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J Soc.½osm, t. Gh•m.

22 43-60 (1971) ¸

1971Society of Cosmetic Chemists of GreatBritain

Guar gum and its applications
R. J. CHUDZIKOWSKI*
Presented at theSymposium on "Gumsand Thickeners", organisedby the Society of CosmeticChemistsof Great Britain, at Oxford, on 15th October1969.

Synopsis--The SOURCES and industrial PROCESSING of GUAR GUM are reviewed. An account is given of its CHEMICAL reactionsand the changesin PHYSICAL preparations which accompanythem. Somepitfalls in the utilization of guar gumsresulting mainly from their high rate of ABSORPTION of water are discussedtogether with TECHNIQUES for avoiding such problems. INTRODUCTION

There seems to be a semanticambiguity about the very term "gums". According to the originaldefinition whichmeant broadly"plant exudates", the term encompassed alsovariousresins,rubber latex, etc. The present definition of "gums"is somewhat narrower andmorespecific. It comprises all materialsthat can be dissolved or dispersed in water to form more or lessviscous colloidalsolutions or dispersions. Whicheverdefinitionwe accept,it appears that "gums"havebeenused in industryand commerce since the beginning of civilization.According to the Bible, myrrh and frankincense accompanied gold at the Manger.Gums were alsousedby the ancientEgyptians for embalmingthe dead and for glueing together strips of clothing for binding mummies. In different application again gum arabic was for them a convenient adhesive for mineralpigments in paint formulations. Likewise,gumswereusedas food andfor medicinal purposes by manycivilizations, up to the present day (1). Until recently, however, the useof gumswasrestricted to a relativelylow
*Rimreel Manufacturing Company Ltd., Ashford, Kent.
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undemandingand well adapted to mechanicalplanting and harvesting.C.in 1953anothermajor manufacturer(Stein. and the American paper industry began to look for possible replacements. Guar gum is one of the outstanding representativesof that new generationof plant gums. as may be seenfrom Table I comparing production of moreimportantwater soluble gumsin 1963(4). are: Guartec.has broughtabout revolutionarychanges. and of limited quality and property range. It has beengrownfor severalthousandyears in India and Pakistan as a vegetable.).). to which guar gum is closely related. called Guar.A. Cairo.) entered the market (3). Inc. Inc.have the rangeof their properties immensely increased. It has been found fairly easy to cultivate. guar gum is big business in the U. nr. and.the first guar gum to Americanindustry (2).Paisley Inc. It is interestingto learn that someGuar seeds have even been found in the recently excavatedPharaoh Zoser'stomb in Sakkarah. Penguar(S.S.and a forage crop. organicpolymers has yieldedthe whole classof new.S.and in its characteristicarrangementof pods along the vertical stem. Penick & Co. psoraloides). only about 1940 that guar became a commercialreality. by undergoing various physicaland chemicalmodifications have their quality improved. at the beginningof this century and grown there in experimental stations in the semi-arid south west {South Texas and Arizona). The guar plant is about 0. introduced .amongothers. T.44 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS numberof items.5 cmlongandcontainonthe average5-6 round. B.S.I. as a result. Guargum(MeerCorpora- .droughtresistantplant.The podsare 5-12.Only the last decade. The more important brands in the U.A.It was.Hall & Co. Guar gum was found to be a suitableone and. new plantationsof guar bean began to springup and in 1942 General Mills Inc. however. Some gum bearing plants have begun to be cultivated on a commercial scale. belonging to the family Leguminosae. or so. The successof that introduction and an increasing demand have naturally attracted followers and .6 m high.). or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus or C.experimentally . The plant was brought to the U.). "Starguar" (Morningstar . Now.Arearexand "SuperCol"(GeneralMills Inc. Finally. the creationof new. light brown seeds. and resembles soyabean plant in general appearance. syntheticgums. The war causedshortages in supply of locust bean gum.Hall & Co. "Jaguar" series(Stein.Many natural gums are now treated.randomlyharvested.A. Guar Gum {Tragacanth Importing Corp. Its sourceis an annual pod-bearing.).

