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Bagging Behavior of Different Fabric Structures Knitted From Blended Yarns Using Image Processing

Hossein Hasani, Sanaz Hassan Zadeh, Sanaz Behtaj Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan IRAN Correspondence to: Hossein Hasani email: h_hasani@cc.iut.ac.ir ABSTRACT This work focuses on the effect of blend ratios and fabric structure on the residual bagging height of knitted fabrics produced from blended rotor yarns using image analysis technique. Simplex lattice design was used to determine the combinations of mixture ratios of the fiber types. Knitted fabrics with three different structures were produced from Viscose/polyester blended rotor yarns. Mixtureprocess crossed regression models with two mixture components and one process variable (tightness factor) were built to predict the residual bagging height. Keywords: Blended yarns, knitted fabric, residual bagging height, tightness factor. INTRODUCTION Fiber blending is commonly defined as the process of forming a mixture of fibers by combing different fiber components. Blended yarns from natural and man-made fibers have the particular advantage of successfully combining good properties that cannot be found in only one type of fiber. Viscose/polyester blended yarn is commonly produced in the textile industry due to several advantages such as less pilling, less static electrification, easier spinning and better yarn evenness [1]. Bagging is defined as a three-dimensional residual deformation, seen in used garments, which causes deterioration in the appearance of the garment. The places it is seen during wear are elbows, knees, pockets, hips, and heels [2]. Bagging results from the lack of dimensional stability or recovery when repeated or prolonged pressure is exerted on a fabric [2]. The bagging performance of knitted fabrics is described in different ways for different applications. For applications where the subjective view of the consumer (knitted garment appearance) is of primary importance, the rated performance measure is the most appropriate. For those applications where the objective of mechanical performance is of primary interest (for example, medical textiles such as Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7, Issue 3 – 2012 8 compression wear), a measure such as residual bagging is more informative. In order to evaluate bagging behavior, several methods for determining woven and knitted fabric bagging behavior have been developed [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Most publications focus on measuring residual bagging height and related fabric mechanical properties. Yokura et al. [5] measured the mechanical properties of the fabrics using the KES-FB system to predict the bagging volume of the woven fabrics from the measured fabric properties. Zhang et al. [610] also measured the bagging height of woven fabric by an Instron tensile tester. Fabric samples were imposed in five load cycles, and residual bagging height, bagging resistance, and bagging fatigue were measured. They used a regression analysis to predict the bagging height of woven fabric as a function of bagging resistance and bagging fatigue. Due to structural differences, the mechanical response of knitted fabrics is very different from that of woven fabrics. Thus the bagging behavior of knitted fabrics is different from woven fabrics. Uçar et. al [11] discussed the relationships between residual bagging height obtained from the fabric bagging test and the mechanical characterization determined from the KES-FB system. They predicted residual bagging height for knitted fabrics by using the standard KESFB test and without performing fabric bagging fatigue tests. Yeung and Zhang [8] developed a method to evaluate garment bagging by image processing with different modeling techniques. This work focuses on the effect of blend ratios and fabric structure on the residual bagging height of knitted fabrics produced from viscose/polyester blended rotor yarns using image analysis technique. A simplex lattice design was used to determine the combinations of mixture ratios of the fiber types. EXPERIMENTAL Viscose and polyester fibers were blended and spun on a short-staple rotor spinning system. The fibers http://www.jeffjournal.org

