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# International Mathematical Forum, 1, 2006, no.

23, 1113 - 1124

On fuzzy topological K -algebras
M. Akram University College of Information Technology University of the Punjab, Old Campus, Lahore-54000, Pakistan m.akram@pucit.edu.pk K. H. Dar Govt. College University Lahore, Department of Mathematics Katchery Road, Lahore-54000, Pakistan prof khdar@yahoo.com Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the notions of fuzzy topological subalgebras and ideals in K -algebras, and investigate some of their properties. We also discuss the properties of homomorphic image and inverse image of fuzzy topological ideals of K -algebras. Keywords: (Fuzzy )continuous maps, (Fuzzy topological )ideals, Hausdorﬀ spaces ,C5 -disconnectness, Compactness. Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 06F35, 94D05.

1

Introduction

K. H. Dar and M. Akram [9] introduced a class of logical algebras: K -algebras on a group G( brieﬂy, K (G)-algebras) using the induced binary operation and have further extended its scope of study in [10] . Fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [4]. Since then there have been wide-ranging applications of the fuzzy set theory. Many research workers have fuzziﬁed the various mathematical structures, such as topological spaces, functional analysis, loop, group, ring, near ring, vector spaces, automation. In this paper, we introduce the notions of fuzzy topological subalgebras and ideals in K -algebras, and investigate some of their properties such as fuzzy Hausdorﬀ spaces, fuzzy C5 -disconnectness and fuzzy compactness. We also discuss the properties of homomorphic image and inverse image of fuzzy topological ideals of K -algebras.

2

Preliminaries

In this section, we review some deﬁnitions and properties that will be used in the sequel:

Deﬁnition 2. Deﬁnition 2. then f (e1 ) = e2 . (a x) (a y) = y x). x) = x). Dar Deﬁnition 2. Deﬁnition 2. e2 ) be K -algebras.5. (ii) (∀a.6. that satisﬁes the following: (k1) (∀a. ·. e) be a group with the identity e such that x2 = e for some x(= e) ∈ G. e1 ) and K2 = (G2 . [9] Let (G. x) = (a If G is abelian . .1. y ∈ G) ((a (k2 ) (∀a. ·. Deﬁnition 2. . a = a−1 ). Note that if f is a homomorphism. then following operations are valid : . x−1 )) a).3. 1]. e). ∀ x. y ∈ G) ((a (k2) (∀a. x. [9] A nonempty subset H of a K -algebra K is called a subalgebra of K if it satisﬁes: (i) e ∈ H. [1] Let A and B be two fuzzy sets in X . A nonempty subset A of a K -algebra K is called an ideal of K if. (ii) (∀y ∈ K)(∀x ∈ A) (x y ) ∈ A and y (y x) ∈ A ⇒ x ∈ A).4. A K -algebra is a structure K = (G.1114 M. A mapping f : K1 → K2 of K -algebras is called a homomorphism if f (x y ) = f (x) f (y ). . Akram and K. (i) e ∈ A. where “ ” is a binary operation on G which is induced from the operation “·”. A fuzzy (sub)set A in X is characterized by a membership function μA : X → [0. x) (a y ) = (a x−1 ) (y −1 a). then conditions (k1) and (k2) can be written as follows: (k1 ) (∀a. e = a). x ∈ G) (a respectively. b ∈ H ) (a b ∈ H ). x. H.2. ·. x ∈ G) (a (k3) (∀a ∈ G) (a (k4) (∀a ∈ G) (a (k5) (∀a ∈ G) (e (a a = e). Deﬁnition 2. y ∈ K1 . ·. Let K1 = (G1 . [1] Let X be a non-empty set.