This is so calledcommercial"guar flour" and it may be usedwithout further processing. are passedrapidly through a flame and thus loosened. Inc.1 2. (Messrs. and rate of hydration.4. in the U.0 10.brownishseeds.0 proteins Phosphorus 0.0 1.K. in Switzerland (MeyhallChemical AG .0 7.viscosity potential.to the writer'sknowledge . Switzerland.0 3. Wirral. "Guartec and Supercol" of GeneralMills Inc.8 tion) and severalothers.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 45 Table I Production t Market value $ x 106 5. the size of a small pea.Kreuzlingen.2 7.7 Gum Arabic Gum karaya Locust bean gum Psyllium seed Gum tragacanth Guar gum 21. Cheshire)and "Meypro-Guar" of Stein..) The general outline of the manufacturing procedure is as follows: After having been removedfrom their pods the spherical.5 .6 26.07 .06 Ash 1.hard seed hulls are then removed in a scouringor "pearling" operation.67 corresponding with 3. Hall & Co.The decorticated.0 8.there are the followingbrands available: "Guaranate" series made by Socidtd Fran9aise des Colloides and American brands. Hooton.except for heat treatment to inactivate enzymes contained in occasional fragmentsof a seedgerm. vitreouslookingendosperm is separated from its germ in a milling operationand the resulting"splits" are then ground to the requiredmeshsize. In Europe.0 1.Variousgradesare available depending on colour(whiteto greyish). manufactured by their subsidiaries. TragasolProducts Ltd.e.meshsize.2 5.i. THE CHEMISTRY OF GUAR GUM The chemicalanalysisof guar flour showsthe following typical composition: To Nitrogen 0..

For instance.e. Examples: alfalfa. linked together by • {1--•4)glycoside linkages. thegums differ somewhat in their structure.50 The solvent extracted fraction consists mainlyof a fatty matterwhile the waterinsoluble fractioncontains proteins andcrude fibres.75 {from24 h Soxhletextraction) 1. and formation of tolyl sulphonyl-derivatives. or by paperchromatography. where they serveas foodreserve.and locust beangumsis that the formeris richerin D-galactose groups (1:2) thanthelatter(1:4). i. The absence of uronic aciddifferentiates this polysaccharide fromthe great majorityof plant gumsandmucilages. andhaving onapproximately every alternate mannose a single D-galactose unit. Various methodshave been used. periodate oxidation.apartfrom some pentosans. obtainable frommanyof theLeguminosae plants' seeds. physical: by study ofoptical rotation. and X-ray analysis of filmsof pure galactomannanand its acetate. a galactomannan (5).especially cold. locust bean {carob. stress-strain measurement. andtraces of proteinaceous matter.It is composed basically of a straight chain of D-mannose units.6%D-galactose anhydride.clover. Chemical: acidhydrolysis with subsequent identification of the components by their osazones.46 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS Water sol. the chiefdifference between guar. identifies it asa polymer of D-galactose andD-mannose. polysaccharide Water insoluble fraction Alcohol sol. The watersoluble polysaccharide fraction is composed .more easily . fraction 86.1ø/0 mannose anhydride. infra-red spectrography. Thechemical structure ofthisgalactomannan hasbeen thesubject of a great deal of study (6-8). and63. the best known. 1). Thisaccounts among others forguar gum being more readily soluble in water. methylation. The guar gum molecule is a linear. Thematerial alsocontains between10-13% moisture. biological: by means of selective enzyme hydrolysis. Also. as1-•6glycosidic linksarefairlyeasily hydrolysed by acids. guargumbeing richer in galacrose hashigher acid stability thanrelatively poorer (1:4) .fenugreek and.or highlyanisodimensional carbohydrate polymerwith a molecular weight onthe order of 220000 {9). The composition thusfound.i. Theconclusions drawn fromthose various studies bymany independent investigators are in substantial agreement.50 7. This polysaccharide is representative of a groupof galactomannan gums.) Although closely related chemically.e. etc.entirely of approximately 36.joined to it by an a (1-•6) glycoside linkage {Fig.

