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Production Alcohol by Fermentation

FY B.Sc. Botany Fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or a sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. For example, yeast perform fermentation to obtain energy by converting sugar into alcohol. Bacteria perform fermentation, converting carbohydrates into lactic acid. History Fermentation is a natural process. People applied fermentation to make products such as wine, mead, cheese and beer long before the biochemical process was understood. In the 1850s and 1860s Louis Pasteur became the first scientist to study fermentation when he demonstrated fermentation was caused by living cells. Organism Of the different types of yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae is the industrially important yeast for alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of different strains and varieties, which are used for different industrial applications. Yeast, which is used for ethanol production, is called “Bakers strains”. Those used in beer making are called “Brewing strains” and wine making are called “wine strains”. This differentiation is based on specific properties of yeast required by the particular industry. Following Organisms can be used for fermentation: 1. Bacteria: -Zymomonas mobilis - Closteridium acetobutylicum - Klebsiella pneumoniae 2. Yeasts -Saccharomyces cerevisiae -Saccharomyces carlsbergenesiae -Saccharomyces saki -Saccharomyces oviformis -Candida utilis -Mucur sp.

Products from Fermentation      beer wine yogurt cheese certain sour foods containing lactic acid, including sauerkraut, kimchi and pepperoni  bread leavening by yeast  sewage treatment  some industrial alcohol production, such as for biofuels  hydrogen gas  Antibiotics

Raw Material: Alcohol (ethenol) can be produced from any feedstock containing fermentable sugars. These feedstocks are commonly divided into four categories: sugar-based raw materials, starch, cellulose raw materials, and excess or by-products of wineries. SUGAR: A common sugar-based raw material is molasses, a residue of sugar refining processes of sugar beet or sugar cane. Others include sugar beet or sugar cane, fruits such as apples or grapes, and a wide range of plants (sorghum, agave, Jerusalem artichokes etc.). These are pressed, sieved, soaked or processed in a diffuser to extract a sugary juice.

it requires a lot of energy and produces substantial amounts of methanol (wood alcohol) during fermentation - Reaction One mole of sucrose is converted into four moles of ethanol and four moles of carbon dioxide: Invertase* (Enzyme) 1. sugars. It then passes through cookers. Temperature: 36ºC. vitamins) Additional factors: growth factors. Mg sources water. Growth factors: can be provided in the form of molasses.It is carried out in fermenter. As starch cannot ferment directly. a process is required. sawdust and residues from paper factories is transformed into sugar through acid hydrolysis. Step 4: Distillation :. Corn. CELLULOSE: Wood. to form clear drops of distilled spirits. attachment proteins. where the heat liquefies the starch and the enzymes start to break it down into sugars. The mash is then cooled and pumped to a fermenter. lipid. the grain particles and some of the congeners in the boiling vessel. 2. pH: 4. H. tapioca and potatoes. N. rye or rice and tubers such as manioc. Step 2: Mashing:.0. Macronutrients (C.The alcohol.The starch (Using enzyme i. can be controlled by cooling jacket. maize/corn. woodcuttings. amino acids. S. C12H22O11 +H2O Zymase* C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 2C6H12O6 . where it is mixed with water and the enzyme alpha-amylase. Step 3: Fermentation:. With the addition of yeast to the sugar. is ground into a fine powder and fed into a mashing system. The vaporized alcohol is then cooled or condensed.8-5. Temp. which is mixed with pure water and cooked. P. the yeast multiplies producing carbon dioxide which bubbles away and a mixture of alcohol. for example. The sugar is converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide by the addition of yeast. water and congeners are heated.The raw material is ground into a coarse meal. leaving the water. * (Enzyme)  Composition of Fermentation Medium Fermentation medium consists of: • • • • • • • • Process: Step 1: Milling:. particles and congeners. grain particles. e. etc) Carbon sources: Substrate or Raw Material (pure sugar or crude sugars/molasses 10-18%). While this is an effective process with considerable potential in its own right. or the elements which create flavour to each drink. Amylase) is converted to sugar. This produces a mash. Nitrogen sources: Mostly available in the form of ammonium sulphate. transport proteins. The alcohol vaporizes first. The process breaks down the protective hull covering the raw material and frees starch. salt minerals) Micronutrients (trace elements/ metals.- STARCH: Includes cereals like wheat.