’s marragie to Charles VIII’s sister so he could then marry Charles widow. he became know as a cynic (c) Said Italy needed strong dictators to take control of the people (d) Wrote The Prince as a guide for rulers * Hope it would come of the medeci family * Hero was Cesare Borgia . Charles successor.

such as the salt tax (gabelle). but could mutanize if not pain enough E) Warfare began to cost more so a new source of income other than taxes were needed (a) National taxes. diplomatic corps. England = justices of the peace. and France = bailiffs) D) They also created national armies (a) Mercenaries from Switzerland and Germany made up the major parts of the armies * These soldiers were much better fighters than vassals.* The Prince was pointed at Lorenzo de’ Medici (e) Medicis were not the ones to save Italy * Pope Celment VII watched as rome was sacked my Emperor Charles V V) Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe 1) After the Hundreds Year War and the Great Schism the nobility and the clergy were in deciline and were less able to stop the growing national monarchies A) Towns began to ally with the king and business-wise town people began to work for the kings (a) Abled the rise of soverign states B) Taxes. and the 10% sales tax in france from spainish goods (b) Another way was the sale of public offices (c) Rulers did not levy taxes on the nobility insteasd they borrowed from the bankers of Germany and Italy and borrowed from the rich nobles 2) France A) Charles VII created a professional army and aided by Joan of Arc was able for forcec the English out of france B) Merchant banker Jacques Coeur helped develop a strong economy. wars. and laws were now a national matters (a) They rarely called together the people to make laws or decide other issues (spain = Cortes and French = Estates General) C) Monarchies hired royal agents to arrange royal appointment and serve as representative to the kings (Castile = corregidores. and national administration (a) Allowed Louis XI to become a make france a great power C) Two major factors that let France expland in the 15th century: colaspe of the rnglish empire in france following the Hundred Years War and the defeat of Charles the bold and his duchy of Burgundy (a) Burgundy the strongest political power in Europe looked to towerer over france and the holy roman empire * Only the death of Charles the bold in the battle at nancy in 1477 stopped the dream of the Burgundian empire * The conqured lands were split between maximillian I (Habsburg) and Louis XI ~ Louis was free to expand the French empire (ended his reign with twice the empires original size) D) His sucessors brought in a bad foreign policy and lost many wars to the habsburgs (a) Brought france back down to a defeated nation .

armies.3) Spain A) Castile and Aragon were both poorly ruled until the merger of them through the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella (a) Each still had their own laws. Chrisitianity coexisted in spain before this couple came to power (a) They established the Inquisition. an agengy run by Yomas de Torquemada and the higher clergy. and the king of Bohemia ~ Elected the emperor and provided transregional unity and administration . a duke. like that of Columbus F) Their eldest daughter. Their son. who had murdered Edwards sons to sucure the throne * Richards reign saw support for henry tudor or Henry VII ~ Started the court of star chamber to limit the nobles from using intimidation and bribery to win favorable verdicts in court (kings counselors sat as judges) ~ He helped shape a governamnet with less dependence on the parliament 5) The Holy Roman Empire A) Germany – territorial rulers and cities resisted a cerntralized government (a) Charles IV and major german territorial rulers reached and agreement in 1356 known as the Golden Bull * Established a seven member eletorial college consisting of three archbishops. a margrave. (a) Their failed marriage became the key factoer for the formation of the Anglican and the English Reformation 4) England A) After the hundred years war civil war borke out between the branches of royal family: Houses of York and Lancaster (War of the Roses) (a) Lancaster’s Henry VI vs York’s Edward IV * Edward held a string-armed government control over England except for 1 year when Henry had a short lived restoration * His brother. to monitor the coversion of Jews and Muslims in Spain (b) Jews were exiled and the nonconverting moors were driven into exile or killed E) Also opened up to seaward exploration. in Sharkespere Richard III. Richard III. Catherine of Aragon married Arthur (son of English king Henry VII). a count. After he died she married his brother King Henry VIII. Charles (1st to rule over united spain). Their second daughter. ~ He was portrayed as a villain. and traditions (b) Their goals were to expands Spain’s boarders and spread chrisitianity throughout the Spain B) In 1492 they conquered the moors in Grenada (a) Naples became a spanish possession in 1504 (b) Captured Navarre in 1512 C) They won the allegiance of the Hermandad. taxes. Jedaism. took the throne from Edwards son. coins. apowerful group of cities that served against noble landowners D) Islam. Joanna married Archduke Phillip (Maximilian I son).