Issue 3 – 2012 9 http://www. Design points Where Lc = Stitch length in a structural cell (structural repeat). mini-jacquard. TABLE I. Using a double jersey. A simplex lattice design with seven replications at each design point was constructed to determine the combinations of mixture ratios of two fiber types. Tex . a {2. Loop diagram of knitted fabrics. Loop diagrams of each sample can be seen in Figure 1.jeffjournal. the fabrics were washed in a domestic washer at 40°C for 30 minutes with commercial detergent and tumble dried at 70°C for 15 minutes in a dryer after they had been dry relaxed.     (blend ratios) used in this study are shown in Table I. adjustments and practices. The difference between tightness factors of each knit structure produced from different blend ratios is not statistically significant.F) of double jersey knitted fabrics: T . The samples were conditioned for 24 hours in a standard atmosphere. and Nc = number of active needles in a structural cell.were processed on these systems using standard mill procedures. Yarn specifications produced from different blend ratios. The viscose/polyester blended slivers were used to produce a 30-Ne yarn on a rotor spinning machine at standard atmospheric conditions. The stitch length of the knitted fabrics was measured to determine the unit stitch length.F    FIGURE 1. Before measurements were taken. This procedure was repeated three times. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7.org . and are reported in g/m2. interlock cross tuck (which is composed from tuck and loop stitch) and interlock cross miss (which is composed from miss and loop stitch on a circular knitting machine). Wale and course count per 100 cm of fabric was measured and then converted to wale and course count per cm. 4} simplex lattice design was used to determine viscose/polyester blends. Each of the knitted fabrics contains different fiber blend ratios and different fabric designs so we can investigate the effect of fabric design and material (fiber type). circular knitting machine (Mayer & Cie. knit densities and the calculated tightness factor of each sample are shown in Table II. Samples were conditioned for 24 hours in a standard atmosphere. E20. Weights were obtained from an average of three measurements of each sample using the balance. 30”) which was equipped with positive feeding mechanism. N c lc (1) To prepare the wet relaxation samples. The specifications of the yarn produced are shows in Table I. In this study. the stitch length from an average of ten measurements from each sample was used in the following equation to obtain the tightness factor (T. Fabric weights. Thus the average of these values was calculated for each fabric structure and reported in Table III. three interlock knit structures were created: plain interlock. Viscose slivers were blended with polyester slivers on the first drawing frame and blended slivers were passed through the second drawing frame.

are kept the same. 1: Work of tensile. such as the magnifying power. A group of fifteen knitted fabrics was tested using a bagging test method developed earlier [9]. y). denoted by f(x.jeffjournal. The captured images were analyzed using Matlab software.TABLE II. tensile and shear tests were measured in wale and course direction and the average of the values were reported. Technical parameters. Properties of knitted fabrics. and recognizing bagging magnitude from these criteria. [6. Because anisotropy is an important point in knitted fabrics. y) or the gray level at that point lies in the range of (0. selecting criteria to describe bagging appearance. The intensity of an image refers to a two-dimensional light intensity function. To analyze the effect of the fabric structure. and angle of the light source. 0 for black and 255 for white. tensile and drape properties of knitted fabrics were measured. the intensity value at coordinates (x. 255). The average of values obtained from different blend ratios was calculated for each fabric structure. This analysis results in a simulated bagging curve. 3: Shear stiffness. the shear. 2: Tensile resiliency. all the images are transferred into intensity images. Hnrb is the non-recovered bagging height (mm). Drape tests of knitted fabrics were carried out using a drape meter. is the predetermined bagging height (mm). 9] with the following equation: B residual = (Hnrb/Hb) ×100 (2) TABLE III. brightness. and Hb. Because knitted fabric is subjected to much higher deformations during use. Issue 3 – 2012 10 http://www. was modeled by Zhang et al. they are photographed with a CCD camera and saved as digital files. shear and drape tests. Table III shows the results of the mentioned tests. At a predetermined time after the fabrics are bagged. after a recovery time of 2 minutes. For the images. The relative residual bagging height (B residual) at the end of the last cycle. Tensile and shear tests were carried out on a universal tensile testing machine according to conditions reported by Pan [14]. a predetermined bagging height of 21 mm was used. The procedure of evaluating fabric bagging includes capturing digitized images of bagged fabrics. 4: Shear hysteresis Where B residual is the residual bagging height (%). Results of tensile. Figure 2 shows a bagged fabric and simulated Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7. Zhang [13] used 12 mm as the predetermined bagging height for woven fabrics. In the photo-taking process. position.org . image processing of the captured images.

