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UNIT 2

GEOMETRY

(A) Main Concepts and Results

• A line segment corresponds to the shortest distance between two points. The line segment joining points A and B is denoted as AB or as BA. A ray with initial point A and a point B on it is denoted as JJJ J G HJJ J G AB . Line AB is denoted as AB . • Two distinct lines in a plane that cross at a point are called intersecting lines, otherwise they are called parallel lines. • Two rays with a common initial point form an angle. • A simple closed curve made of line segments only is called a polygon. • A polygon of three sides is called a triangle and that of four sides is called a quadrilateral. • A polygon with all its sides equal and all its angles equal is called a regular polygon. • A figure, every point of which is equidistant from a fixed point is called a circle. The fixed point is called its centre and the equal distance is called its radius.

(B) Solved Examples

In examples 1 and 2, write the correct answer from the given four options. Example 1: Solution: The number of diagonals of a pentagon is (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 10 Correct answer is (C).

UNIT-2

Example 2: The number of diagonals of a triangle is (A) 0 Solution: (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3

Correct answer is (A).

In examples 3 and 4, fill in the blanks to make the statements true: Example 3: Solution: Example 4: Solution: A polygon of six sides is called a ______. Hexagon A triangle with all its sides of unequal lengths is called a ______ triangle. Scalene

In examples 5 to 7, state whether the statements are true or false. Example 5: Solution: Example 6: Solution: Example 7: Solution: Two non-parallel line segments will always intersect. False (Hint: They will intersect, when they are produced) All equilateral triangles are isosceles also. True Angle of 0° is an acute angle. False [Hint: Measure of acute angle is between 0° and 90°] In Fig. 2.1, PQ ⊥ AB and PO = OQ. Is PQ the perpendicular bisector of line segment AB? Why or why not? PQ is not the perpendicular bisector of line segment AB, because AO ≠ BO. [Note: AB is the perpendicular bisector of line segment PQ]. In Fig. 2.2, if AC ⊥ BD , then name all the right angles. There are four right angles. They are: ∠APD , ∠APB , ∠BPC and ∠CPD .

P

Example 8:

Solution:

A O Q

B

Fig. 2.1

Example 9: Solution:

Fig. 2.2

22

EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS

AD. AE. Fig.3 Example 11: In Fig.3 a polygon? If yes. 2. Fig. out of four options only one is correct. 1. It is a quadrilateral. BC. AC. Write the correct answer. B. DE and EB. (ii) edges and (iii) faces. 2. BCDE is a square and a 3D shape has been formed by joining the point A in space with the vertices B. Also. ACD. ADE and ABE. C. Number of lines passing through five points such that no three of them are collinear is (A) 10 (B) 5 (C) 20 (D) 8 GEOMETRY 23 . (C) Exercise In each of the questions 1 to 16. Solution: The 3D shape formed is a square pyramid. D and E.4. because it is a simple closed figure made of line segments only. write the measure of the other angle and also state what types of angles these are. (iii) Faces are: square BCDE and triangles ABC. what is the special name for it? Solution: Yes. Name the 3D shape and also its (i) vertices. it is a polygon. 2. C. CD. (ii) Edges are AB. D and E. 2. (i) Vertices are A.4 Example 12 : Write the measure of smaller angle formed by the hour and the minute hands of a clock at 7 O’ clock.MATHEMATICS Example 10: Is ABCD of Fig. Solution : Measure of the required angle = 30° + 30° + 30° + 30° + 30° = 150° Measure of the other angle = 360° – 150° = 210° Angle of measure 150° is an obtuse angle and that of 210° is a reflex angle.