and clergy * Other popular books were religious books. a creation of a supreme court of justice to enfore internal peace. scholars. an imperial diet was created called the Reichstag * It was a ntional assembly of seven electors. and represenatives of the 65 free cities * The cities were the weakest represented by in 1495 in Worms they won from Emperor Maximilian I an imperial ban on private warfare. could be read by lay readers. and how-to books C) Guetenburgs presses were in 60 cities in Germany and more than 200 in Europe by 1500 (a) Kings could spread propaganda and clergy could mass-produce indulgences and phamplets 2) Erasmus – most famous northern humanist A) Gained fame as a educational and as a religious reformer (a) Relied on toutoring students about latin and inculturing good manners and language to support himself * These dialouges were entitled Collouies ~ They included anticlergical and satires on religious dogmas and superstition * He also wrote down over 5.Having an emperor gave the impression of a single ruler. however he balanced powers with the princes (b) In the 15ht century an effort to control the fighting between cities. and an imperial council of regency to coordinate internal and imperial german policy ~ They were still poor replacements for national unitity VI) The Northern Renaissance 1) The Printing Press A) Rulers had established schools and encouraged literacy to help educated bureaucrats from the offices of their knigndoms (a) Enormous expansion of universarties and schools created a lierate lay public (b) The invention of a chaper way to manufacture paper also helped make books easier to create B) Johann Gutenburg invented the printing press with moveable type in the mid-15th centry in Mainz. alamanics and calendars. the nonelectorial princes. his beliefs were summed up as Philosophia Christi * He believed the new protestants were letting dogma and argument overshadow Christian piety and practice (b) Was an idealist who expected more from people then theologians thought was possible at the time * He promoted biblical sources in their original version because that only though pure sources they would recover moral and religious faith * .000 proverbs in a book called Adages ~ Believed in disciplined study of the bible. Germany (a) First book printed was the Bible.

supported by the Dominican order in cologne.Church authorities were unhappy that he edited the vulgate and produced a greek version ~ Was called Index of Forbidden Books * Luther condemned Erasmus for his views on freedom of human will ~ They were sturdy tools of reform for both Protestant and Catholic reformers 3) Humanism and Reform – humanism spurred educational and religious reform A) Germany (a) Rudolf Agricola – father of german humanism (b) Conrad Celtis – the first german poet laureate (c) Ulrich von Hutten – a knight made humanism a hostile nationalism to non-German cultures especially Roman * Published Donation of Constine * Illustrates union of humanism. tried to suppress jewish writing ~ He attacked Reuchlin and many german humanists defended him in the name of academic freedom and good scholarship (not pro-judiasm) ~ This controversy produced the satire of monks and scholastics. which von Hutten contributed. and luthers religious reform (d) The controversy that brought von Hutten onto the historical stage and unified reformminded german humanists was the Reuchlin affair * Johann Reuchlin was europes chrisitian authority on Hebrew and jewish learning * Pfefferkorn. called the Letters of Obscure Men * When martin luther came under attack because of his 95 theses german humanists came to his aid seeing a repition of the attack on Reuchlin B) England (a) English scholars and merchants visiting Italy brought itialian learning * William Grocyn and Thomas Linacre and Erasmus’s lectures marked the maturation of English humanism * John Colet patronized humanist studies for the young * Thomas moore. a good friend of Erasmus was the most well known English humanist ~ His utopia a compemporary critism of society rival the plays of skaresperes ~ It explained a perfect society based on religious tolerance and reason (basis of communism) * Thomas moore became one the king herny VIII’s most trusted diplomats but because he rejected the Act of Supremacy (made the king the head of the church of England instead of the pope) and refused to recognize the kings marriage to anne Boleyn he was executed C) France (a) French invasions of Italy made it possible for Italian learning to enter france bringing both educational and religious reform * . nationalism.

