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LEADING UNIVERSITY

Assignment On 'Global E-Learning For Upcoming Generations' Course Title: Fundamentals of MIS Course Code: MGT-315

Submitted To, Mr. Md. Rahimullah Miah Lecturer Dept. of Business Administration Leading University Sylhet

Submitted By, Ahmad Ali Mahi ID: 1101010239 Section: E Dept. of Business Administration Leading University Sylhet

Submission Date: 05-04-13

. Md. Rahimullah Miah sir for giving us the proper idea and guidance about the assignment project. I would like to give my sincere thanks to Mr. At last I would like to thanks all those who have directly or indirectly helped and cooperated in accomplishing this Project. I wish to acknowledge and express my personal gratitude to all those without whom this project could not have been reality.Acknowledgement The enduring pages of the work are the cumulative sequence of extensive guidance and arduous work.

requiring each individual to pick and choose the processed data and use it for his requirements. and the MIS based on the DATABASE proved much more effective. Towards the information. .Introduction MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ( MIS) CONCEPT The concept of the MIS has evolved over a period of time comprising many different facets of the organizational function. This need maybe either of an individual or a group of people. The change was decentralization of the system and the user of the in formation becoming independent of computer professionals. producing different shades and specifications of the information as a product.oriented. as each individual may have a different orientation. The job in a computer department is to manage the information resource and leave the task of information processing to the user. The concept is that the data is one but it can be viewed by different individuals in different ways. MIS is a necessity of all the organizations. The information is a product of an analysis of data. The initial concept of MIS was to process data from the organization and present it in the for of reports at regular intervals. demanded that the system concept be an individual.ABASE. This concept was further modified. What are needed are information and not a mass of data. Hence. provides computting facilities to the end user and gives a variety of decision making tools to the user of the system. Over a period of time. therefore. fixation of the norm for an exception becomes ka futile exercise at least for the people in the higher echelons of the organization. the concept of MIS changed to a decision making system. the concept of the end user computing using multiple databases emerged. However. This concept was further modified when a distinction was made between data and information. when these conceptual developments were taking place. This gave rise to the concept of DA . The system was largely capable of handling the data from collection to processing. This concept is similar to a raw material and the finished product. some sort of selective approach was necessary in the analysis and reporting. Since the environment turns competitive and is ever changing. This concept brought a fundamental charge in MIS. The concept of MIS in today's world is a system which handles the databases. It was later realized then even though such an impact was a welcome modification. This called for keeping all data together in such a form that it can be accessed by anybody and can be processed to suit his needs. The concept remained valid till and to the extent that the norm for an exception remained true and effective. The concept was then evolved that the system should be capable of handling a need based exception reporting. the data can be analyzed in a number of ways. databases. the concept of exception reporting was imbibed in MIS. It was. provoking a decision or an investigation. that the system should present information in such a form and format that it creates an impact on its user. When this becomes a reality. It was more impersonal. The norm for an exception.