τ ) is called a fuzzy topological space(FTS) and members of τ are called open fuzzy sets( OFSs). then A1 ∩ A2 ∈ τ . (d) (∀x ∈ X )(A ∪ B = max (μA (x). Let f : X → Y be a function. 1X ∈ τ . A fuzzy topology on a set X is a family τ of fuzzy sets in X which satisﬁes the following conditions: (i) ∅X . Then (a) If f is surjective . if f is surjective. (b) (∀x ∈ X )(A = B ⇒ μA (x) = μB (x)) . denoted by f −1 (B ). (c) (∀x ∈ X )(A ∩ B = min (μA (x). and the complement of fuzzy open sets are closed fuzzy sets(CFSs). Deﬁnition 2. [5] Let f be a mapping from a set X into set Y . (e) f −1 (∅Y ) = ∅X . The pair (X. The image of A. (a) Let B be a fuzzy set in Y with membership function μB .On fuzzy topological K -algebras 1115 (a) (∀x ∈ X )(A ⊆ B ⇒ μA (x) ≤ μB (x)). Let A (Ai )be a fuzzy set with membership function μA (μAi ) in X and B be a fuzzy set with membership function μB in Y . μB (x))). is the fuzzy set in Y with membership function μf (A) such that fsup (μA )(y ) = supx∈f −1 (y) μA (x). is the fuzzy set in X with membership for all x ∈ X . is denoted by f (A). (b) f (∅X ) = ∅Y . (iii) If Ai ∈ τ for all i ∈ I . then ∪i∈I Ai ∈ τ . A2 ∈ τ . (f) f (∪Ai ) = ∪f (Ai ). The fuzzy sets φX and 1X in X are deﬁned by φX = {x ∈ X : μ(x) = 0} and 1X = {x ∈ X : μ(x) = 1} respectively. (ii) If A1 .8. Proposition 2. (c) f (1X ) = 1Y . The inverse image of B . 0. μB (x))).7. Deﬁnition 2. then f (f −1(μB )) = μB . (d) f −1 (1Y ) = 1X . otherwise . Deﬁnition 2.10. .9. if f −1 (y ) = ∅ . function μf −1 (B) deﬁned by μf −1 (B) (x) = μB (f (x)) (b) Let A be a fuzzy set in X with membership function μA .

1116 M. τF 2 Furthermore. the intersection f −1 (VF2 ) ∩ F1 is in τF1 . . τF1 ) into (F2 .5 0. A fuzzy topology τ on a K -algebra K is said to be a discrete fuzzy topology if it contains all fuzzy subsets of K. A fuzzy topology τ on a K -algebra K is said to be an indiscrete fuzzy topology if its only elements are empty fuzzy set (∅K ) and whole fuzzy set (1K ). τ ) respectively. and the intersection of any two members of τ is a member of τ . .6 0. Moreover. a3 . Akram and K. ·. τF1 ) and (F2 .5 0. a4 } is the cyclic group of order 5 and following Cayley table: e a a2 a3 a4 e e a a2 a3 a4 a a4 e a a2 a3 a2 a3 a4 e a a2 a3 a2 a3 a4 e a a4 a a2 e3 e4 e (a) If we deﬁne a fuzzy set as follows: A =< x.3 0. τF 2 ∗ logical spaces (K1 . Example 3. f is relatively fuzzy continuous if for each open fuzzy set VF2 in τF2 .2. . e). Dar 3 Fuzzy topological subalgebras Deﬁnition 3. a. . where is given by the G = {e.4 0. f is relatively fuzzy open if for each open fuzzy set UF1 in τF1 .1. Then f is a mapping of (F1 .2 e a a2 a3 a4 . the image f (UF1 ) is in τ ∗ . [?] A fuzzy set A in a K -algebra K with membership function μA is called a fuzzy subalgebra of K if μA (x y ) ≥ min{μA (x). and let f be a mapping from ∗ ) if f (F1 ) ⊂ F2 . Deﬁnition 3. ( Then the family {∅K . B } of fuzzy sets in K is a fuzzy topology on K because the empty fuzzy set ∅K and the whole fuzzy set 1K are in τ . It is easy to check that A is a fuzzy subalgebra of K. [9] Consider the K -algebra K = (G. (K1 . τ ) and (K2 .4 0.4. for all x.3 0.3 B =< x. )> 0. 1K . μA (y )}. ∗ ) be fuzzy subspaces of fuzzy topoDeﬁnition 3. Let (F1 .5 0. )> 0. and arbitrary union of members of τ is a member of τ . A. .3. H. (b) Deﬁne a fuzzy set A in K with membership function μA deﬁned by μA (e) = 0. y ∈ K . τ ) to (K2 . .02 for all x = e in K. a2 .8 and μA (x) = 0. . . τ ∗ ). ( e a a2 a3 a4 .