and latin version of the bible in parallel columns * Proejcts suchas these allowed spain to remain strictly catholic throughout the age of reformation VII) Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East 1) The Portugese Chart the Course A) Prince Henry the Navigator (brother of the king of portugal) (a) 77 years before Columbus set foot in the Americas he captured the African muslim city of ceuta * His motives were that of finding gold and spices along with saving the souls of the muslims who did not know Christ B) Thus began the portugese exploration of the African coast to find slaves and gold and later to find a sea route around Africa to asias spice market (a) The spcies enhanced the dull diets of many Europeans (b) Slaves were first taken by raiders but were later traded by tribal chiefs for horses.* Guillaume Bude (accomplished greek scholar) and Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples (a biblical authority) were learders of French humanism ~ Lefevre’s works influenced martin luther ~ Guillaume Briconnet (bishop of Meaux) and Marguerite d’Angouleme(siter of king francis I and future queen of Navarre) cultivated a ew generation og reform minded humanists.00 slaves to Europe (c) To get spices to Europe they had to buy from the venetians who bartered or bought them from muslims merchants in Egypt and the Ottoman empire * To beat this monoploy they sailed right ot the source ~ Land routes were too difficuklt and unprofitable * They sailed around the tip of Africa into the unknown waters ~ This gave them direct acess to the spices and allies aainst western europes enemies. and finished goods * During the second half of the 15th century Portuguese ships delivered over 150. a six volume work which had a herbrewe. the muslims (d) In 1455 a pope granted the merchants the spoils of war. greek. grain. from west Africa to the indies * The church aslo expected this to lead to mass conversions and the explorers also watched out for the legendary eastern church ruler known as Prester John (e) Dias ventured to the tip of Africa called the cape of good hope . one such prostestant reformer was John Calvin D) Spain (a) Where as in other eurpean countries humanism paved the way for pretestant reform in spain it entered the catholic church * Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros a confessor to Queen Isabella and after 1508 was the “Grand Inquisitor” which allowed him to enforce the strictest religious orthodoxy ~ He founded the university of alcala and printed a greek edition of the newtestament and translated many religious tracts ~ He also completed the Complutensian Polyglot Bible.

A decade later da Dama sailed all the way to India ~ He returned with cargo of spices worth 60 times the cost of the voyage * They set up colonies in Goa and Calcutta in india which allowed them to challenge the venetians and muslims for control over the spice trade (f) The Portuguese concentrated on the indian ocean but the spainish searched westward for a shorter route but instead coloumbus landed in the Americas 2) The Spanish Voyages of Colombus A) 33 days after departing from canary islands on cotober 12 1492 he landed in san Salvador in the eastern Bahamas (a) He belived that he was in one of Japans outher islands because of the information he had be supplied with. mostly marco polos writings and Martin Behaims spherical map of the presumed world * Not until his third voyage in 1498 did he reaize that cuba was not japan and souith America was not china (b) He met Taino Indians who spoke a variant of the language Arawak * He belived at first he was in the east indies he called these people Indians ~ They gave him everything he needed ans never said no (c) Amerigo Vespucci and Ferdinand megellain explored the South American coastline * Vesoucci named america and megelliam named the pacific ocean B) Intended and unintended consequences (a) Columbuses exploration spurred spaninish exploration for the next 3 centurys and with the Spanish war with the moors over they conscentrated on coverting non-christian people (b) These explorations spurred other countries to undertake colonization and allowed spain to extract wealth from trade which allowed thme to finance their religious and political wars in the 16th and 17th century (c) A biological effect also happened. roman Catholicism and and in the beginning a slave trade 3) The Spanish Empire in the New World A) Aztecs in Mexico (a) In 1428 they began an imperial expanision and by the time the Spanish arrived the aztecs controlled all of central mexico * They demanded heavy tributes form their subjects and fedthe gods with human sacrifice (b) In 1519. Hernan Cortes landed in mexico with about 500 men and a few horses and opened communication with Montezuma II the Aztec emperor * He probably belived cortez to the the god Quetzalcoatl who was said to return * Montezuma tried to appease him with gold but that only made the Spaniards want more * . economic cependancy. new fruits and animal species were introduced and they brought europena aniamls and dieases with them (d) A lasting impact of the social structure.

