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Badminton

Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents' half of the court. Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. A rally ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor, or if a fault has been called by either the umpire or service judge or, in their absence, the offending player, at any time during the rally.[1] The shuttlecock (or shuttle) is a feathered (or, mainly in uncompetitive games, plastic) projectile whose unique aerodynamic properties cause it to fly differently than the balls used in most racquet sports; in particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly than a ball. Shuttlecocks have a much higher top speed, when compared to other racquet sports. Because shuttlecock flight is affected by wind, competitive badminton is played indoors. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreational activity, often as a garden or beach game. Since 1992, badminton has been an Olympic sport with five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, in which each pair consists of a man and a woman. At high levels of play, especially in singles, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, agility, explosive strength, speed and precision. It is also a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements.

History and development
The beginnings of badminton can be traced to mid-18th century British India, where it was created by British military officers stationed there.[4] Early photographs show Englishmen adding a net to the traditional English game ofbattledore and shuttlecock. The sport is related to ball badminton, which originated in Tamil Nadu, and is similar to Hanetsuki which originated in Japan. Being particularly popular in the British garrison town Poona (now Pune), the game also came to be known asPoona.[4][5] Initially, balls of wool referred as ball badminton were preferred by the upper classes in windy or wet conditions, but

[6] .H. the Badminton Association of England published the first set of rules according to these regulations. again in 1890. the sport was played in England under the rules that prevailed in British India.E.[6] An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides. Saina Nehwal Saina Nehwal ( pronunciation (help·info).[5] She is the first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton Championships and was also the first Indian to win a Super Series tournament. by clinching the Indonesia Open with a victory over higher-ranked Chinese Wang Lin inJakarta on 21 June 2009. though it is known that it was popular there in the 1870s and that the first rules were drawn up in Poonah in 1873. owned by theDuke of Beaufort. veterans returning from India started a club in Folkestone.ultimately the shuttlecock stuck. but unfortunately no copy has survived. Until 1887.[8] As early as 1875. [6][7] Another source cites that it was in 1877 at Karachi in (British) India. similar to today's rules. Isaac Spratt.[9] They also started the All England Open Badminton Championships. Gloucestershire.Haryana) is an Indian badminton player who attained a career best ranking of 2 in December 2010 by Badminton World Federation. The Bath Badminton Club standardized the rules and made the game applicable to English ideas. has given its name to the sports. Badminton Battledore – a new game. As early as 1860. Hisar. England on September 13 of that year.[4] She achieved this feat by winning the Bronze medal at theLondon Olympics 2012 on 4 August 2012. with Bagnel Wild. Hart drew up revised basic regulations in 1887 and. a London toy dealer.[6] In 1893. where the first attempt was made to form a set of rules. and officially launched badminton in a house called "Dunbar" at 6 Waverley Grove.[2] She is the first Indian to win a medal in Badminton at the Olympics. Portsmouth. in 1899. Although it appears clear that Badminton House. it is unclear when and why the name was adopted. the first badminton competition in the world. Saina is supported by the Olympic Gold Quest.[7] This early use has cast doubt on the origin through expatriates in India. born 17 March 1990 in Dhindar. published a booklet. This game was taken by retired officers back to England where it developed and rules were set out. across a string suspended some five feet from the ground". J.

She completed a hat-trick in the same year by winning the Indonesian Open on 27 June 2010. Saina Nehwal was born in a Jat[8] family at Hisar in Haryana and completed first few years of her schooling from Campus School.[9]He later shifted to Hyderabad & so Saina spent her growing years in Hyderabad.Saina won her second career Super Series title by winning the Singapore Open title on 20 June 2010. After Xin won the first game 21–18. Her Father Harvir Singh originally hails from village "Dhindar" which falls under ModinagarTehsil in Ghaziabad district (U. S. . a Dronacharya Award winner. Sudhir wrote a biography on Saina. Later in the same year she also won Hong Kong Super Series on 12 December 2010. Arif. [11] She is India’s highest-paid non-cricketing sportsperson as on September 2012. Previously coached by S. she secured the bronze medal against Wang Xin. She is the top ranked player (women) in Indian Badminton history. journalist and former NDTV editor T. Xin had to walk out of the match due to aggravation of her knee injury.P). 1 Tine Baun in the semi-finals. Though she lost in the semi-finals of London Olympics 2012 to Wang Yihan.[7] with the former All England champion and national coach Pullela Gopichand being her mentor. [10] In 2012. a scientist at the Directorate of Oilseeds Research. After experiencing a poor 2011 season. Hyderabad and her mother Usha Nehwal. Harvir Singh. India. a feat she repeated in the quarterfinals in the London Olympics 2012.[1] both of whom were former badminton champions in Haryana. Her foray into the world of badminton was influenced by her father Dr. Saina became the first Indian singles player to reach the summit stage of year-ending Super Series Finals defeating two-time All England champion and former World No. Saina is the reigning Indian national junior champion and is currently coached by Indonesian badminton legendAtik Jauhari since August 2008. This win resulted in her rise to 3rd ranking and subsequently to No. thus making Saina the winner. M. 2. Harvir Singh initially worked in CCS HAU and they then had their residence in the University Campus.