It continuously interacts with the internal and the external environment of the business and provides a corrective mechanism in the system so that the change needs of information are with effectively. This is possible only when it in conceptualized as system with an appropriate design. The MIS model may be the same but it differs greatly in the contents. is a dynamic design the primary objective of which is to the information the information for decision making and it is developed considering the organizational fabric. and outputs with the lest possible noise or distortion in transmitting the information form a source to a destination. The subsystem could be at a functional level or a corporate level. It is prescribed product design for the organization. The MIS differs since the people in two organizations involved in the same business. Psychology and Human Behavior. These academic disciplines are used in designing the MIS. therefore. management views and policies. it relies on many academic disciplines. transaction processing and validating. It is a product which needs to be kept under a constant review and modification to meet the corporate needs of the information. Such a design help to keep the MIS tuned with the business managements needs of the organization. The MIS is for the people in the organization. is a dynamic design. These include the theories. These subsystems range from data collection.making. therefore. making the MID more effective and useful. The Physical view of the MIS can be seen as assembly of several subsystems based on the databases in the organization. evolving the decision support tools for modeling and decision . organization culture and the culture and the management style. is a dynamic concept subject to change. While analyzing the data. therefore. . processing. therefore. It uses the principles of system Design. Viz. The MIS. The MIS. It uses theories of communication which helps to evolve a system design capable of handling data inputs. The MIS.. with a change in the business management process.The concept of MIS gives high regard to the individual and his ability to use information. MIS uses the concept of management Information System can be evolved for a specific objective if it is evolved after systematic planning and design. The MIS is a product of a multi. The foundation of MIS is the principles of management and if its practices. an ability of continuous adjustment or correction in the system in line with the environmental change in which the MIS operates. time and again. An MIS gives information through data analysis. principles and concepts from the Management Science. It calls for an analysis of a business. The MIS.disciplinary approach to the business management. The information should be generated in this setting and must be useful in managing the business. giving due regard to the people in the organizational the management functions and the managerial and the managerial control. the primary objectively. relies heavily on the systems theory offers solutions to handle the complex situations of the input and output flows. process. analyzing and storing the information in databases.

it has no value. The information is a processed product to fulfill an imprecise need of the people. 2. It supports the management of the business in each phase by giving the information which is crucial in that phase. 1. all of them converge on one single point. 3. However. The difficulty in handling this multiple requirement of the people is due to a couple of reasons. the Computer. It has a time value and unless processed on time and communicated.The MIS model of the organization changes over a time as the business passes through several phases of developmental growth cycle. Every has critical success factors in each phase of growth cycle and the MIS model gives more information on the critical success factors for decision making. The MIS is defined as a Computer . 4. based Information System. Every individual in an organization is continuously looking for some information which is needed to perform his/her task. The MIS is defined as a system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization. a major portion of the overheads goes into this kind of unproductive work in the organization. The MIS has more than one definition. small or big. documenting it to the people. the information is people-oriented and it varies with the nature of the people in the organization. The MIS is defined as an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations. some of which are give below.. a human . Since the people are instrumental in any business transaction. In any organization. The scope and the quantum of information is individual-dependent and it is difficult to conceive the information as a well-defined product for the entire organization. the MIS is a system to support the decision making function in the organization. The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization. processing.based information System. It has been understood and described in a number ways. Hence. in today's world MIS a computerized . Hence. i. the Information and Decision System. the management and the decision making function in the organization. MIS DEFINITION The Management Information System (MIS) is a concept of the last decade or two.e. It is also known as the Information System.business processing system generating information for the people in the organization to meet the information needs decision making to achieve the corporate objective of the organization. The difference lies in defining the elements of the MIS. Thought there are a number of definitions. a major portion of the time goes in data collection. It takes time to search the data and may require a difficult processing path.

a computer system is available for such a requirement. The MIS relies heavily on the hardware and software capacity of the computer and its ability to process. • Quick search and retrieval. If the distance is too long. • Communication of the information system to the user on time. then the computer system can be hooked through a satellite communication system. voice and text processing. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM AND COMPUTER Translating the real concept of the MIS into reality is technically. The software. Since the computer is capable of digital. its storage and access effectively. word image. accuracy. For example. further enhances the . The ability of the computer to sort and merge helps to organize the data in a particular manner and process it for complex lengthy computations. the MIS become a safe application in the organization. graphic. it is possible to have a computer system with a distributed data processing capability. With this ability. • Confirmation of the validity of data and transaction. retrieve communicate with no serious limitations.error is possible in conducting the same. it is necessary to have a formal system which should take care of the following points: • Handling of a voluminous data. The ability of the hardware to store data and process it at a very fast rate helps to deal with the data volumes. if the organization needs a large database and very little processing. an infeasible proposition unless computers are used. In order to get a better grip on the activity of information processing. timeliness and meeting the decision making needs. The management information system uses computers and communication technology to deal with these points of supreme importance. The variety of the hardware having distinct capabilities makes it possible to design the MIS for a specific situation. Suppose the organization has multiple business location at long distances and if the need is to bring the data at one place. The ability of a computer system to provide security of data brings a confidence in the management in the storage o data on a magnetic media in an impersonal mode. validity. It provides an access to the selected information through a password and layered access facilities. • Fulfilling the changing needs of the information. process. • Mass storage. and then send the information to various location. it is exploited to generate information and present it in the form which is easy to understand for the information user. Since a human error is difficult to control. The confidence nature of the data and information can be maintained in a computer system. The computer system provides the facilities such as READ ONLY where you cannot delete to UPDATE. an integral part of a computer system. the difficulty arises in ensuring a hundred per cent quality assurance of information in terms of completeness. • Complex processing of data and multidimensional analysis.

