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2007 Biology Paper 3-Question 2 Anaerobic respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose in the

absence of oxygen. Yeast can carry out anaerobic respiration in a glucose solution. Glucose  Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy The rate of anaerobic respiration is affected by several factors such as temperature, pH values and nutrients. Based on the above information and equation, design a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast. The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects:  Problem statement  Aim of investigation  Hypothesis  Variables  List of apparatus and materials  Technique used  Experimental procedure or method  Presentation of data  Conclusion

ANSWER :1. Aim of investigation To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast. 2. Problem statement What is the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast)? 3. Hypothesis The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast). 4. Variables Manipulated variable: Temperature Responding variable: Rate of anaerobic respiration//No of bubbles released//Time taken for lime water to turn chalky. Fixed variable: Volume/concentration of yeast suspension/glucose/pH/Time taken 5. Apparatus: Boiling tube, Manometer/Capillary tube, Water bath//Beaker + thermometer, Stopwatch, Marker/thread, Rubber stopper, Ruler, Rubber tubing, Retort stand, measuring cylinder

Result: Draw a table 9. Place the boiling tube with 15 cm3 of glucose solution in a beaker at 20oC for 5 minutes. Procedure : 1. 2. 4. Paraffin oil (Yeast & Glucose – must have) 6. 6. 5. 3. Repeat step l. The higher the temperature. . 5 and 6 by placing the boiling tubes in a water bath at temperatures of 30oC. the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast. Conclusion: Hypothesis is accepted. Plot a graph of rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast against temperature. 7. 3. Add 15 cm3 of yeast suspension into the boiling tube. Glucose solution. 8. Precaution : 1. Ensure the temperature is stablised at the fixed temperature before taking the reading if the height of the coloured liquid//counting the number of bubbles released. 9. 4. 7. 8. Mark the initial height of coloured liquid in manometer. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air tight //Repeat the experiment for each temperature to get average readings. Record all data in a table. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer after 10 minutes. Technique Using a ruler to record the change in height of the colored liquid/Record the number of bubbles released (after 10 minutes) using a stopwatch //Calculating the rate of anaerobic respiration (in yeast) by using the formula : Number of bubbles / Change in height Time taken //Take and record the time taken for the lime water to turn chalky using a stopwatch. Set up the apparatus as shown in diagram. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air tight //Repeat the experiment for each temperature to get average readings. 40oC and 50oC. 2.Material : Yeast suspension / Yeast.

Explain why the athlete carries out these actions. b) Human Fish Organ Human’s respiratory structure is the Fish’s respiratory structure is the gills lungs Habitat Human lives on land Fish lives in the water Function Lungs do not need a medium to function Gills need flow of water through the gills for gaseous exchange Adaptation Human lungs have a lot of alveoli and Water is drank in and flows through covered with a large network of blood the gills for absorption of oxygen to capillaries. He draws a deep breath several times to oxidize lactic acid that has been accumulated and pays back the oxygen debt. water and energy and 5/6 of the lactic acid is converted back to glucose. A sudden decrease in temperature will cause the accumulation of lactic acid and muscles pain/cramp. His leg muscles are painful due to muscle fatigue. He walks freely so that his muscles take time to oxidize 1/6 of lactic acid to carbon dioxide. Compare and explain the adaptations. Gaseous exchange occur by blood capillaries which are cross diffusion through the alveoli linked with the filaments of gills. Then water flows out through the operculum and absorbs carbon dioxide from the blood capillaries to the water to be released Characteristics Total surface area is big with 700 Has thin epithelial wall of gill million alveoli/ many alveoli to increase filaments to facilitate diffusion of total surface area for diffusion gases. gill filaments to facilitate diffusion The alveolus is well supplied by blood and transportation of the gas capillaries to facilitate diffusion and transportation of the gases. Thin alveolar wall which helps in the Many plate like projections (lamella) diffusion of gases. . Answer a) The athlete wears a track suit so that there is no sudden decrease in temperature in his muscles. The athlete then carries out the following actions. at gill filaments to increase the total The wall of the alveolus is moist surface area for diffusion whereby respiratory gases can dissolve A network of blood capillaries in the in it. · Wears a track suit · Takes a few long deep breaths · Walks freely as a ‘cooling down’ activity. b) Human and fish respiratory systems are adapted to function in their respective habitats.2004 Biology SPM SAMPLE ANSWERS a) An athlete has just completed a 400 metre track event.