then there exists V ∈ τ ∗ such that Proof. Since f is fuzzy continuous. This completes the proof. Let K1 and K2 be K -algebras and let (F. τ2 ) be any mapping of K -algebras. We see that every member of τ2 is a fuzzy subalgebra of K -algebra K2 . then every function f : (K1 . . τF ) and (G. f −1 (A) ∈ τ1 . τ1 ) → (K2 . On the other hand. Proof. τ1 ) to (K2 . (ii) For every fuzzy subalgebras A(of K2 ) in τ2 . Thus (f −1 (∅K2 )) = ∅K1 ∈ τ1 . Let τ1 and τ2 be fuzzy topologies on K -algebras K1 and K2 respectively and A be a fuzzy set with membership function μA . Deﬁnition 3. τG ) be fuzzy subspaces of (K1 . Let VF2 be a fuzzy set in τF 2 VF2 = V ∩ F2 . So it is enough to prove that for every A ∈ τ2 . Let ∅K2 ∈ τ2 . Hence f −1 (VF2 ) ∩ F1 = f −1 (V ∩ F2 ) ∩ F1 = f −1 (V ) ∩ f −1(F2 ) ∩ F1 =f −1 (V ) ∩ F1 is a fuzzy set in τF1 . τ2 ) if it satisﬁes following conditions: (i) For every A ∈ τ2 . 1K2 }. Theorem 3.5. f −1 (∅K2 )(x) = ∅K2 (f (x)) = 0 [as f (x) ∈ K2 ] = ∅K1 (x) [by def inition of empty f uzzy set]. Then f is relatively fuzzy continuous mapping of F1 into F2 . therefore. τ ) and (K2 . if 1K2 ∈ τ2 and x ∈ K1 . τ2 ) is a fuzzy continuous map. it follows that f −1 (V ) is a fuzzy set in τ . τ2 ) is said to be a fuzzy continuous map from (K1 . τ1 ) → (K2 . then for any x ∈ K1 . τ ∗ ) respectively. A function f : (K1 . Hence f is a fuzzy continuous map which maps (K1 . then we have (f −1 (1K2 ))(x) = 1K2 (f (x)) = 1 [as f (x) ∈ K2 ] = 1K1 (x) [by def inition of whole f uzzy set].On fuzzy topological K -algebras 1117 Theorem 3. τ1 ) → (K2 .7. f −1 (A) ∈ τ1 . Since τ2 is an indiscrete fuzzy topology. f −1 (A) is a fuzzy subalgebra (of K1 ) in τ1 . If τ1 is a fuzzy topology on the K -algebra K1 and τ2 is an indiscrete fuzzy topology on the K -algebras K2 . τ2 ). Let f be a fuzzy continuous mapping of K1 into K2 such that f (F1 ) ⊂ F2 . ∗ . Thus (f −1 (1K2 )) = 1K1 ∈ τ1 . τ2 = {∅K2 .6. τ1 ) into (K2 . Let f : (K1 .