a good MIS will offer significant time savings and efficiency gains. “Off the shelf systems don’t do the work of a true MIS. For example. an efficient language is available to handle the situation. you can compute the results at one place and transfer them to a computer located at another place for some other use. which recently opened its first office in Australia.hardware capability.” says Tresta Keegan from New Zealand-based Mosaic. However. to maximize its value. “because an MIS is configured to suit your business. speed. it allows for other modules be added on later. “Repetition and double-handling is reduced. information using less people and less time.” says Peter Charlton from Optimus. but the benefits for most businesses are significant and almost immediate. The concept of user . designing the MIS for a specific need and simultaneously designing a flexible and open system becomes possible. as well as other benefits that outstrip stand-alone solutions in this area. the nonprocedural languages are available. Hence.” Time savings and productivity benefits vary. . The software is available to handle the procedural and nonprocedural data processing. so people can multitask and maximize the value of their time. The advancement in computers and the communication technology has the distance. The software is available to transfer the data from one computer system to another. “With MIS businesses can collect and share more. depending on the original processes and on how much data can be captured and utilized from your systems and equipment.” An appropriate and properly implemented MIS can deliver up to 50 per cent labor (and. thereby saving a lot of drudgery of development and maintenance and maintenance of the system. cost)-savings in estimating. therefore. but they can be summed up with three main statements: Firstly. volume and complex computing an easy task. if you want to use a formula to calculate a certain result. MIS – The Benefits The benefits of a good MIS are many and significant. The computer system being able to configure to the specific needs helps to design a flexible MIS. Hence. making information processing a personalized function. better quality. friendly systems and the end user computing is possible. and the process is standardised. costing and invoicing. the application of the management principles and practices in today's complex business world is possible only when the MIS is based on computer system support. If you are not use a formula but have to resort every time to a new procedure. improving consistency and eliminating the margin for error or omission. Also.

Secondly.” says Charlton. Rather than invest in more productive finishing equipment to solve a bottleneck.” he says. ‘real time’ data is perhaps the most valuable benefit of a good MIS to business. like automatic capture of ‘real time’ data on good or bad sheet counts. says it’s time all business owners kept an eye on CIP4. sharing and communicating information internally and externally. he found the better business outcome was to invest in presses. cutting down this ‘transaction component’ at the front end. printers must see themselves as manufactures. you can decide when they will benefit you. better debt collection procedures and more accurate job data. “If you are up to date with these developments. as it provides vital information for the business today. number of guillotine cuts. “One of the major benefits of MIS is to improve effectiveness and efficiency. is popular.” Path to the Future The perception that MIS is only for big business with the latest. and to outsource his finishing requirements. “Increasingly. The workflow benefits of JDF. a good MIS will give business owners the information they need to map the future of their business. ‘transaction cost’ involved in capturing. which generated better profit. a good MIS will deliver measurable cost savings and improved profits. Cash flow management also usually improves due to the faster billing cycle. and enhancing profitability. take a look at ‘entry level’ . but in reality the technology is increasingly relevant for smaller operations. Thirdly. offer clear benefits in speeding make-ready and turnaround. Soeren Lange. “A good MIS supports business owners by providing reports that are easy to understand and act on.” says Keegan. Another benefit is that an MIS can cut down the significant. CIP4 equipment. one of many manufacturers for whom JDF is standard. citing the example of one customer who changed approach after analyzing data from his MIS.” If you think your business is too small for MIS. product manager – Prepress and Workflow for Heidelberg. and often unrecognised. and the ability to pre-set equipment from initial data. and for future decision making. folds completed. or products bound. MIS users typically report improved cost and production control and better use of inventory through managing waste and spoilage. The ability to capture accurate.