and named it new spain B) The Incas in Peru (a) Like the Aztecs the incas would be councured by the Spaniards * In 1532 inspired by cortez. a Dominican * He cinteneed that the conquest was not just for conversioinand helped to get new royal regulation passed to protect Indians after 1550 * Another result was the “black legend” which altho true it often exaggerated the bad conditions in which spain treated the native americans ~ The rulers especially the Aztecs were cruel to their subjects before anyway (d) By the end of the 16th century the church in Spanish America prospered by exploiting the resources and people of the new world * The church became a great landowner through crown grants and bequests of catholics in the new world * Monistaries became economic as well as spsiritual (e) Even though it was concered with the native americans welfare it showed that Spanish America was a conquered world and no one who talked about the church challenged sopanish domination .(c) Cortez aligned with the Aztecs sujects and the Tlaxacala (indeoendt city state and enemy of the Aztecs) * He marched into Tenochtitlan where Montezuma welcomed him but they immedatley captured him and he died in unexplained circumstances * The Aztecs acceptance of the Spaniards turn into hostilaity ~ They were driven out and almost wiped out but returned and defeated Cuauhtemoc and the Aztecs ~ He then burnt the city down. built his own capital. but instead of releasing him he had him exectuted in 1533 * They captured the capital Cuzco but the Incas continued to fight back until the 1570’s C) Marked the transformation of south America to latin America (a) Native American culture mixed with the European culture 4) The Church in Spanish America A) Roman catholic preints came with the earliest explorers and those who conquered the native americans (a) The brought the humanist ideas to the new world and believed they could spread erasmus’s concapet of the “philosophy of Christ” in these people (b) They could not convert the native americans without conquering them (c) Most effective clergical critic of the spaish conquest was Bartolome de Las Casas. Franscisco Pizarro landed on the western coast of south America with about 200 men * He lured Atahualpa (incan ruler) into a conference and captured him while killing 100’s of his followers ~ He offered ranson in gold.

a large estate owned by someone originally born in spain (peninsulares) or of a person of Spanish descent born in the Americas (creoles) * Laborers were legally bound to the landowners and were rarely free to move around from one landowner to another * The hacienda economy produced foodstuff for the mining areas and urban centers and leather goods for the mining machernary ~ Both farming and ranching were subordinate to the mining economy * In the west indies the agricultural unit was the plantation ~ In the islands and in the carribean the labor of black slaves grew sugar to supply the insubstainible demand for the product in Europe D) The final area of economic activity was eh urban service occupation including governamnt offices. These were mostly held by peninsulares E) Labor Servitude (Slavery) (a) Very early intho their economic activity the spoanish decided the natives would suplly the labor (b) The first of therse was the ecomienda * It was a formal grant of hundreds or thousands of Indians for a particular period of time * But by the mid 16th century it was in decline because the spaish monarch feared these landowners would become too powerful (c) The second was to draw them into the econimc life the Spanish imposed was the repartimiento * It required adult male indians to supplt a certain number of days of labor a year to Spanish economic enterprise * It was known as the mita the incan word for labor tax * . agriculture. and shipping. which was required in the silver smelting process ~ Slave labor was used for the benefit of the Spaniards C) Agriculture (a) The major agricultural institiution of the Spanish colonies was the hacienda. lefal profession. slavery. and shipping whivh each involved labor. and the intertwining of the new world and spinish economies B) Mining (a) Conquistadores or “conquerors” were mostly interested in gold but by the mid 16th century silver mining brought in most of the metallic wealth * Major mining centers were in Potosi in Peru and smaller sites in norther mexico * The Spaniards received 1/5 (quinto) of all mijning revenues ~ For this reason they mainitianed a monopoly in the sale of mercury.By the end of the 18th century the roman catholic church had become one of the most conservative forces in latin America 5) The Economy of Exploration A) The native americans and their lands were drawn into the atlantic economy and the competition of European commercialism (a) Relied on mining.