Humanism and Universal ism. He became involved in numerous revolutionary organisations. Born into a Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj. was an Indian revolutionary who reorganised the Hindustan Republican . He is often referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh. the word "Shaheed" meaning "martyr" in a number of Indian languages. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (Marathi: pronunciation (help·info)) (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Indian pro-independence activist[4] and politician[5] as well as a poet. The five elements of Savarkar's philosophy were Utilitarianism. Chandra Shekhar Azad Chandra Shekhar Azad pronunciation (help·info) (23 July 1906 – 27 February 1931). popularly known as Azad ("The Liberated"). 28 September 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian socialist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. eventually changing its name to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928. He launched a movement for religious reform advocating dismantling the system of caste in Hindu culture. Savarkar’s Hindutva sought to create an inclusive collective identity. Pragmatism and Realism.Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh (IPA: ŋ ] ( listen). and emphasized its distinctiveness from Hinduism which he associated with social and political disunity. and reconversion of the converted Hindus back to Hindu religion. and quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association(HRA) to become one of its main leaders. Savarkar created the term Hindutva. writer and playwright. as a teenager Bhagat Singh studied European revolutionary movements and was attracted toanarchist and Marxist ideologies. Rationalism and Positivism.

Employing non-violent civil disobedience. was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism inBritish-ruled India. Roshan Singh. He is considered to be the mentor of Bhagat Singh and chief strategist of the HSRA. the British clamped down on revolutionary activities. Gandhi was born and raised in a Bania[4]community in coastal Gujarat. and three other prominent party leaders. In the aftermath of the Kakori train robbery in 1925. Azad was also a close associate of Bhagwati Charan Vohra who along with Bhagat Singh. Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence. Chatterji. 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948). commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi or Bapu (Father of Nation). Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced ] ( listen). civil rights. and freedom across the world. Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan. Returning to India in 1915. Sukhdev. Sachindra Nath Sanyal and Shachindra Nath Bakshi in 1924 just after two year of the non co-operation movement. The HRA was formed by Bismil. he set about organising peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i. Chandra Shekhar Azad later reorganized the HRA with the help of revolutionaries like Sheo Verma and Mahaveer Singh. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa.Association under the new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) after the death of its founder. Azad. basing politics on religion) he reached out widely .e. Ram Prasad Bismil. using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. and trained in law in London. Keshab Chakravarthy and Murari Sharma evaded capture.Ashfaqulla Khan. Thakur Roshan Singh and Rajendra Nath Lahiri were sentenced to death for their participation. helped him to transform the HRA into the HSRA in 1928 so as to achieve their primary aim of an independent India based on socialist principle. and Rajguru.[2][3] The son of a senior government official. Prasad.

He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate.to all religious groups. .

R. Ambedkar campaigned against social discrimination. Haryana. 1931) was an Indian revolutionistfrom Maharashtra. He converted to Buddhism and is also credited with providing a spark for the transformation of hundreds of thousands of Dalits or untouchables to Theravada Buddhism. Rajguru was born at Khed near Pune now known as Rajgurunagar. All three were convicted of the crime and hanged on March 23. a shopping complex at Hisar. he inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement. who wanted India to be freed from British rule by any means necessary.He was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. He believed that ferocity against oppression was far more effective against British rule than the gentle ways of Mahatma Gandhi. As independent India's first law minister. popularly also known as Babasaheb.[note 1] He was a colleague of Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev.Rajguru Market. in 1990. 1931. They were cremated at Hussainiwala at the banks of the Sutlejriver in Ferozepur district of Punjab. India's highest civilian award. was named in his honour in 1953. anthropologist. India. historian and economist. 14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956). Ambedkar was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna. Ambedkar Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar ( b w ʑ be ɽ ]. B. and took part in the murder of a British police officer. Saunders.P. 1908 – March 23. at Lahore) in 1928. . philosopher. Born into a poor Mahar (considered an Dalit or untouchable caste) family. A revivalist for Buddhism in India. The reason behind the murder was to revenge the death of veteran leader Lala Lajpat Rai who died due to injuries sustained during excessive police beating. J. politician. the system of Chaturvarna – the categorisation of Hindu society into four varnas – and the Hindu caste system.Shivaram Rajguru Shivaram Hari Rajguru (August 24. he also oversaw the drafting of the Constitution of India. was an Indian jurist.

Sarojini Naidu passed her Matriculation examination from the University of Madras. Naidu was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress[2] and the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh state.Sarojini Naidu Sarojini Naidu. Kalpana Datta Kalpana Datta (Bengali: ) (27 July 1913 – 8 February 1995) (later Kalpana Joshi) was an Indian independence movement activist and a member of the armed resistance movement led by Surya Sen.[3] Her birthday is celebrated as Women's Day all over India. which carried out the Chittagong armoury raid in 1930. She took four years' break from her studies and concentrated upon studying various subjects. In 1895. Naidu was one of the framers of the Indian Constitution. then General Secretary of the Communist Party of India in 1943. Cambridge. Indian independence activist and poet. (born as ) also known by the sobriquet as The Nightingale of India. . She fell in love with Govindarajulu and married him in 1898.[1] was a child prodigy.[1] Later she joined the Communist Party of India and married Puran Chand Joshi. she travelled to England to study first at King's College London and later at Girton College.