1K . Akram and K. τ1 ) → (K2 . Let K be any K -algebra. as λ ∈ / τ1 . τ1 ) → (K. τ2 ) is a fuzzy continuous map. Clearly. λ}. This shows that f −1 (A) is a fuzzy subalgebra (of K1 ) in τ1 and hence f is a fuzzy continuous map from K1 to K2 . Since τ1 and τ2 are discrete fuzzy topologies on K -algebras K1 and K2 respectively. Then every homomorphism f : (K1 . . Proof.8. Let τ1 and τ2 be two fuzzy topologies deﬁned on the K -algebras K1 and K2 .9. Let τ1 and τ2 be any two discrete fuzzy topologies on the K algebras K1 and K2 respectively. Dar Theorem 3. 1K . Proof. f −1 (A) ∈ τ1 [Note that f is not the usual inverse homomorphism from K2 to K1 ]. Deﬁne two fuzzy topologies τ1 and τ2 on K -algebra K as τ1 = {0K . λ : K → [0. μ} and τ2 = {0K . For x ∈ K and λ ∈ τ2 . (f −1 (μA )(y )}. Thus f −1 (λ) ∈ / τ1 . where μ. H. respectively. Then every homomorphism f : (K1 . we have (f −1 (λ))(x) = λ(f (x)) = λ(x) This gives (f −1 (λ))(x) = λ(x). Deﬁne f : (K. To prove this theorem it is suﬃcient if we prove the result to be false for a particular τ1 and τ2 deﬁned on any K -algebra K as in our deﬁnition of a fuzzy continuous map we have not assumed K1 and K2 to be distinct. y ∈ K1 . Let A be a fuzzy subalgebra in τ2 with membership function μA . f is a homomorphism. Hence f is not a fuzzy continuous map on K. τ1 ) → (K2 . for every A ∈ τ2 . 1] deﬁned as follows: 1 if x = e μ(x) = 0 x=e and λ(x) = 1 if x = e 0 x=e where e is identity of a K -algebra. τ2 ) by f (x) = x for all x ∈ K. then for any x. Theorem 3. for all x ∈ K.1118 M. τ2 ) need not in general be a fuzzy continuous map. we have (f −1 (μA ))(x = μA (f (x) y ) = μA (f (x y )) f (y )) [since f is homomorphism] ≥ min{μA (f (x)). That is f −1 (λ) = λ. μA (f (y ))} [f or μA is a f uzzy subalgebra of K2 ] = min{(f −1 (μA ))(x).

τ ) is said to be a fuzzy C5 . let (K2 . τ2 ) be any two fuzzy topological spaces.10.connected if it is not a fuzzy C5 disconnected.11. • both f and f −1 are fuzzy continuous maps. if f(z)=x. A FTS (K. if z = f −1 (x). Proof. For z ∈ X .12. Let τ1 and τ2 be the topologies on K -algebras K1 and K2 respectively and let f : K1 → K2 be a fuzzy homeomorphism. y ∈ K1 ). for all z ∈ K1 . . τ2 ) is said to be a fuzzy homomorphism if it satisﬁes the following conditions: • f is bijective. Deﬁnition 3. there exist open fuzzy sets f (Fx ) and f (Gy ) of xt and ys respectively such that f (Fx ) ∩ f (Gy ) = f (Fx ∩ Gy ) = f (∅K1 ) = ∅K2 . A function f : (K1 . A fuzzy topological space (K. Let xt and xs be the fuzzy points in τ2 with x = y (x. That is.On fuzzy topological K -algebras 1119 Deﬁnition 3. Let τ be a fuzzy topology on a K -algebra K. then f −1 (x) = f −1 (y ). (f −1 (xt ))(z ) = (f −1 (x))t (z ). Theorem 3. Conversely. 1]. By deﬁnition of a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space.13. Let (K1 . A FTS (K. 1]. = (f −1 (x))1 (z ). we consider (f −1 (x1 ))(z ) = x1 (f (z )) = = t ∈ (0. Hence K2 is a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose that K1 is a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space. Similarly we can prove that f −1 (xs ) = (f −1 (x))s . 0. The proof is now completed. τ2 ) be a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space. τ1 ) and (K2 . 0. τ1 ) → (K2 . t ∈ (0. Then K1 is a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space if and only if K2 is a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space. τ1 ) is a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space. By a similar argument and by also using the fact that both f and f −1 are fuzzy continuous maps we can prove that (K1 . Deﬁnition 3. τ ) is said to be a fuzzy C5 . Hence. Since f is a fuzzy continuous map from K1 to K2 and f −1 is a fuzzy continuous map from K2 to K1 . as f is one to one.disconnected if there exists a fuzzy open and fuzzy closed set F with membership μF such that μF = 1K and μF = ∅K . we have f −1 (xt ) = (f −1 (x))t . there exist open fuzzy sets Fx and Gy of f −1 (xt ) and f −1 (xs ) respectively such that Fx ∩ Gy = ∅K1 . τ ) is said to be a fuzzy Hausdorﬀ space if and only if for any two distinct fuzzy points x and y there exist open fuzzy sets F and G such that F ∩ G = ∅K . if z = f −1 (x). if f(z)= x.