S.S.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 47 •HzOH C. and borax solutions. It is obtained from seeds of Fenugreek plant (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) (10).They are whitish powders.Varioustreatmentsareinstrumental in developing functionalcharacteristics that make this gum versatileand usefulin a variety of industrial . which after autoclavingto destroypossibleenzymesis freed from the insoluble part by centrifugation (supercentrifuge. "stripped" locust bean gum. particle size.the galactomannan is then precipitatedin various fractionsby the gradualadditionof ethyl alcohol. From suchclarifiedmucilage. which fairly rapidly losesits viscosityin acidicmedia.)and on account of that and their otherbeneficial properties are usedextensively in the AmericanFood Industry.The "natural" galactomannan grades. They meet the requirements of the U. rate of hydrationand viscosity potential.with bland taste. Further processing of crudeguarflour consists of preparinga mucilage. Further possible processing of guar gum depends on chemical modifications.A. Food and Drug Administration (G.differ mainly in their purity. but with relatively little nutritionalvalue.There existsa galactomannan whichis evenricherin galactose than guargum.andhascorrespondingly differentproperties.H•OH H OH [ Figure 1. edible. Those fractions are then filtered.6N NaOH. 40 000 rev min-1).R. dried. Guar gum may be identifiedamongothersby its perfect solubilityin cold water resultingin a viscous sol which gives a gel-like complex with 23 Fehling.dispersion properties. and exhibits specific rotation {a) • q-60in 0. milled and blended to a desired gradeto meet a wide variety of industrialprocess and productneeds.

Like in the caseof PVA borate ion co-ordinates with 4 hydroxyl groupsof two chain molecules.is the reaction involving borateions.formsviscous aqueous solutions that are stable to strongly alkalinereagents(1). and can be cast into strong. In accordance with tiffs. Carboxyalkyland cyanoalkyl ethersare anotherexampleof functional modifications. Furthermore. Perhaps the mostcharacteristic.however. resultingin a di-diol complex.with properties comparable with those of cellulose acetate. that hydrogen bondingprovidesa better explanation for the forces involvedin tiffs cross-linking action.to a variety of chemicalreactions. This reaction will proceed evenat extremely low concentration of both galactomannan and borateions.like in cellulose . andimportant. and Cr have the same gel forming capacity at certain pH levels. e. It is now thought. There are a host of chemical processes involving galactomannans some of thempatented .designed to endow thenaturalgums with a variety of desired properties . does not reduce those polysaccharides even on prolonged boiling. ½omplexing reactions areworthmentioning astheyleadto cross linking of the molecules resulting in a three dimensional networkwhichmanifests itselfin gelformation. o-carboxymethyl derivative. Among others.g.48 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS applications.obtainedby reactingthe galactomannan with aceticanhydride in pyridine. The simplest change isby varyingthe degree of polymerization by controlledhydrolysis which is the meansof controlling viscosity. Alkoxylationwith ethyleneor propylene oxidesis alsoeasilycarried out producingthe corresponding ethers. the abundanceof hydroxyl groupsin the galactomannan moleculelendsitself . for instance.An insoluble. Salts of Ca. A1. 2 (3).Thesereactions arenotpeculiarto galactomannans. The addition .for instance. the followingis suggested as a more likely representation of the guar cross-linked molecule {Fig. flexible films. They canbeeasily esterified.preparedby reacting galactomannan with chloroacetic acid . beingcharacteristic of linear molecules having an abundance of adjacent hydroxylgroups in cis positions.is insoluble in water. The complexing reaction of polyvinyl alcoholwith borax is an example. Fehling's solution. resulting in a varietyofinteresting compounds. $). gel-like complexis formedinstead. Guar triacetate . copper salts form complexes with galactomannans.including anionic and cationic(galactomannans are neutral and nonionicin character). This reactionhas traditionallybeen represented by Fig.

and then alkalis to givean alkalinepH . Anotherinteresting phenomenon occurs when the gum. in powder form.5-10. and the sol-gd-sol sequence may be repeatedas often as desired. is introduced into an alkaline borated solution. Guar • • pH >•8-0 '• ' H•C•OH • Hydrated Guar sol (pH •7.the gumwill disperse easily.0 Guar gel (pH•8-0) • •0 / •0 • of as little as 0.and show no syneresis...25% galactomannan solution.In general.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 49 Guar Binate ion Guar Crosslinked .they are rubbery masses which exhibit cold flow properties.05% borax (based on solution weight) at alkalinepH is sufficient to fully gel a 0.These gels may (Hydrogenbondingshown by .however.0 ) HO•C•H • pH• 7. coalesce readily after beingsubjected to shear. This reactionis completely reversible.the optimum beingbetween 7.5. Hydrogen bonded cross-linkedguar havesomewhat differentproperties depending on the gum gradeand concentrationused. The gelscan alsobe formedby adding boric acid. butcan be.nor develop viscosity.but will neither hydrate. This inhibitingactioncanbe overcome by simplylowering the . easily reconverted to thesolformby simply addingenough acid to adjustthe pH to lessthan pH7.) Figure 3. They remain essentially stable for long periodsof time at alkaline pH. Under these condi- tions.