2. Number of line segments in Fig. The number of diagonals in a septagon is (A) 21 (B) 42 (C) 7 (D) 14 3. 285° (D) 30°. 2. 330° 5.8 24 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . 300° (B) 270°. if point A is shifted to point B along the ray PX such that PB = 2PA. 2. In Fig 2.7.8 is (A) 3 (C) 5 (B) 4 (D) 6 40° 20° 30° Fig.5 4.5 is (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20 Fig. 90° (C) 75°. 2.6.6 X B A 45° P Y 7. 2. Measures of the two angles between hour and minute hands of a clock at 9 O’ clock are (A) 60°.7 8. 2. then the angle between a pair of two consecutive spokes is (A) ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ (B) ⎜ 7 ⎟ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ (C) ⎜ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 11 ⎠ (D) ⎜ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 15 ⎠ 6. 2. If a bicycle wheel has 48 spokes. then the measure of ∠BPY is (A) greater than 45° (C) less than 45° (B) 45° (D) 90° Fig. In Fig.UNIT-2 2. ∠XYZ cannot be written as (A) ∠Y (C) ∠ ZYX (B) ∠ ZXY (D) ∠ XYP Fig. The number of angles in Fig.

2.10 is (A) 10 (C) 13 (B) 12 (D) 14 Fig. The number of diagonals of the polygon is (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 7 (D) 10 GEOMETRY 25 . If the sum of two angles is greater than 180°. Two right angles.10 11. 2.MATHEMATICS 9. 2. Two acute angles. then which of the following is not possible? (A) (B) (C) (D) One obtuse angle and one acute angle.9 10. One right angle and one acute angle. 2. The number of triangles in Fig. Its number of sides is equal to the sum of the two least consecutive primes. The number of obtuse angles in Fig. A polygon has prime number of sides.9 is (A) 2 (C) 4 (B) 3 (D) 5 45° 20° 65° 30° Fig. 13. then which of the following is not possible for the two angles? (A) (B) (C) (D) One obtuse angle and one acute angle One reflex angle and one acute angle Two obtuse angles Two right angles. 12. If the sum of two angles is equal to an obtuse angle.

In Fig. 2. 2. The number of diagonals in a hexagon is ________. 2.13. The number of isoscles triangles in the figure is (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 4 B C D A Fig. PQ ⊥ RQ. In Fig. In Fig. Q P T O M S N R Fig. 2.11 A 15. fill in the blanks to make the statements true: 17. 2.UNIT-2 14.12 16. PQ = 5 cm and QR = 5 cm. 20. 18. that in the exterior are ______ and that on the triangle itself are ______.12. points lying in the interior of the triangle PQR are ______. 2. Then Δ PQR is (A) a right triangle but not isosceles (B) an isosceles right triangle (C) isosceles but not a right triangle (D) neither isosceles nor right triangle Q 5 R P 5 Fig. 19. 2. A pair of opposite sides of a trapezium are ________. The number of right triangles in the figure is (A) 1 (C) 3 (B) 2 (D) 4 B D C Fig. 2. AB = BC and AD = BD = DC. An angle greater than 180° and less than a complete angle is called _______.11.14 26 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . ∠BAC = 90° and AD ⊥ BC.13 In questions 17 to 31.14. In Fig.

The number of common points in the two angles marked in Fig. 2. Their names are ______________________. 2. 2. Then (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) AD = AB + ______ AD = AC + ______ mid point of AE is ______ mid point of CE is ______ AE = ______ × AB. 26. 2.16 23.15 22.18 GEOMETRY 27 . D and E are collinear such that AB = BC = CD = DE. 2. (a) (b) (c) ∠AOD is a/an ______ angle ∠COA is a/an ______ angle ∠AOE is a/an ______ angle Fig. In Fig. Fig. 2.17 is ______and their names are ______. The number of right angles in a straight angle is ______ and that in a complete angle is ______.16.15.17 is ______. B.17 27. Fig. The number of triangles in Fig. The number of straight angles in Fig.18 is ______. 24. In Fig. 2.MATHEMATICS 21. 25. C. points A. Number of angles less than 180° in Fig. 2. 2.17 is ______. B E P Q F D A C Fig. 2.