throughput. with built-in upgrade path. but provides an affordable starting point. “Prism’s modular design allows you to select those modules suitable to your business needs with the ability to add modules as you require them. the company established offices in Sydney. chargeable times. Prism QTMS provides shop floor productivity management and monitoring for large web printers. Bowden Printing has been at the forefront of those willing to take on the challenges and opportunities that emerging technologies. such as MIS create.” continues Lee. ink usage and so on. that will suit many small to medium operations and digital printing businesses. In the mid 1990s. “In a nutshell exerting control. There are many areas of business that Prism has been able to provide solutions for.” says Brady Lee. Melbourne and Brisbane during this time. the company developed a new Windows NT based product suite – Prism WIN. It dominates the market in both Europe and South Africa. increased customer service capabilities. and increasing profit are the main reasons why a Company which hasn’t taken the plunge into a MIS should do so. Bowden Printing has grown into one of the most respected and innovative printing companies in South Australia. reducing costs. . Prism further expanded through the acquisition of a UK company with an established complementary product – QTMS. Prism was formed in New Zealand in 1989 with the development of a DOS bases software product. In April 2001. Prism USA enjoyed immediate success in achieving new sales from introducing Prism WIN and Prism QTMS to the US market and has continued to enjoy steady growth. highlighted productivity measures including. who is in charge of new business development at Prism Software (Australia) Pty Ltd. a seamless upgrade to PrismWIN is available with the confidence of full data retention. Catering from four to 4000 end users. In 1998. Prism WIN was the first true Windows MIS/ERP solution for the printing industry in the world and quickly achieved market leadership status. enabling efficient work practice to customers. and your MIS needs become even more sophisticated. In addition to Auckland. based in Brisbane. the range of Prism modules available provides management and control for almost every process and function performed within any print businesses. such as Prism SBE. One of the longest-established names on the MIS block. Offering fully featured and integrated MIS modules.products. resolved supplier billing errors. it’s not as custom-configurable as the full Prism SBE. Prism entered the US market and set up Prism USA operating out of Boston. paper wastage. Totally focused on leveraging the benefits that leading-edge technology delivers in terms of efficiencies and more effective technical processes. “As your business grows. exploring every possibility that adds value for their clients. It has allowed customers to automate labor intensive tasks eliminating the requirement for skilled employees. Established in 1935.

They will soon be driving our cars and making medical diagnoses. thanks to accelerating returns. of MIS. Here are five trends that are driving it all. From Microsoft’s Kinect to Apple’s Siri to Google’s Project Glass. and benefits. we’re beginning to expect that computers adapt to us rather than the other way around. survive without any sophisticated management information system. Microsoft. and do.Many businesses can. Amazon. we can expect computer interfaces to become almost indistinguishable from humans in little more than a decade. Native Content While over the past several years technology has become more local. there’s probably something to it. social and mobile. we’re on the brink of a new digital paradigm. If lots of smart people are willing to spend years of their lives and millions (if not billions) of dollars on an idea. Yet trends can be important. No-Touch Interfaces We’ve gotten used to the idea that computers are machines that we operate with our hands. The basic pattern recognition technology has been advancing for generations and. Today. where the capabilities of our technology are beginning to outstrip our own. Netflix recently found success with their “House of . 5 Trends That Will Drive The Future Of Technology Trends get a bad rap. Apple and the cable companies all vying to produce a dominant model for delivering consumer entertainment. or maybe a new shade of purple that will be long forgotten by next season. Just as we Gen Xers became comfortable with keyboards and mouses. Each new iteration of technology has required new skills to use it proficiently. But with quality data and production efficiencies fast becoming key core competencies. One emerging strategy is to develop original programming in order to attract and maintain a subscriber base. 1. performing legal discovery and even winning game shows. Computers are deciding which products to stock on shelves. 2. with Netflix. Google. mostly because they are often equated with fashions. That’s why the new trend towards no-touch interfaces is so fundamentally different. those businesses who wish to survive and prosper would do well to keep an eye on the developments. the new digital battlefield will be fought in the living room. Today’s millennial generation has learned to text at blazing speed. Talk about trends and people immediately start imagining wafer thin models strutting down catwalks in outrageous outfits. especially those long in the making.