Theorem 3. Deﬁnition 3. Hence f (F ) is a fuzzy compact in (K2 . and μF = f (f −1 (μF )) = f (∅K1 ) = ∅K2 .17. where μFi =< y. then f (F ) is a fuzzy compact in (K2 . . Let τ1 and τ2 be the fuzzy topologies on K -algebras K1 and K2 respectively. Thus f −1 (μF )= 1K1 or f −1 (μF )= ∅K1 which is impossible.15. τ ) is called a fuzzy compact. μFi >: i ∈ I } of F . is called a ﬁnite subcover of {< x. if every fuzzy open cover of F has a ﬁnite subcover. then it is called a fuzzy open cover of F . there exists an ﬁnite subcover μFi (i = 1. H. If a class {< x.[since μF = f (f −1 (μF )) = f (1K1 ) = 1K2 . Dar Theorem 3. τ1 ) is a fuzzy C5 -connected. Let A= {μFi : i ∈ I }. which is also a fuzzy open cover of F . 2. Then B= {f −1(μFi ) : i ∈ I } is a fuzzy open cover of F . Hence (K2 . Now we obtain a Theorem of relative fuzzy homomorphism inspired by [5]. Let f : K1 → K2 be a fuzzy continuous mapping. μFi > be a fuzzy open cover of f (F ). then (K2 . Let f : K1 → K2 be a fuzzy continuous surjective mapping. τ1 ). Proof. Theorem 3.16. A FS F =< x. If (K1 . Then the inversion map f : A → A deﬁned by f (x) = x−1 and the inner automorphism h : A → A deﬁned by h(g ) = aga−1 are all relative fuzzy homomorphisms. Then there exist a fuzzy open and closed set F with membership function μF such that μF = 1K2 and μF = ∅K2 . Let A be a fuzzy topological algebra in K. Proof. τ2 ) is also a fuzzy C5 connected. μFi >: i ∈ I } . Assume that (K2 . Since f is a fuzzy continuous mapping. Since F is a fuzzy compact. Let K be a K -algebra and let τ be a fuzzy topology on K algebra K. μF > in a FTS (X.14.] This is contradiction to our assumption. τ2 ). Akram and K. Let τ1 and τ2 be the fuzzy topologies on K (G)-algebras K1 and K2 respectively.1120 M. τ2 ) is a fuzzy C5 -disconnected. A ﬁnite subclass of the fuzzy open cover {< x. τ2 ) is a fuzzy C5 -connected. where a ∈ {x : A(x) = A(e)}. n) of F such −1 that F ⊆ ∪n (μFi ). · · · . μFi } >: i ∈ I } of OFS in K satisﬁes the condition F ⊆ ∪ {< x. If F is a fuzzy compact in (K1 . f −1 (μF ) is both OFS and CFS. Let τ be a fuzzy topology on a K -algebra K and F be a fuzzy set in K with membership function μF . τ2 ). μFi >: i ∈ I }. Thus i=1 f −1 (μFi )) f (F ) ⊆ f (∪n i=1 f −1 (μFi )) f (F ) ⊆ ∪n i=1 f (f f (F ) ⊆ ∪n i=1 μFi follows.