B D A C E Fig. 2. 2. B E Q A R F C P D Fig.20 30.20 ______ . Q E F G P R C B D A Fig.21 28 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . 2. 2.19 is ______.19 29.UNIT-2 28. 2. The number of common points in the two angles marked in Fig. 2. The number of common points in the two angles marked in Fig. The number of common points in the two angles marked in Fig.21 is ______.

A B C Fig. Many lines can pass through two given points. 2. 34. 2. the angle increases. 2. If line PQ || line m. 40. 37.24 GEOMETRY 29 . Only one line can pass through a given point. 42. then line segment PQ || m 36. If the arms of an angle on the paper are increased. Two line segments may intersect at two points. 39.24. Measures of ∠ABC and ∠CBA in Fig. 2. The common part between the two angles BAC and DAB in Fig. 2. Two angles can have exactly five points in common.22 State whether the statements given in questions 32 to 41 are true (T) or false (F): 32. Name all the line segments in Fig. Fig. 35. the angle decreases. If the arms of an angle on the paper are decreased.23 38. 33.22 is ______. A horizontal line and a vertical line always intersect at right angles.23 are the same. 2.MATHEMATICS 31. Two parallel lines meet each other at some point. 41. D B A C Fig.

Fig. 2. Write down fifteen angles (less than 180° ) involved in Fig.28.27. 2.26 45. 2. 2.25 44. A E B D F C Fig.UNIT-2 43.27 46. 2.25. Fig.26. 2. 2.28 30 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . Name the line segments shown in Fig. 2. Name the vertices and the line segments in Fig. C Y X A Z B Fig. State the mid points of all the sides of Fig.

31. 2. Name the following angles of Fig. 2.31 (iii) 50. Is it possible for the same (a) (b) line segment to have two different lengths? angle to have two different measures? GEOMETRY 31 . 2. appear to be mid-points of the line segments? When you locate a mid-point.29 48. using three letters: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) ∠1 ∠2 ∠3 ∠1 + ∠2 ∠2 + ∠3 ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 (g) ∠CBA – ∠1 B 3 A E 2 1 D C Fig.30): (i) (ii) Fig.MATHEMATICS 47. 2. 2. name the two equal line segments formed by it. 2. Which points in Fig.30 (iii) (iv) 49. Name the points and then the line segments in each of the following figures (Fig.29. B O B D C A (i) (ii) Fig.

Mark a point (a) (b) (c) A which is in the interior of both ∠1 and ∠2. Now.35). B which is in the interior of only ∠1. in the following: An angle is formed when we have (a) two rays with a common end-point (b) two line segments with a common end-point (c) a ray and a line segment with a common end-point 56. 2. if any. In which of the following figures (Fig. Find out the incorrect statement.32? A C B D Fig.33? Fig. 2. 2. Will the lengths of line segment AB and line segment BC make the length of line segment AC in Fig. 2. Measure them with the help of a protractor and see how much accurate is your estimate. 54. Point C in the interior of ∠1. Draw two acute angles and one obtuse angle without using a protractor. 2. state whether points B and C lie in the interior of ∠2 also. 2.34 55.33 53. Estimate the measures of the angles. (a) perpendicular bisector is shown? 32 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . Will the measure of ∠ABC and of ∠CBD make measure of ∠ABD in Fig. Fig.UNIT-2 51.34.32 52. Look at Fig. 2.

will their point of intersection be the vertex of an angle of which the rays are the two sides? 59.36 (i) that of triangle? if not. why? 58. (b) name any two angles that appear to be obtuse angles. 2.37 (b) is AB + AC = CB? C B Fig. In Fig.38 GEOMETRY 33 .36 (ii) Is Fig. 60.MATHEMATICS (b) bisector is shown? (c) only bisector is shown? (d) only perpendicular is shown? (i) (ii) Fig. If two rays intersect. 2. 2. 2. (a) name any four angles that appear to be acute angles. In Fig.37. 2. What is common in the following figures (i) and (ii) (Fig. 2. 2. (a) is AC + CB = AB? (c) is AB + BC = CA? A B A E C D Fig. 2.38.)? (i) Fig.36.35 (iii) 57.