org . and (d) a sample of simulated bagging curve. The nonrecovered bagging height of fabrics was calculated from these curves at the peak points. FIGURE 2. (b)Half milano interlock. (c)Plain interlock. (1) and the average of the measurements was reported. The bagged fabrics with different structures (a)Half cardigan interlock. Residual bagging height of knitted fabrics measured using an image processing technique is shown in Table IV.bagging curve achieved by image analysis. Issue 3 – 2012 11 http://www. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7. The residual bagging height of seven samples was calculated according to Eq.jeffjournal.

Figure 3 shows the residual bagging height related to viscose percentage of yarns for different fabric structures. The correlation coefficient between predicted bagging fatigue percentage and observed residual bagging height is 0.org .F + 9. tightness factor and interlacing points. In contract. owing to the frictional restraints in the fabric structure.5 – 5.999. indicating a strong predictive capability of the regression model built. Residual bagging height of knitted fabrics with different structures and blend ratios. Figure 4 illustrates regression curves fitted to experimental observations. such as fabric thickness. Issue 3 – 2012 12 http://www. are the important factors influencing the bagging behavior of a fabric [15]. The Model F-value implies that the model is statistically significant.TABLE IV. The ANOVA table for the regression model and its estimated coefficients are shown in Table V. respectively. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Effect of Blend Ratio on the Residual Bagging Height of Knitted Fabric The findings show that an increase in viscose percentage will increase the residual bagging height of fabrics. and the friction between fibers and yarns. The bagging of viscose/polyester knitted fabrics can be predicted for different blending ratios and fabric tightness factors using the following equation: B residual (%) = 69. The best-fitting regression model that defines the relationship between independent variables (blend ratios and fabric tightness factor) and response variable (residual bagging height) are selected and estimated using Design Expert software. elasticity ratio is high and viscoelasticity ratio is low.F 2 (1) In this equation. weight. In addition. The findings show that as the percentage of viscose fibers in the mixture increases. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7. elasticity ratio is low and viscoelasticity ratio is high. the relaxation time for polyester fibers is higher than viscose fibers [13].31 T. for viscose fibers. fabric residual bagging height increases.32 T. owing to the fiber’s viscoelastic behavior.F is the tightness factor of knitted fabric.jeffjournal. The two main causes of fabric bagging behavior are the stress relaxation of the fibers. Fiber–yarn mechanical properties and fabric structural properties. For polyester fibers. “P” is the polyester content of blended yarn and T. This phenomenon is observed in different fabric structures.56 P + 0.

Issue 3 – 2012 13 http://www. Relationship of residual bagging height and viscose percentage of yarns for different fabric structures. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7.jeffjournal.FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. Regression line between predicted and actual bagging fatigue percentage. TABLE V. ANOVA Table for the regression model and its estimated coefficients.org .