−1 = r a−1 . Then (ra (A))(x) = ≥ = ≥ = sup A(z ) = A(xa−1 ) −1 z ∈r a ( x) min(A(x). A(a−1 )) = min(A(x). x = (12). Let φ : A → A × A be a map deﬁned by φ(x) = (x. a. Since f −1 (x) = x−1 is relatively fuzzy continuous. a) and ψ : A × A → A be a map deﬁned by ψ (x. e) on the symmetric group S3 = {e. b. . h is relatively fuzzy homomorphism. [9] Consider the K (S3 )-algebra K = (S3 . 4 Fuzzy topological ideals Deﬁnition 4. This completes the proof. f is relatively fuzzy open.2. Since f (A)(y ) = z ∈ f −1 ( y ) sup A(z ) = A(y −1) = A(y ) ∀ y ∈ A. x. b = (132). ·. μA(y (y x))}). Clearly f is one-to-one. f (A) = A. and is given by the following Cayley table: e x y z a b e e x y z a b x x e b a z y y y a e b x z z z b a e y x a b z x y e a b a y z x b e . y = (13).1. Let ra : A → A be a right translation deﬁned by ra (x) = xa and la : A → A be left translation deﬁned by la (x) = ax. la is a fuzzy homomorphism.On fuzzy topological K -algebras 1121 Proof. z } where e = (1). Since φ and ψ are fuzzy continuous. ra is fuzzy continuous. Since h is a composition of ra−1 and la . Then ra = ψ ◦ φ. That is. Thus f is a relative fuzzy homomorphism. y ∈ G) (μA (x) ≥ min{μA (x y. Thus ra (A) = A. Since ra ra is a fuzzy homomorphism. a = (123). A(e)) A(x) = A(xa−1 a) min(A(xa−1 ). A fuzzy set A in a K -algebra K with membership function μA is called a fuzzy ideals of K if it satisﬁes: (i) (∀x ∈ G) (μA (e) ≥ μA (x)). Example 4. (ii) (∀x. y. z = (23). A(a)) A(xa−1 ) = (ra (A))(x). y ) = xy . Similarly.

we have μf −1 (B) (x) = ≥ ≥ = μB (f (x)) min{μB (f (x y )). Then f −1 (B ) is a fuzzy topological ideal of K1 with membership function μf −1 (B) . where t1 > t2 in [0. μf −1(B) (y (y x))}. Let A be a fuzzy K -algebra with induced fuzzy topology τA . τB ) deﬁned by rb (y ) = y b ∀b ∈ K2 (4) . τf −1 (B) ) into (B. τB f −1 (F2 ) = F1 Then −1 a) μ ra (F1 ) (g ) = μF1 (ra (g ))) = μF1 (g = μf −1 (F2 ) (g a) = μF2 (f (g = μF2 (f (g ) f (a)) (2) a)) −1 μ ra (F1 ) (g ) = μF2 (f (g ) f (a)) (3) Since B is a fuzzy topological in K2 . a ∀g ∈ K. Since f is a fuzzy continuous mapping of (K1 . Let F1 be an open fuzzy set in τf −1 (B) on f −1 (B ).3. Let f : K1 → K2 be a homomorphism of K -algebras. for all p = e. y ∈ K1 . If B is a fuzzy topological ideal of K2 with membership function μB . Proof. τA ) deﬁned by ra (g ) = g is relatively fuzzy continuous. τ ) into (K2 . If there exists open fuzzy set F2 ∈ τB such that (f −1 (B ). μB (f (y ) f (y x)))} min{μf −1 (B) (x y ). Akram and K. τA ) → (A. Dar Deﬁne a fuzzy set A in K with membership function μA by μA (e) = t1 . H. Deﬁnition 4. Then A is called a fuzzy topological K -algebra if for each a ∈ K the self mapping ar : (A.4. μB (f (y (y x)))} min{μB (f (x) f (y )). (1) Hence f −1 (B ) is a fuzzy ideal of K1 . For any x. μA (p) = t2 . It is easy to show that μf −1 (B) (e) ≥ μf −1 (B) (x). Theorem 4. It is easy to check that A is a fuzzy ideal of K. 1]. Let K be a K -algebra and τ a fuzzy topology on K. for all x ∈ K1 . the mapping rb : (B.1122 M. τ ∗ ). Let τ and τ ∗ be the fuzzy topologies on K1 and K2 respectively such that τ = f −1 (τ ∗ ). f is a relatively fuzzy continuous mapping of ∗ ∗ ). τB ) → (B.

