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**Intuitionistic Q-Fuzzy Subalgebras of BCK/BCI-Algebras
**

Eun Hwan Roh Department of Mathematics Education Chinju National University of Education Jinju 660-756, Korea ehroh@cue.ac.kr Kyung Ho Kim and Jong Geol Lee Department of Mathematics, Chungju National University Chungju 380-702, Korea ghkim@chungju.ac.kr Abstract. The intuitionistic Q-fuzziﬁcation of the concept of subalgebras in BCK/BCI -algebra is considered, and some related properties are investigated. Keywords: BCK/BCI-algebra, Q-fuzzy set, Intuitionistic Q-fuzzy set, intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra, preimage Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 06F35, 03G25, 03E72 1. Introduction The notion of BCK-algebras was proposed by Imai and Is´ eki in 1966. In the same year, Is´ eki [4] introduced the notion of a BCI-algebra which is a generalization of a BCK-algebra. After the introduction of the concept of fuzzy sets by Zadeh [6], several researches were conducted on the generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. The idea of “intuitionistic fuzzy set” was ﬁrst published by Atanassov [1, 2], as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy set. In this paper, using the Atanassov’s idea, we establish the intuitionistic Q-fuzziﬁcation of the concept of subalgebras in BCK/BCI-algebras, and investigate some of their properties. 2. Preliminaries In this section we include some elementary aspects that are necessary for this paper. Recall that a BCI-algebra is an algebra (X, ∗, 0) of type (2, 0) satisfying the following axioms: (I) ((x ∗ y ) ∗ (x ∗ z )) ∗ (z ∗ y ) = 0, (II) (x ∗ (x ∗ y )) ∗ y = 0, (III) x ∗ x = 0, and (IV) x ∗ y = 0 and y ∗ x = 0 imply x = y

1. q ) ≥ H (x. q )) of each element (x. q ) for all x. Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X ) if H (x ∗ y. and 0 ≤ μA (x. Kim and J. let Q and X denote a set and a BCK/BCI-algebra. 1] is called a Q-fuzzy set in X . Deﬁnition 3. A mapping H : X × Q → [0. z ∈ X . 1] denote the degree of membership (namely μA (x. q ) ∨ γA (y. y ∈ X . μA (x.e. 1]. Let X be a BCK/BCI-algebra. Deﬁnition 3. 1] and γA : X × Q → [0. . y ∈ X . Roh. a mapping f : X → [0. i. H. An intuitionistic Q-fuzzy set (IQFS for short) A is an object having the form A = {(x.. respectively.2) (x ∗ y ) ∗ z = (x ∗ z ) ∗ y. q ) ≤ γA (x. Note that if f is a fuzzy subalgebra of a BCK/BCI-algebra X . y ∈ X and q ∈ Q. γA (x. q ) ≤ 1 for all x ∈ X and q ∈ Q. A mapping f : X → Y of BCK/BCI-algebras is called a homomorphism if f (x ∗ y ) = f (x) ∗ f (y ) for all x. unless otherwise speciﬁed. q )) : x ∈ X. In any BCK/BCI-algebra X one can deﬁne a partial order “≤” by putting x ≤ y if and only if x ∗ y = 0. q ) ∧ μA (y. let Q and X denote a set and a BCK/BCI-algebra. 1] is called a fuzzy subalgebra of X over Q (brieﬂy. An IQFS A = (μA . γA ) in X is called an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X if (IQF1) μA (x ∗ y. y.3) x ≤ y implies that x ∗ z ≤ y ∗ z and z ∗ y ≤ z ∗ x. q ) ∧ H (y. A BCI-algebra X satisfying the condition (V) 0 ∗ x = 0 for all x ∈ X is called a BCK-algebra. Intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebras In what follows. (2. G. q ). γA ) for the IQFS A = {(x. y ∈ S . 3. is called a fuzzy subalgebra of X if f (x ∗ y ) ≥ f (x) ∧ f (y ) for all x. y. A Q-fuzzy set H : X × Q → [0. A non-empty subset S of a BCK/BCI-algebra X is called a subalgebra of X if x ∗ y ∈ S whenever x. q ∈ Q} where the functions μA : X × Q → [0. y ∈ X and q ∈ Q. z ∈ X . we shall use the symbol A = (μA . q ) ∈ X × Q to the set A. q ) + γA (x. A fuzzy set f in X . (2.1) x ∗ 0 = x. q ) ≥ μA (x. H. (2. A BCK/BCI-algebra X has the following properties: (2. respectively. μA (x. respectively. For the sake of simplicity. q )) : x ∈ X. then f (0) ≥ f (x) for all x ∈ X . q )) and the degree of nonmembership (namely γA (x. γA (x.1168 E. K. q ) and γA (x ∗ y. Lee for every x.2.4) (x ∗ z ) ∗ (y ∗ z ) ≤ x ∗ y for all x. q ) for all x. q ∈ Q}. q ).

