The Pacific Rim and Latin America

Map of the Pacific Rim

the regions, countries, etc, that lie on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, especially in the context of their developing manufacturing capacity and consumer markets

• The U.S. rebuilt Japan after WWII. • Japan was given a liberal western government • Civil liberties were granted to women and the elderly. • Military powers were limited.

Japan

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• A two party government system was adopted. • Money was invested in business (technology) and incentives were given to meet government goals of production. and opposition views were heard on government. • By the 70’s Japan was a top three economic power. .

Look how it developed… .The use of electric power grew faster in Japan than anywhere else in the world in the 1920s.

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. This made them more successful in business.• Japanese culture is more collective and less individualistic. • Government corruption and severe recession have plagued Japan for the last 10 years.

• The United States occupied South Korea. against Japan. Korea . • When the war ended there was cold war tension in returning Korea to independent rule.S.• In the 40’s the Soviets occupied North Korea to help the U.

North Korea invaded south Korea in 1950. .S.. • South Korea followed the industrial example of Japan.• In an attempt to unify the nation. • A two year war involving the U. China. and NATO ensued. • North Korea adopted a Stalinist version of isolated communism. The war ended in stalemate.

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Japan) • All have a collective work ethic. (S. Malaysia. Korea. (money circulation. Singapore. and Indonesia began to advance as well.) . Taiwan.• All free Pacific Rim nations have rapid growth rates. • By the 90’s Thailand. Vietnam.

Third World societies displayed great diversity. depending on their political traditions. Latin America: .• Societies are grouped in what is sometimes called the Third World countries. However. they all faced economic development and inequality of relating to economically more powerful societies as part of their 20-century history.the presence of absence of revolutionary experience. for example-and on cultural emphasis.

• First World – usually exemplified by the capitalist industrial nations • Second World – usually exemplified by the communist industrial nations Latin America .

reforms (especially in the 1930s). Mexican Revolution and Great War . It produced a new sense of nationalism. and an institutionalized party that took over the presidency and remained in power in the mid 1990s. That party was the PRI party: Party of the Industrialized Revolution.Overview: The Mexican Revolution (1910 – 1920) was a violent reaction to authoritarian modernization.

greater independence grew within those nations. • By the early 1900’s land reformers of the Indian class were rising in revolution (Zapata. Pancho Villa) Latin America Mexico .• As world War I and the Great Depression ended European involvement in Latin America.

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• Harsher dictators rose to quell the rebellions (1914 – 1950), limiting the peoples rights. These dictators wanted to keep American and European companies on their land.

• Every nation had a special export crop up to 1914. • WWI hurt exports and most Latin American nations dabbled in industrialization. • Some goods were now produced locally (textiles)

Latin American Nations

Liberalism failed because of racism. • Radical Communism became a possible solution to landless Indians after WWII.• In some nations a rising middle class got involved in politics. • Workers would strike. . demand socialist reforms. and organize labor groups.

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• The governments response to socialism was harsh dictatorships and militarism. • Social reform. . • Because of the Cold War Most worker uprisings were put down with aid from the United States. democracy. and economic development failed to develop in all Latin American nations.

• The U.S. • Only in Cuba was a revolution of the landless poor successful.Guatemala (1954).S. intervention in 1960 failed. U. saw communism as a threat to dollar diplomacy investments (domino theory) • The U.S. (CIA) intervened Mexico(1914). . and Nicaragua(1980’s) to prevent communism and establish order.

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• Although the island had periods of prosperity. Cuba’s Tumultuous History . the world market for sugar. A growing disparity between middle and lower economic classes underscored the nation’s problems. Cuba’s main export. Batista’s rule delivered little on promised reforms. and opposition rose in various sectors. revealed the tenuous nature of its economy.

R. Castro established collective farms. who pledged real democracy. confiscated property.S. and prosperity for all. and set up a Communist system of repression supported by the U.• One of Batista’s opponents was Fidel Castro. Castro and Che Guevara gained support from many sides and overthrew Batista. Cuba… .S. justice.

Marxist.[Psssst…Were you wondering who “Che” Guevara was? He was a militant. Argentine revolutionary who assisted Castro in Cuba and was killed attempting a similar revolt in Bolivia.] .

• A U. but the model of revolution and successful resistance to U. Cuba… .S.S. pressure was attractive to rebels in other Latin American nations. Since the fall of Communism in Europe. Cuba has become one of the last bastions of that system.-sponsored intervention failed and the Cuban Missile Crisis became one of the most important events of the Cold War.

Why didn’t the Cuban Revolution spread to other areas of Latin America? .

