MATRICES
CHAPTER OVERVIEW
Matrix Operations
Determinant of Matrices
Inverse of Matrices
Linear System of Matrix Equations
2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this lecture, student should
be able to:
1. Solve the determinant of 2x2 and 3x3
matrices.
2. Calculate the inverse of a matrix.
3. Solve for the system of linear equations
using matrix method.
3
Determinant of Matrices
Determinant of 2 x 2 matrix
4
EXAMPLE 3.10
SOLUTION:
5
Minor and Cofactor
Let A be n x n matrix,
6
7
Example 3.12
SOLUTION:
8
Determinant of 3 x 3 matrix
If A is a 3 x 3 matrix, then the determinant of A
is obtained by summing up the product of each
element of a certain row or column by its
cofactor.
9
Usually to evaluate the determinant of
matrix A, we always choose the row or
column that has the most zero entries.
10
Example 3.13
SOLUTION:
Choosing the first row,
11
Adjoint matrices
12
Example 3.14
Find the adjoint the following matrix
SOLUTION:
13
14
Inverse Matrices
The inverse of matrix A is denoted by
(adjoint matrix method)
Inverse of 2 x 2 matrix
15
Example
Find the inverse, A
1
of
Solution:
[1] Interchange leading diagonal elements:
[2] Change signs of the other 2 elements:
[3] Find A
= 14+12 = 2
[4] Multiply result of [2] by
16
Example 3.15
SOLUTION:
17
Example:
Find the inverse of the following by
using the adjoint matrix method:
A =
18
Solution:
Step 1:
Find cofactor matrix
Step 2
Transpose the matrix:
adjA =
19
Solution: (cont.)
Now we can find the inverse of matrix A.
det A =
=
20
Example 3.16
21
SOLUTION:
22
23
Exercise
Find the determinant of the matrix
24
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
2 3
4 5
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
2 4 3 1
0 0 6 0
5 3 0 4
0 2 1 3
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
6 0 2
7 2 3
1 4 5
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
d
a
c
b
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Linear system of matrix equations
25
26


.

\



.

\

=


.

\

÷
2
1
1
2 2
1 1
c
c
b a
b a
y
x
Method 1: Inverse Matrix Method
Inverse Matrix Method for 2x2 Systems
The solution (x,y) of the system
is given by
27
Example:
Solve the system using Inverse Matrix method:
28
Solution:
Let
Then
So the solution is (3, 1).


.

\

÷
=
3 2
3 1
A


.

\

÷
=


.

\

÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷
1 2
3 3
9
1
1 2
3 3
) 3 ( 2 ) 3 ( 1
1
1
A


.

\

÷
=


.

\



.

\

÷
=


.

\

1
3
3
6
1 2
3 3
9
1
y
x
Check: [1] 3 + 3 = 6 OK
[2] 6  3 = 3 OK
29
Method 1
Inverse Matrix Method for 3x3 Systems
We can solve the system
by using



.

\




.

\

=



.

\

÷
3
2
1
1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
d
d
d
c b a
c b a
c b a
z
y
x
30
Example:
Solve, using the Inverse Matrix Method:
31
Solution:
Let
Cof. of A =
Adj A



.

\

÷ ÷
÷ =
1 3 3
3 2 1
1 3 2
A








.

\

÷
+
÷
÷ +
÷ ÷
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
2 1
3 2
) (
3 1
1 2
) (
3 2
1 3
) (
3 3
3 2
) (
1 3
1 2
) (
1 3
1 3
) (
3 3
2 1
) (
1 3
3 1
) (
1 3
3 2
) (



.

\

÷
÷ ÷
÷
=
7 7 7
3 5 6
9 8 11



.

\

÷
÷ ÷
÷
=
7 3 9
7 5 8
7 6 11
32
Det A
7
3 3
2 1
1
1 3
3 1
3
1 3
3 2
2 =
÷ ÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
=



.

\

÷
÷ ÷
÷
=
÷
7 3 9
7 5 8
7 6 11
7
1
1
A



.

\

÷ =



.

\

÷



.

\

÷
÷ ÷
÷
=



.