2) = 0. 1) = 0. Proposition 3. b. 2} and let A = (μA . q ) for all x ∈ X and q ∈ Q.INTUITIONISTIC Q-FUZZY SUBALGEBRAS 1169 Example 3. Let x ∈ X and q ∈ Q. Deﬁne an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy set B = (μB . 1) = μA (0. q ) = μA (c. q ) = γA (x. c} be a BCK-algebra with the following Cayley table: 0 a b c ∗ 0 a b c 0 a b c 0 0 a c 0 0 0 c 0 a b 0 Deﬁne an IQF S = (μA . q ) = μA (x. γB (x.2 and γA (0. q ) ≤ γA (x. Proposition 3. q ) = 0. q ) γA (x. Let X = {0. q ) ≥ μA (x.5 and γA (0. γA ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X. γB ) in X by μB (x. Consider a BCI-algebra X = {0. q ) ≤ γA (x. γA (x. 1) = γA (0. 1) = 0. q ) = γA (x ∗ x.2. Proof.3. a. μA (0. It is easy to verify that A = (μA . If A = (μA . q ) ∨ γA (x. q ) ∧ μA (x. 2) = 0. q ) ≥ μA (x.7 It is easy to verify that A = (μA . μA (x. q ) = μA (x.3. γB ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . 2) = 1. then μA (0. q ) γA (0. μA (a. γA ) be an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy set in X deﬁned by μA (0. γA (a. γA ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X. q ) = μA (0.6. Then μA (0. q ). q ) = μA (x ∗ x. Example 3. γA ) in X as follows: for every q ∈ Q. γA (x. x} with Cayley table as follows (Is´ eki [2]): 0 x ∗ 0 x 0 x x 0 Let Q = {1. . q ) = 0. μA (x. Then B = (μB . q ) = 0. q ) = 0.8. q ) = γA (b. q ) = μA (b.4. q ) for all x ∈ X and q ∈ Q. q ) and γA (0. q ) and γA (0. q ) .6. γA ) be an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . Let A = (μA .5. γA ) in X is an intuitionistic fuzzy Q-subalgebra of X .1. q ) = γA (c. 2) = 0.

n} such that xk = x1 . q ) ∧ μA (y. q ) ∨ γA (y. ) ∗ yn = x ∗ yi . Then and (x∗y. Let x. H. . γA (y.q) ∨ γA (0. q ) ∨ γB (y. q ) ∧ μB (y. Hence B = (μB .q ) μA (y. q ) for all x ∈ X and q ∈ Q. Lee 1 A (x∗y. γA ) be an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of a BCK-algebra X and let x1 .q ) A (0. q ) ≤ β. q ). q ) xi . γA (x. y ∈ X and q ∈ Q. q ) and γA (x1 ∗ i=2 xi . q ) ∧ μA (y. Let x. q ) ≤ γA (x. 2. · · · . Let A = (μA . Then μA (x. Proof. . xn be arbitrary elements of X .1170 E. q ) ≥ α.β ) = {x ∈ X | μA (x. q ) = μμ ≥ μA (0 {μA (x. q ) ≥ α. q ) Proof. If there exists k ∈ {1. · · · . γA ) be an IQFS in a set X and let α.q) } = γB (x.β ) Then XA is a subalgebra of X for every (α. Let A = (μA . q )} . Using (III). x2 . Proposition 3.q ) μA (x. 1] be such that α + β ≤ 1. q )} γA (0. β ) ∈ Im(μA ) × Im(γA ) with α + β ≤ 1. q ) ≤ β.β ) Therefore XA (α. q ) = γA ≤ γA (0 {γA (x. μA (y. then μA (x1 ∗ and γA (x1 ∗ n i=2 n i=2 xi . q ) = μA (0. and n yn ∗ (yn−1 ∗ (· · · ∗ (y1 ∗ x) · · · )) = x ∗ i=1 yi .q ) 1 γB (x ∗ y. we denote (.q) ∧ μA (0. K.8. q ) ≤ β which imply that μA (xy. y ∈ XA and q ∈ Q. Kim and J. γA ) be an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X. n} such that xk = x1 . . ((x ∗ y1 ) ∗ y2 ) ∗ . n i=1 For the convenience of notation. q ) ∨ γA (y. q ∈ Q}. . Let k be a ﬁxed number in {1. H.q ) = { μA (0.q ) . q ) ≥ μA (x. Let A = (μA . q ) ≥ α γA (xy. .q ) = { γA (0. q ) ≤ β.q) } = μB (x.q ) μB (x ∗ y. γB ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . γA (x. Roh. one can deduce n n μA (x1 ∗ i=2 xi . Proof. q ) ≥ α. · · · . 2. Then we deﬁne the set XA (α.7. β ∈ [0. q ) ≤ γA (x. G.2). Thus xy ∈ XA (α.q ) γA (x. (α.β ) (α. Theorem 3. q ).β ) is a subalgebra of X.q ) γA (y. q ) = γA (0. q ) ≥ μA (x. (V) and (2.