. Given x. τf (A) ) → (f (A). This shows that f is relatively fuzzy open. μA (y0 )= supt∈f −1 (y) (t). there exists a ∈ K1 such that b = f (a) Thus μf −1 (r−1 (Vf (A) ) (x) = μf −1 (r−1 b f (a) (6) (Vf (A) ) (x) = μ r −1 f (a) (Vf (A) ) (f (x)) = μVf (A) (rf (a) (f (x))) = μVf (A) (f (x) f (a)) = μf −1 (Vf (A) ) (x a) = μf −1 (Vf (A) ) (ra (x)) −1 −1 (f = μ ra (Vf (A) )(x). ∗ it follows that f (UA ) = f (U ∩ A) = f (U ) ∩ f (A) which is a fuzzy set in τf (A) . ≥ μA (x0 ) ≥ min{μA (x0 = min{ sup t∈f −1 (x y ) y0 ). Then. y ∈ K2 . ∗ Let Vf (A) be a fuzzy set in τf (A) . −1 μ ra (F1 ) (g ) = μF2 (f (g ) f (a)) = μF2 (rf (a) (f (g ))) 1 −1 = μr−1 f (a)(F2 ) (f (g )) = μ− f (rf (a) (F2 ))(g ) −1 −1 (F1 ) = f −1 (rf This implies that ra (a) (F2 )) and −1 −1 −1 −1 so ra (F1 ) ∩ f (B ) = f (rf (a) (F2 )) ∩ f −1 (B ) is open in the induced fuzzy topology on f −1 (B ). let x0 ∈ f −1 (x). Then there exists a fuzzy set U in τ such that UA = U ∩ A. If A is a fuzzy topological ideal of K1 with membership function μA . y0 ∈ f −1 (y ) such that μA (x0 )= supt∈f −1 (x) (t). Proof. we have μf (A) (x) = t∈f −1 (x) sup μA (t) x0 ))} μA (t)} x))}. Theorem 4. for all x ∈ K2 . It is easy to show that μf (A) (e) ≥ μf (A) (x). Let f : K1 → K2 be an isomorphism of K -algebras. Since f is one-one. Let τ and τ ∗ be the fuzzy topologies on K1 and K2 respectively such that f (τ ) = τ ∗ . τf (A) ) deﬁned by rb (y ) = y b (5) is relatively fuzzy continuous for each b ∈ K2 . The onto mapping of f implies that for each b ∈ K2 . Let UA be a fuzzy set in τA . μf (A)(y t∈f −1 (y (y x)) = min{μf (A) (x (y Hence f (A) is a fuzzy ideal of K2 . Then f (A) is a fuzzy topological ideal of K2 with membership function μf (A) . ∗ ∗ Now we show that the mapping rb : (f (A).On fuzzy topological K -algebras 1123 is relatively fuzzy continues.5. μA (y0 (y0 μA (t). sup y ).

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