such as mobile payments and IBM’s Smarter Planet initiative. which allows for two-way data communication with nearby devices and ultra-low power chips that can harvest energy in the environment. with President Obama recently reaching out to ordinary voters through Ask Me Anything on Reddit and Google Hangouts. (For a good example. Rather than simply play against the computer. which will put computable entities just about everywhere you can think of. Still. seamlessly. will become widespread in just a few years. 3. massively multiplayer online games such as World of Warcraft became all the rage. Massively Online In the last decade. where just about everything we interact with becomes a computable entity. The Web of Things Probably the most pervasive trend is the Web of Things. Khan Academy offers thousands of modules for school age kids. could easily be untethered and become a direct competitor to Netflix. What will drive the trend in the years to come are two complementary technologies: Near Field Communication (NFC). Interestingly. . Now other facets of life are going massively online. which at the moment requires a cable subscription. The massively online trend has even invaded politics. see here). Our homes. While the Web of Things is already underway. 4. Code Academy can teach a variety of programming languages to just about anybody and the latest iteration is Massively Online Open Courses (MOOC’s) that offer university level instruction. has been applying the trend in reverse. Marketing will also be transformed. HBO. there’s really no telling what the impact will be. as computing ceases to be something we do seated at a desk and becomes a natural.Cards” series starring Kevin Spacey and Robin Wright. which pioneered the strategy. Amazon and Microsoft quickly announced their own forays into original content soon after. our cars and even objects on the street will interact with our smart phones and with each other. as consumers will be able to seamless access digital products from advertisements in the physical world. Some applications. normal way of interacting with our environment. Their HBO GO app. it’s difficult to see where it will lead us. It can be incredibly engrossing (albeit a bit unsettling when you realize that the vicious barbarian you’ve been marauding around with is actually a 14 year-old girl). you could play with thousands of others in real time.

Therein lies the next great challenge of computing. they took up whole rooms and required specialized training to operate them. computers themselves are disappearing. . When Computers Disappear When computers first appeared. but it takes some effort. you find yourself wishing that you can just punch your answers in or talk to someone at one of those offshore centers with heavy accents. ironically. Now. we now struggle with natural language interfaces that just can’t quite work like we’d like them to. While we’ve long left behind loading disks into slots to get our computers to work and become used to software as a service – hardware as a service is right around the corner. The future of technology is. Then they arrived in our homes and were simple enough for teenagers to become proficient in their use within a few days (although adults tended to be a little slower).5. investing in things like native content to get us onboard their platform. Consumer Driven Supercomputing Everybody knows the frustration of calling to a customer service line and having to deal with an automated interface. After repeating yourself a few times. from which we will sign onto massively online services to entertain and educate ourselves. my three year old daughter plays with her iPad as naturally as she plays with her dolls. into no-touch interfaces and into our daily lives. Today. While we used to wait for our desktop computers to process our commands and then lingered for what seemed like an eternity for web pages to load. They work well enough. They’re embedded invisibly into the Web of Things. That’s why technology companies are becoming increasingly consumer driven. all too human.

com http://www.com .wikipedia.Bibliography Websites: http://www.com http://www.forbes.scribd.