q ) ≥ μA (x. If an IQFS A = (μA . γA ) in X is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . then so is A. q )) : x ∈ X. q )). q ) ∧ μA (y. ∧μAi (x. q ) = μA (0. q ) and γA (x ∗ x. q )) = (∨γAi (x. q ) and γA (x ∗ 2k − 1 i=1 2k i=1 x. μA (x.INTUITIONISTIC Q-FUZZY SUBALGEBRAS 1171 It follows from Proposition 3. Let x. If {Ai : i ∈ Λ} is an arbitrary family of intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebras of X . y ∈ X. · · · . y ∈ X and q ∈ Q. q ∈ Q}. q ∈ Q}. ∨γAi ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . Let x. q ) ≤ ∨(γAi (x. Proof. q )) : x ∈ X. q ) = μA (x. 2. q ).10. It is suﬃcient to show that μA satisﬁes the second condition in (IQF1). q ) and γA (x1 ∗ n i=2 xi . q )} . q ) ∨ γAi (y. Then μA (x ∗ y. q ) ≤ 1 − (μA (x. q ) ∨ μA (y. Then (i) μA (x ∗ 2k − 1 i=1 2k x. n−1 i=1 i=1 x. · · · . q ) for all x ∈ x. q ). q ). q ) ≤ γA (x. Theorem 3. q ) for all x ∈ x. q ∈ Q and for k = 0.1) and Proposition 3. where A = {((x.12. q ) ≥ μA (x.5 that μA (x1 ∗ n i=2 xi . then the sets Xμ := {x ∈ X : μA (x. q ) ≤ γA (x. γA ) in X is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . Let A = (μA .9. q ) ≥ μA (x. Theorem 3. q ) ≤ γA (x.11. Then ∧μAi (x ∗ y. q ). Hence A is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . 1. q ) and γA (x ∗ n−1 i=1 X. q ∈ Q and for n = 1. Proof. (ii) μA (x ∗ (iii) μA (x ∗ X. q ∈ Q. 2. q ) = 1 − μA (x ∗ y. Theorem 3. γA ) be an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of a BCK-algebra X. Proof. Proposition 3. q ) for all x ∈ X and q ∈ Q. · · · . q )) ∨ (∨γAi (y. q )) = (1 − μA (x. 2. q )) ∨ (1 − μA (y. q ) ≥ ∧(μAi (x. q ) for all x ∈ X. q )) and ∨γAi (x ∗ y. q ) = γA (x.5. q )) ∧ (∧μAi (y. q )) = (∧μAi (x. If an IQFS A = (μA . 1−μA (x. q )) = μA (x. It follows immediately from (III). q ) ∧ μAi (y. q ∈ Q and for k = 1. then ∩Ai is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X where ∩Ai = {((x. ∨γAi (x. (2. Hence ∩Ai = (∧μAi .