\

3
3
4
0
1
2
7 3 9
7 5 8
7 6 11
7
1
z
y
x
So the solution is (4,3,3).
Checking solutions:
[1] 2(4) + 3(3) + 3 = 2 OK
[2] (4) + 2(3) + 3(3) = 1 OK
[3] 3(4)  3(3) + 3 = 0 OK
33
Method 2: Cramer’s Rule
Cramer’s Rule for 2x2 Systems
The solution (x,y) of the system
is given by
and
34
Example:
Solve the system using Cramer’s Rule:
35
Solution:
So, the solution is (3, 1)
Check: [1] 3 + 3 = 6 OK
[2] 6  3 = 3 OK
36
Method 2: Cramer’s Rule (cont.)
Cramer’s Rule for 3x3 Systems
We can solve the system
by using
where
37
Example:
Solve, using Cramer’s Rule:
38
Solution:
So, the solution is
(4,3,3)
Checking solutions:
[1] 2(4) + 3(3) + 3 = 2 OK
[2] (4) + 2(3) + 3(3) = 1 OK
[3] 3(4)  3(3) + 3 = 0 OK
39
Method 3: Gaussian Elimination
Do the row
operation to get
Row Echelon
form for A
10 4 7 3
1 3 2
8 2
= + ÷
= + ÷ ÷
= + +
z y x
z y x
z y x
Example: Consistent linear system,
unique solution.
1 1 2
−1 −2 3
3 −7 4
8
1
10
−
2=2+1
3=3−31
→
1 1 2
0 −1 5
0 −10 −2
8
9
−14
2 = −2 →
1 1 2
0 1 −5
0 −10 −2
8
−9
−14
−
3=3+102
→
1 1 2
0 1 −5
0 0 −52
8
−9
−104
−
3=−
1
52
3
→
1 1 2
0 1 −5
0 0 1
8
−9
2
This is row echelon form
Use the backward substitution
= 2
−5 = −9
→ = −9 + 5 = −9 + 5(2)
= 1
+ + 2 = 8
+ 1 + 2 2 = 8
= 3
6 3 3
5 4 2
1
1
= +
= +
= + ÷
= +
y x
y x
y x
y x
Example: Inconsistent linear system
Solve the system by using Gaussian Elimination method:
⇒
1
−1
1
1
2 4
3 3
1
1
5
6
1
−1
1
1
2 4
3 3
1
1
5
6
−
2 = 2 +1
3 = 3 − 21
4 = 4 − 31
→
1
0
1
2
0 2
0 0
1
2
3
3
−3 = 3 − 2 →
1
0
1
2
0 0
0 0
1
2
1
3
− 4 = 4 − 33 →
1
0
1
2
0 0
0 0
1
2
1
0
This is row echelon form
Apply back substitution:
Notes: 0 + 0 = 1 is impossible to
get solution
Example: Consistent Linear system,
Infinitely Many Solutions
Solve the system by using Gaussian Elimination method:
3 6 12 5
1 5 5 2
1 4 2
= ÷ ÷
÷ = + + ÷
= + ÷
z y x
z y x
z y x
↓
1 −2 4
−2 5 5
5 −12 −6
1
−1
3
1 −2 4
−2 5 5
5 −12 −6
1
−1
3
R2=R2+2R1
3=3−51
1 −2 4
0 1 13
0 −2 −26
1
1
−2
−
3=3+22
→
1 −2 4
0 1 13
0 0 0
1
1
0
This is row echelon form
Use back substitution:
Row 2: + 13 = 1
Take = ⇒ = 1 − 13
− 2 + 4 = 1
= 1 + 2 −4
= 1 + 2 1 −13 − 4
= 3 − 30
Solution set is 3 − 30, 1 − 13,
This is a continuation of Gaussian elimination.
To solve the system by this method we need to manipulate
the augmented matrix by elementary row operations to put the matrix into
reduced row echelon form.
For a matrix to be in reduced row echelon form, it must be in row
echelon form and submit to one added criteria:
Each column that contains a “leading 1”
has zeros above each “leading 1”.
Method 4: GaussJordan Elimination
10 4 7 3
1 3 2 1
8 2
= + ÷
= + ÷ ÷
= + +
z y x
z y x
z y x
Solve the system by using GaussJordan Elimination method:
Example: Consistent linear system,
unique solution
Solve the system by using GaussJordan Elimination method:
6 3 3
5 4 2
1
1
= +
= +
= + ÷
= +
y x
y x
y x
y x
Example: Inconsistent linear system
Solve the system by using GaussJordan Elimination method:
3 6 12 5
1 5 5 2
1 4 2
= ÷ ÷
÷ = + + ÷
= + ÷
z y x
z y x
z y x
Example: Consistent Linear System,
Infinitely Many Solutions
Exercise:
Solve the system using Gauss Jordan Elimination
method
1 2 2 3
3 2
8 3
= ÷ ÷
= + +
= ÷ +
z y x
z y x
z y x
Matrix Eigenvalue Problems
Definition:
Let A be an n x n matrix. A real or complex number,ì
is called an eigenvalue of A if the matrix equation
is satisfied for some nonzero vector x.
The vector x is called an eigenvector of A associated with
the eigenvalue ì.
x Ax ì =
Example
The vector =
1
2
is an eigenvector of
3 0
8 −1
corresponding to the eigenvalue
= 3 since
=
3 0
8 −1
1
2
=
3
6
= 3
Matrix Eigenvalue Problems
Theorem:
The eigenvalues ì of a square matrix A are the roots of the
characteristic equation of A,
0 ) det( = ÷ I A ì
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
=
2 2
2 5
A
Example
Find the eigenvalues of matrix A and an
associated eigenvector for each eigenvalue.
Solution:
6 , 1
0 6 7
0
2 2
2 5
0
1 0
0 1
2 2
2 5
det
0 ) det(
2
÷ ÷ =
= + +
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=