. Therefore. tensile and bending. 1999. MATERIALS SCIENCE.. Issue 3 – 2012 14 http://www. 5191518. positive correlation between predicted residual bagging height values and observed bagging height values. 2006. which leads to a decrease in residual bagging height. Thus. 70(9).. [5] Özdil N. Also. Higher RT means that the structure has higher resiliency while removing the tensile force. [6] Zhang X. Shear stiffness is affected by slipperiness at loop intersection. the drape of the fabric increases [16]. There are many long contact areas and complex linkages between the stitches. 243-246. Babaarslan O. 15(4)... It can be due to higher viscoelastic modulus and smaller relation time of the viscose fibers. [9] Zhang X.. As shown in the stitch diagrams (Figure 1) the yam paths for half milano interlock fabrics are complex compared to the plain knit fabrics. residual bagging height increases. Table III shows that half milano interlock represents the higher shear properties and drape coefficient compared with other structures. this structure represents higher resistance to slippage between yarns or loop and fiber contact in the intersections.The Effect of Knitted Fabric Structure on the Residual Bagging Height The finding reveals that the bagging fatigue percentage of knit structures changes in the following order: Interlock < Half cardigan interlock < Half milano interlock This observation can be seen in Figure 3. REFERENCES [1] Baykal P. W.. and Zhang X. GUTAUSKAS M. Li Y.. CONCLUSIONS Residual bagging height of viscose-polyester knitted fabrics was modeled through a regression model in which blend ratios and fabric structure are predictor variables. and Yao M..jeffjournal. 1999. elastic deformation and bending deformation of the yarns. Most linkages cross each other at every successive course. Also. This increases fabric recovery after deformation due to its spring-like behavior. and Hellali H. Li Y.. 67. The model has high prediction capability indicated by a high. [4] JUODSNUKYTĖ D. Textile Research Journal. [10] Zhang X.. and the situation can be explained easily by looking at the drape and shear properties of weft knitted fabrics. 2005. 2000. 63-67. W. Bagging force induces internal stress in multiple directions including shearing. W.. Knitted fabric with plain interlock structure produced from 100% polyester yarn has the lowest residual bagging height. ČEPONONIENĖ E. and Yao M. 2007.. Yeung K. On the other hand. [3] Jaouachi B. 599606. Louati H. the structures produced from miss stitches represent the higher residual bagging height than those produced from tuck stitches. Increased fabric rigidity increases residual bagging height. 1 (66). 308-313. AUTEX Research Journal. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7. Textile Research Journal. 110-115. so this structure makes the fabric more rigid against deformation... 33–36. W.. 2010. 16(5).. 68. Also. 12(3). tensile properties such as WT and RT of plain interlock are higher than other structures. thus increasing residual bagging height. Yeung K. As we know.. [7] Zhang X. 30 (6). Knitted fabric with plain interlock structure produced from 100% polyester yarn has the lowest residual bagging height. Textile Asia. D. It can be due to this fact that the structures produce a fabric with more rigidity as well as more frictional resistance which results in less deformation. there is a positive relationship between fabric rigidity parameters and residual bagging height. the finding reveals that the residual bagging height of fabrics is lower in the structures which are produced from miss stitches. Yeung K. When the fabric rigidity decreases. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe. while shear hysteresis is influenced by the coefficient of friction and contact length and knit density [17]. 1998... Yeung K.org . [2] Amirbayat J. 72(8). 693-700. As the percentage of viscose fiber in the mixture increases. Rizvan E. Textile Research Journal.. 21-25. Textile Research Journal. Thus plain interlock fabric represents the lowest bagging height. Li Y. Li Y.. and Yao M. bending and shear properties are very important factors to the drape of weft knits. 2002. 751–757. Li Y. 2008. [8] Yeung K. fabrics with more intricate and longer linkages between stitches will tend to recover less deformation due to more frictional resistance.. thus increasing residual bagging height. W. 10(4).. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe.

2004. Choi M.... 80(1). and Ibrahim S. 977–982. Ashdown S.jeffjournal. G. Issue 3 – 2012 15 http://www. 36.. 72(11). W.. 51-70.. 2000. 2000. Realff M. 70(12). 17(12). Ryu H. Textile Research Journal 1966.. Textile Research Journal. Hearte J.. Radhakrishnaiah P.[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] Ucar N.. Textile Progress. S... and Ucar M. 36. Chot M. Sengöz N.. M. Zeronian S. Textile Research Journal. 63(1)... Kirk W. Pan N. 2002. 164.. 1033-1045. 1993. 33–43. AUTHORS’ ADDRESSES Hossein Hasani Sanaz Hassan Zadeh Sanaz Behtaj Isfahan University of Technology Isfahan 84156 IRAN Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 7. Textile Research Journal. 1989. 1. Journal of Textile Institute. P. 1033-1045. Amirbayat J. Textile Research Journal. 37-47.org . Ashdown S.