.S. However. pressure was attractive to rebels in other Latin American nations. the United States has either used intervention or containment to deal with insurrections. but the model of revolution and successful resistance to U.• Answer: Cuba has become one of the last bastions of the that system.

and Russian influence in Latin American politics ended • The US returned to promoting dollar diplomacy and started fighting the drug trade. U.S.• With the end of the cold war. . • Without US or Russian interference. Democratic elections have flourished. rather than fighting communists.

• Inflation and debts to the west still exist.• Communism decreased in popularity. • Cash crops and drug production is still a problem. and military governments returned to the people. .

Economic. .Political. The first world has tried to send aid while neglecting to deal with social issues. or being concerned with how the relationship affected first-world social issues. & Social Factors • United States programs such as the Good Neighbor Program and Alliance for Progress aimed to develop the region and foster a cozy relationship between the countries and the United States.

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Morales – Bolivia Chavez – Venezuela .Since the Cold War. and antiAmerican governments. socialist. years of debt have caused an anti-US backlash Many Latin American nations have voted for moderate.

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Feminist movements pushed for inclusion into eleected offices.• Latin American women’s status was closer to those of western Europe than Africa. Status of Women in Latin America . but discrimination continues. There were many changes. Women were denied the vote until 1929 in Ecuador. most of the region allowed female franchise. By the 1950s.

• Industrial jobs expanded to include women. Latin America was in the intermediate position between industrialized and developing nations where the status of women was concerned. by the beginning of the 21st century. Overall. Shifts in attitudes about women’s roles developed slowly. as in many other areas. Women in Latin America .

What factors that lead to the spread of democracy in Latin America? .

S.] • Internalization of the labor markets and trade markets . Canada.Several factors have led to the spread of democracy throughout the region. including the following: • Movement of people within the region • End of the cold war • United States aid and trade [NAFTA-North American Free Trade Agreement occurred due to improved relations (non-tariff policy between U. and Mexico that began in the 1990s)..

.• • • • • • • Countries that experienced democratization: Argentina Brazil Peru Nicaragua Guatemala Panama Leftist rebel groups continued to agitate in some of them as in Colombia and Peru.

Vicente Fox. of the PAN party. It generally supports minimal government intervention in the economy.Mexico continued to be controlled by the PRI but by the end of the 20th century its hold began to loosen. [PAN stands Mexico has a party shift… for the National Action Party in Mexico. In 2000.] . It is a conservative Mexican political party with close ties to the Roman Catholic Church. won national election.

1. The developing nations are often referred to as the ________________. .

. Canada.Answer: Third World • In the 1990s. the U. and Mexico formed an economic agreement called ___________________ .S.

governmental agency known as the __________ trained dissidents to invade Guatemala and later Cuba. .Answer: NAFTA • The U.S.

Answer: Central Intelligence Agency • The authoritarian leader of Cuba before the Castro-led revolution was ____________. .

and political movement in Latin America that fused Catholic theology and socialism was known as _______________. . social.Answer: Bautista • An economic.

Answer: Liberation theology • The Marxist government in Nicaragua that was removed in an election in 1990 was led by the _________ party. .

successfully carried out a Socialist revolution in Nicaragua during the 1980s.Answer: Sandinista • Info: Nicaraguan Socialist movement named after Augusto Sandino. (p. 789) .

• Corrupt governments led by strongmen and funded by export of tropical products were known as _______ .

Answer: banana republics .• In 1948. This was in response to human rights violations that occurred in Latin America throughout the 1960s and later mirrored actions in other parts of the world. the United Nations listed basic liberties to all people with the publication of the _____.

.Answer: Declaration of Human Rights • Inequalities based on _____ continued in some places in Latin America into the 21st century.

.Answer: ethnicity • The Argentine dance made popular worldwide in the early th 20 century was the ______.

• What famous Chilean author also uses “magic realist” much like Jorge Luis Borges and Gabriel Garcia Marquez? You may have read on of her many books: • *The House of Spirits *Daughter of Fortune • *Zorro *Aphrodite • *Eva Luna *The Infinite Plan • *Paula * • *Island Beneath the Sea • *City of Beasts Answer: Tango .

Allende. In 2004. whose works sometimes contain aspects of the "magic realist" tradition. Allende was granted American citizenship in 2003. which have been commercially successful. is famous for novels such as The House of the Spirits (La casa de los espíritus. Answer: Isabel Allende . and in 2010. Peru. on 2 August 1942) is a Chilean writer with American citizenship. Allende has been called "the world's most widely read Spanish-language author". 1982) and City of the Beasts (La ciudad de las bestias. while weaving together elements of myth and realism.• Isabel Allende Llona (born in Lima. Allende was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Fluent in English as a second language. She has lectured and toured many American colleges to teach literature. she received Chile's National Literature Prize. • Allende's novels are often based upon her personal experience and pay homage to the lives of women. having lived in California with her American husband since 1989. 2002).