.

\

(
¸
(
¸
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
= ÷
ì
ì ì
ì
ì
ì
ìI A
1
1
÷ = ì
6
2
÷ = ì
Use the theorem,
The eigenvalues are
and .
( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ +
÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

÷
÷


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
0 0 0
0
2
1
1
~
2
1
4
1
0 1 2
0 2 4
0
0
1 2
2 4
0
0
) 1 ( 2 2
2 ) 1 ( 5
2 1 2
1 1
2
1
2
1
1
R R R
R R
x
x
x
x
0 x I A ì
The eigenvector corresponding to ì
1
:
2 1
2 1
2
1
0
2
1
x x
x x
=
= ÷


.

\

=
2
1
1
x
Back substitution:
This determines an eigenvector corresponding to ì
1
= 1 up to scalar multiple
If we choose x
2
= 2, then x
1
= 1, we obtain the eigenvector
( )
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

=


.

\



.

\



.

\

=


.

\



.

\

÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
0 0 0
0 2 1
~
2 0 4 2
0 2 1
0
0
4 2
2 1
0
0
) 6 ( 2 2
2 ) 6 ( 5
2 1 2
2
1
2
1
2
R R R
x
x
x
x
0 x I A ì
The eigenvector corresponding to ì
2
:
2 1
2 1
2
0 2
x x
x x
÷ =
= +


.

\

÷
=
1
2
2
x
Back substitution:
This determines an eigenvector corresponding to ì
2
= 6
up to scalar multiple.
If we choose x
2
= 1, then x
1
= 2, we obtain the eigenvector
Example
Find the eigenvalues of the given matrix and an associated
eigenvector for each eigenvalue.
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
1 0 2
0 1 0
2 0 1
Solution:
1 , 3 , 1
0 ) 1 )( 3 )( 1 (
0
0 2
1 0
2
1 0
0 1
) 1 (
0
1 0 2
0 1 0
2 0 1
÷ =
= + ÷ ÷
=
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
ì
ì ì ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
ì
1 3
3 2
2 1
0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0
R R
R R
R R
÷
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
2 2
1 1
2 / 1
2 / 1
0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0
0 0 0 2
R R
R R
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
For ì
1
= 1:
~
~
0
0
1
3
=
=
x
x



.

\

=
0
1
0
1
x
Back substitution:
With arbitrary x
2
, x
2
≠ 0. Choose x
2
= 1,
Therefore the eigenvector is
For ì
2
= 1:
~
Back substitution:
Choose x
1
= 1 then x
3
= 1.
Therefore the eigenvector is
3 1 3
2 2
1 1
2 / 1
2 / 1
0 2 0 2
0 0 2 0
0 2 0 2
R R R
R R
R R
÷ ÷
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0
0
3 1
2
= +
=
x x
x



.

\

÷
=
1
0
1
2
x
For ì
2
= 3:
~
Back substitution:
Let x
1
= 1 then x
3
= 1.
Therefore the eigenvector is
3 1 3
2 2
1 1
2 / 1
2 / 1
0 2 0 2
0 0 2 0
0 2 0 2
R R R
R R
R R
÷ +
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0
0
3 1
2
= ÷
=
x x
x



.

\

=
1
0
1
3
x