In Fig.40 34 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . 2. Using the information given. name the right angles in each part of Fig. 2.UNIT-2 61.40: (a) BA ⊥ BD (b) RT ⊥ ST (c) AC ⊥ BD (d) RS ⊥ RW (e) AC ⊥ BD (f) AE ⊥ CE (g) AC ⊥ CD C A B D (h) OP ⊥ AB Fig. 2.39 62. 2.39. (a) What is AE + EC? (b) What is AC – EC? (c) What is BD – BE? (d) What is BD – DE? B A E C D Fig.

if (a) DB is the bisector of ∠ADC? (b) BD bisects ∠ABC? (c) DC is the bisector of ∠ ADB. 2. What conclusion can be drawn from each part of Fig.43 66. ∠ BAC = ∠ CAD = ∠ DAE. 2. if it is divided into three equal parts.42 65. 2. 2.MATHEMATICS 63. 2. 2.44 GEOMETRY 35 . how many points are marked? Name them.41. Fig. How many line segments are there in Fig. 2. 68.41 64. CA ⊥ DA and CB ⊥ DB? Fig.43? 67. How many line segments are there in Fig.42.44.43? Fig. how many trisectors are there for ∠ BAE ? Fig. 2. 2. How many points are marked in Fig. 2. If in Fig.44? Name them. An angle is said to be trisected. In Fig.

(d) Shade sectors OAC and OPB. which is not the diameter of the circle. 2. O is the centre of the circle. (e) Shade the smaller segment of the circle formed by CP. Write the name of (a) vertices (b) edges. 74. 2.45 71. and Fig.45 how many line segments are there? Name them. how many points are marked? Name them. (a) Name all chords of the circle. 70. Can we have two obtuse angles whose sum is (a) a reflex angle? Why or why not? (b) a complete angle? Why or why not? 76. In Fig. Fig. 36 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . In Fig. 2. (c) Name a chord.UNIT-2 69. Can we have two acute angles whose sum is (a) an acute angle? Why or why not? (b) a right angle? Why or why not? (c) an obtuse angle? Why or why not? (d) a straight angle? Why or why not? (e) a reflex angle? Why or why not? 75. 2. In Fig. Fig. (b) Name all radii of the circle.47 (c) faces of the prism shown in Fig. 72. 2.47.46 73.46 how many line segments are there? Name them. In Fig.46. 2. In Fig. 2. 2.48. 2.48 Fig.45 how many points are marked? Name them. 2.

Draw PD ⊥ BC . draw AK ⊥ BC A F P E B KD C Fig. Activity 2: Copy the equilateral ΔABC shown in Fig. (D) Activities Activity 1: Observe questions 65 to 72. 10?. when the number of points marked on line segment is 7?. GEOMETRY 37 .50 Again measure PE with divider and mark it on the line l as DE (say). faces and vertices are there in a sphere? 78. Can you find out the number of line segments.MATHEMATICS 77.49 Now. Fig. PE ⊥ CA and PF ⊥ AB Also. measure PD using a divider and ruler and mark it on line l as shown Fig. Draw all the diagonals of a pentagon ABCDE and name them.49 on your notebook. draw a line l . 9?. (a) (b) (c) Take a point P as shown in the figure. Again measure PF with divider and mark it on line l next to E as EF. 2. How many edges. 2. 50. 2. 2.

Check whether the sum of EF and EG is equal to AD with the help of ruler or with the help of divider.UNIT-2 Now check whether the length of AK and the length (PD + DE + EF) are the same! Activity 3: Copy the isosceles triangle ABC shown in Fig. Measure EF and EG and add them.51 on your notebook. Take a point E on BC and draw EF ⊥ CA and EG ⊥ AB. 2.51 38 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS . G F A B D E C Fig. 2. Draw AD ⊥ BC .

MATHEMATICS Rough Work no tt © o N be C re ER pu T bl is h GEOMETRY ed 39 .

UNIT-2 Rough Work no 40 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS tt © o N be C re ER pu T bl is h ed .

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