just an appearance ~ They were required to buy goods from the land or mine owner making them forever indebted to them.The work was harsh and some did not survive their timebut the managers didn’t care because new ones would replace them (d) Pressure from the crown about extreme versions of forced labor and shortage of workers led to free labor * Not really free. shipping. forced labor. mining. and the introduction of European diesases had devasting consequences for the native americans (a) The Spanish had been more exposed to different groups and people and their dieases and animals * This gave them strong immune systems but the native americans were secluded so they did not ~ The population of mexico dropped to an extimated 8%. civility. textile. and weapon industires (a) Large scale govemnrt planning in ventures as the French silk industry and the development of mines in Austria and Hungary (b) In the 13th and 14th centuries. capitalist-instutuions had already begun to develop in rich Italian cities * Those who owned the means of production were higher up than the workers ~ . from 25 million to 2 million 6) The Impact on Europe A) Columbus’s discovery increased skepticism about the anchients (a) Knowledge of the world had be so wrong grographically B) Many people criticized the cruel treatment of native americans but one the 3rd century anniversary the great thinkers of the age lionized (celebritized) him on having opened up new possibilities for civilization and moralitiy (a) He was said to have made cooperation. and peace among them C) The printing press and columbus’s deiscovery opened up new eras in communication and globalization D) The influx of spices and precious metals created an increase in prices and a steady rate os inflation (a) Increased amount of coinage in circulation this led to inflation * The rise of prices was widespread but not sudden ~ Prices doubled in spain by 1550 and quadrupled by 1600 * In luther’s wittenburg Germany prices of food and clothing rose 100% ~ Wages and rents remained behind rise in prices E) New wealth allowed governments and prive entrepnuers to sponser basic research and expansion in printing. This is known as debt peonage and continued long after the 19th centhery wars of liberation (e) Black slavery was the last form of forced labor * They ahd be used as slaves earlier in Europe * Sugar plantations of West indies and brazil became the major center of black slavery F) The conquest.

England. etc.) were laid at this time (b) Previously divided lands came together united as one with a single ruler B) Through the wrodk of byzantine and Islamic scholars greek scince and scholarship found its way west (a) They had been separated from their cultural past for 8 centuries. Italy. which remains one of western europes most impressive achievements D) New political unioty spurred royal greed and national ambition (a) Europeans were now able to venture far away to the new world * New World silver and gold led to new human and econoci problems ~ Some even began to question the civilazations tradional values * . and the landed nobility and the agrarian peasantry * These prepared the way for the reformation by making many people critical of the traditional institutions and to open to new ideasespecially thiose that seemed to promise greater freedom and chance at better lifes 7) In Perspective A) Eueope saw the establimshment of perminant certalized states nad regional governments (a) Foundations of major European countries (france. no other civilization had been superated that long C) This discovery of classical civilization caused a rebirth of intellectual and artisitic activity in southern and northern Europe (a) One result was the Italian renaissance. industry. and orderly planning F) In the late 15th and 16th century the new wealth and industrial expansion and raised the expectation of the poor and ambitious and heightened the reactionary tendancies of the wealthy (a) It then agrivated the tradional social divisions between celegry and the laity. the urban patriciopate and the guilds.Entrepnuers created monopolies over basic goods and high interests were charges on loans ~ Capitlaist virtures of thrift.