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With an area of 238,400 square kilometers, Romania is the twelfth largest country in Europe.

Situated in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, Romania has 3,195 kilometers of border. Republic of Moldova lies to the east, Bulgaria lies to the south, Black Sea coastline lies to the southeast, Serbia to the southwest, and Hungary to the west. Romania's natural landscape is almost evenly divided among mountains (31 percent), hills (33 percent), and plains (36 percent). These varied relief forms spread rather symmetrically from the Carpathian Mountains, which reach elevations of more than 2,500 meters (Moldoveanu Peak - 2544 m), to the Danube Delta, which is just a few meters above the sea level. The Danube River is Europe's second longest river after the Volga, it rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows southeastwards for a distance of 2857 km course through ten countries (Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine) before emptying in Romania's Danube Delta. The Danube is by far Romania's most important river, not only for transportation, but also for the production of hydroelectric power. One of Europe's largest hydroelectric stations is located at the Iron Gates, where the Danube surges through the Carpathian gorges. The Danube is an important water route for domestic shipping, as well as international trade. It is navigable for river vessels along its entire Romanian course and for seagoing ships as far as the port of Braila. Romania has approximately 2,300 lakes and over 1,150 ponds account for an area of 2,650 sq.km. The main lakes are: Razelm (415 sq.km), Sinoe (171 sq.km) and Golovita (119 sq.km). The arc of the Carpathians extends over 1,000 kilometers through the center of the country, covering an area of 71,000 square kilometers. These mountains are of low to medium altitude and are no wider than 100 kilometers. They are deeply fragmented by longitudinal and transverse valleys and crossed by several major rivers. Another distinguishing feature is the many eroded platforms that provide tableland at relatively high altitudes. There are permanent settlements here at above 1,200 meters. Beyond the Carpathian foothills and tablelands, the plains spread south and west. In the southern parts of the country, the lower Danube Plain is divided by the Olt River; east of the river lies the Wallachian Plain, and to the west is the Oltenian or Western Plain. The land here is rich with chernozemic soils and forms Romania's most important farming region. Romania's lowest land is found on the northern edge of the Dobruja region in the Danube Delta. The delta is a triangular swampy area of marshes, floating reed islands, and sandbanks, where the Danube ends its trek of almost 3,000 kilometers and divides into three frayed branches before emptying into the Black Sea. The Danube Delta provides a large part of the country's fish production. The region also serves as a nature preserve for rare species of plant and animal life including migratory birds. Romania’s climate is temperate-continental; ranges between hot summers and very cold winters with lots of snow from mid December until the end of March. Romania's average annual temperature is 11C (52F). In June, July and August, the hottest places in Romania are near the Black Sea coast, where average temperatures reach 25C(77F)-31C(88F). In

there are frequent showers and thunderstorms in the mountains. These are divided into 41 counties plus the capital of Bucharest.830. Spring starts in mid March in most of Romania's regions.825. Crisana. . Romania has 9 regions: Banat.575. Annual rainfall is 600 mm to 700 mm.summer. Transylvania. with similar county status. April in the mountains and in the north part of the country. Muntenia. Oltenia. Iasi 339. Cluj-Napoca 326. which exceed 300. Moldavia. Maramures. Dobruja. Bucovina.551. Galati 326. sunny days of autumn linger from early September until late October.060.728. Brasov 324. Precipitation is heaviest in Transylvania and in the Carpathian Mountains.210. Dobruja is Romania's warmest and driest region. Craiova 306. where an average of 53 inches of rain and snow fall each year. The mild.000 inhabitants are: Bucharest 2.728. Timisoara 327. much of it in spring. Constanta 348. with less than 15 inches of annual rainfall. The biggest cities from Romania.017.