q ) ≤ γA (x. Let x.β . Let A = (μA . μA (x. q ) ∨ γA (y.α ≤ γA. q ) ∨ γA (y0 .β 0 ≤ x0 ∗ y0 ∈ / γA. 1] such that α ∈ Im(μA ) ∩ Im(γA ).α are subalgebras of X . q ) = γA (0. q ) = μA (0. q ) = μA (0. we know that μA (x ∗ y.α := {x ∈ X : γA (x. We need to show that A = (μA . Then γA (x ∗ y. q ) ≤ ≤ ≤ x ∗ y ∈ γA. q ). then there exist x0 . Then γA (x ∗ y. then the μ-level α-cut and γ -level α-cut of A are subalgebras of X for every α ∈ [0. Lee Xγ := {x ∈ X : γA (x. Therefore γA. γA ) satisﬁes the condition (IQF1). q ). Then μA (x. If the ﬁrst condition of (IQF1) is not true.α It follows that μA (x ∗ y. and so x0 ∗ y0 ∈ / μ≥ . Taking 1 β0 := (γA (x0 ∗ y0 . γA ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . q ).13. Let 1 α0 := (μA (x0 ∗ y0 .α0 ≥ x0 . ∈ Q. q ) ∧ μA (y0 . Roh. q ∈ Q} is called a μ-level α-cut and A. Proof. y0 ∈ X and q ∈ Q. γA ) in X is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . Now assume that the second 0 condition of (IQF1) does not hold. y0 ∈ X such that μA (x0 ∗ y0 . q ) > γA (x0 . A. q ) ∧ μA (y ) = μA (0. Kim and J.5. Then the set μ≥ := {x ∈ X : μA (x. q ) ≥ μA (x. Let x. 0 . y ∈ Xγ .α . Then μA (x. Then A = (μA . q ) ∨ γA (y0 . q ) or equivalently x ∗ y ∈ Xμ . y0 ∈ γA. q ) ≥ α and μA (y. q ) + (μA (x0 . This leads to a contradiction.14. γA ) be an IQFS in X and let α ∈ [0. y ∈ μ≥ and q A. q ) for some x0 . q ))) .α ≤ and γA. y ∈ Xμ and q ∈ Q. q ) < β0 < γA (x0 ∗ y0 . q ) = μA (y. This leads to a contradiction. 2 Then μA (x0 ∗ y0 . q ) ≥ α. q ) and hence x ∗ y ∈ Xγ . q ) ∨ γA (y0 . Then γA (x0 ∗ y0 . K. but A. Proof. we conclude that γA (x ∗ y. q ) = γA (0. If an IQFS A = (μA . q ) ∨ γA (y.α ≤ X . q ) + (γA (x0 . q ) ≥ α. H. q ) < α0 < μA (x0 . Now let x. q )} are subalgebras of X for all q ∈ Q. 1]. q ) ∧ μA (y. q ). which are called a μ-level subalgebra and a γ -level subalgebra respectively. Let A = (μA . G. By using Proposition 3.α γA (x. γA ) be an IQFS in X such that the sets μ≥ A. Deﬁnition 3. q ) ≥ α so that x ∗ y ∈ μ≥ . q ) < μA (x0 . q ). Now let x. q ∈ Q} is called a γ -level α-cut of A. This completes the proof. q ) ≤ α and so X. q ) ∧ μA (y0. y0 ∈ μA. and by applying Proposition 3.1172 E. and so μA (x ∗ y. Theorem 3. q ) ≤ α. q ) ∧ μA (y0 . Proof.15. It follows that x0 . q ) for all q ∈ Q. q ) = γA (0. q ) ≥ Hence μ≥ is a subalgebra of A.α .5. H.α is a subalgebra of and Theorem 3.α . q ))) . y ∈ γA. 2 ≤ and then γA (x0 .

Hence μA (x ∗ y. for all x ∈ X and q ∈ Q where α and β are ﬁxed numbers in (0. if f −1 (y. . q ) := β. If at least one of x and y does not belong to S . q ) ∨ γA (y.17. q ) ∧ μB (f (x2 ). ⎩ 0. and at least one of γA (x. Proof. then at least one of μA (x. y ∈ S . q ) = ∅. otherwise. Assume that B = (μB . y ∈ X for all q ∈ Q. γA (x. 0. q ) and γA (x ∗ y. if x ∈ S . and the image of A under f . then the preimage of B under f . if f −1 (y. If A = (μA . q ) ∨ γA (y. q ) = and finf (γA )(y. then the preimage f −1 (B ) = (f −1 (μB ). q ) and γA (y. x ∈ f −1 ( y ) otherwise. where fsup (μA )(y. Obviously. if x ∈ S . q ) x ∈ f −1 ( y ) ⎧ ⎨ sup μA (x. Hence A = (μA . q ) = for each y ∈ Y and q ∈ Q.16. q ) = f −1 (μB )(x1 . q ) = μB (f (x1 ) ∗ f (x2 ). q ). Let S be a subalgebra of X and let μA and γA be Q-fuzzy sets in X deﬁned by μA (x. q ) and γA (x ∗ y. otherwise. q ) and μA (y. q ) = ∅. Theorem 3. otherwise. q ) ∧ μA (y. q ) ≥ 0 = μA (x. q ) ∧ μA (y. is an IQFS in X deﬁned by f −1 (B ) = (f −1 (μB ). q ) := α. γA ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . q ) = γA (x. q ) = μA (x. If x. Any subalgebra of X can be realized as both a μ-level subalgebra and a γ -level subalgebra of some intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X. q ) = μB (f (x1 ∗ x2 ). q ). is an IQFS of Y deﬁned by f (A) = (fsup (μA ). It follows that μA (x ∗ y. q ) ∧ f −1 (μB )(x2 . This completes the proof.INTUITIONISTIC Q-FUZZY SUBALGEBRAS 1173 Theorem 3. 1) such that α + β < 1. If B = (μB . Let f : X → Y be a homomorphism of BCK/BCI-algebras. and γA (x. f −1 (γB )).18. f −1 (γB )) of B under f is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . q ) is equal to 0. q ).β . finf (γA )). Let x. denoted by f (A). γB ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of Y . q ) is equal to 1. γB ) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of Y and let x1 . Then f −1 (μB )(x1 ∗ x2 . q ) ≥ μB (f (x1 ). then x ∗ y ∈ S . denoted by f −1 (B ). γB ) are IQFSs in X and Y respectively. A. Proof. q ).α Deﬁnition 3. inf 1. 1. x2 ∈ X and q ∈ Q. γA ) and B = (μB . ≤ μ≥ = S = γA. Let f be a map from a set X to a set Y . q ) ≤ 1 = γA (x.

q ) ∈ f −1 (y2 . Proc. q ) ∈ f −1 (y2 . q ) | (x1 . [5] K. K. q ) ∈ X × Q | (x. q )} ≥ sup{μA (x1 . 351-366. On BCI-algebras. Is´ eki. Far East J Math. An introduction to intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces. q ) ∈ f −1 (y2 . H. q ) ∨ f −1 (γB )(x2 . q )} ≥ sup{μA (x1 ∗ x2 . q ) | (x1 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 ∗ y2 . Zadeh. q )} = fsup (μA )(y1 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . G. q ). q ) = γB (f (x1 ) ∗ f (x2 ). then the image f (A) = (fsup (μA ). q ) and x2 ∈ f −1 (y2 . q ) | (x1 . γA ) be an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X and let y1 . New operations deﬁned over the intuitionistic fuzzy sets. q ) ∨ γB (f (x2 ). Kim. Theorem 3. Math) 8 (1980). q )} ∧ sup{μA (x2 .19. q ) and (x2 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . Yon and K. Noticing that {(x1 ∗ x2 . Lee and f −1 (γB )(x1 ∗ x2 . q ) ∧ μA (x2 . Fuzzy Sets and Systems 61 (1994). Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.Acad. Is´ eki. q ) | (x. q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . Fuzzy sets. q ) ∨ γA (x2 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . 137-142. A. 87-96. q )} = sup{μA (x1 . q ) = f −1 (γB )(x1 . [4] K. q ) = γB (f (x1 ∗ x2 ). q ) and finf (γA )(y1 ∗ y2 . Japan. q )} = inf {γA (x1 . H. q ) ∧ fsup (μA )(y2 . q ) | (x2 . On intuitionistic fuzzy ﬁlters and ideals of lattices. f −1(γB )) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of X . [2] K. (1999). Inform. q ) = inf {γA (x. Roh. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 20 (No. An algebra related with a propositional calculus. q )} ⊆ {(x. C ¸ oker. q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . q ) | (x2 . Let f : X → Y be a homomorphism from a BCK/BCIalgebra X onto a BCK/BCI-algebra Y . References [1] K. Proof. finf (γA )) is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of Y. [7] L. q ) | (x1 . y2 ∈ Y and q ∈ Q. Let A = (μA . Sci. q ) ∈ f −1 (y2 . If A = (μA . q ) | (x1 . q )} ∨ inf {γA (x2 . Hence f (A) = (fsup (μA ). finf (γA )) of A under f is an intuitionistic Q-fuzzy subalgebra of Y . q ) ∈ f −1 (y2 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y2 . Atanassov. q ) ≤ γB (f (x1 ).1)(1986). q )} ≤ inf {γA (x1 ∗ x2 . 429-442. q ) and (x2 . [6] Y. q ) | (x. 8 (1965). [3] D. q ) = sup{μA (x. q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 . q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 ∗ y2 . H. q )} ≤ inf {γA (x1 . . q ) and (x2 . q ) and (x2 . q ) | (x1 . Atanassov. and Control. Seminar Notes (presently Kobe J. Kim and J. q )}. γA ) is an intuitionistic Qfuzzy subalgebra of X . 338-353. q ) ∨ finf (γA )(y2 . q ) | (x1 . H. q )} = finf (γA )(y1 . 42 (1966).1174 E. Therefore f −1 (B ) = (f −1 (μB ). q ). we have fsup (μA )(y1 ∗ y2 .(FJMS) 1 (3). Fuzzy Sets and Systems 88 (1997). q ) ∈ f −1 (y1 ∗ y2 . 81-89. 125-130.

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