to be easilydispersed in water. hot or cold. What is evenmoreremarkable.in fact with a very few exceptions (e. whileothergums(including the relatedlocust bean galactomannan) requiresometimes prolonged "cooking". They eitherutilize an oxidising catalystto activatethe complexing mechanism in a two-stepprocedure. An interesting useof someof the properties of boratedgalactomannans is madein a patent (11) for hair straightening composition with sulphites.that is. manages to keepin the desiredshapethe sulphitesoftened hair. The powderis initially slur fled into an alkalineboratedsolution. especially with not very efficient equipment. Thisphenomenon may be utilisedasa way of dispersing guarcontaining products. The resulting solution wets the hair easilyand conveniently and after a while develops high viscosity (of the orderof $ 500 cP) which. or are "one step" and entirely self complexing types. fats.galactomannans hydrate rapidly to form colloidalsolutions of unusually high viscositycharacteristics even at very low concentrations. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GUAR SOLS Galactomannans are insolublein hydrocarbons. ketones . water-tight gels(2. Guar gum gradesare alsoavailablepossessing gellingproperties based on a principle entirely different from that of the borax/galactomannan system.g.they have tremendous affinity . that tend to lump.in that respect .for water in its liquid state .on accountof the structureof their molecule . alcohols.esters. The rationaleof this application is that suchboratedgumshavea very low initial rate of hydrationin acidicmediathus enabling the product. . and then develop into firm. whichis then neutralizedto promotehydration (3). When dispersed in water. The latter form solson dispersion. 3). Wate• in the vapour phasemerely changes the moistureequilibrium.The gum will then hydrate and developviscosity in the usual manner.in powderform . guargum attainsnearly its full viscosity potentialin coldwater. for which . or below. Table II indicating concentrations of various hydrocolloids required to producean apparent viscosityof 800 cP at 20øCshowsthat a brand of guar gum is .50 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS pH to 7. formamide)in organic solventsin general.a runner-upto Carbopol. There is no hygroscopicity. The only important solvent for galactomannans is water.aidedby combing.

3 (2SøC) 1.=- _J Figure4. affects the rate of hydration whichis greatly accelerated by increasing the temperature.-. visc. For example.) Carbopol934 0. Viscosity is often taken as a common denominator and performance indexin comparing different grades of guargum.) Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (high visc.T.) Jaguar brand of guar gum Methyl cellulose (1 $00 cP) Methyl cellulose (4 000 cP) Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (reed.7 0.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 51 Table Gum II. with a particular gradea degree of full viscosity development requiring 5 h at R. temperature. Viscositypotentialof some {common water solublegums. Coldprocessing. . is accomplished in about10min at the optimaltemperature of 80øC.•'• • sols Hydrofed 25øC Hydrofed 85øC 30 Measurernenfs o1' 25øC 20 10 0 2 .9 0.2-0. pH.7 1.17 5O 4O . however. visc.75 1.viz: concentration.35 1. •o (w/v) for 800 cP 2. Understanding their implications is of greathelpin formulating with guar gum or processing it.Thereare five variables that determine the pattern of viscosity development and the behaviour of a given guar gum gradein an aqueous system.-- . and presence of foreignsubstances (113).15 Tragacanth USP Sodium alginate (med. dispersion.

I00. . guar gum sols arethixotropic having.arestrongly dependent onshear rate. % Figure •. are not true structural gels. although forqualitative comparisons other methods like. Quantitativemeasurements are bestcarried outwitha torsion viscometer(e.forinstance. For comparing viscosities of guar gumsa "standard"concentration of 1. the incremental increases in the gum concentration resultin almostexponential increases in viscosity up to a concentration of about1. 5. guargums formjelly4ikepastes which. "Ford"cup.3 spindle at 20revmin-•).however.[ I00 Concen'l'rafion. It is essential to statethe method of measurement whilequoting viscosity. a relativelylow yieldvalue.000 1.000 .52 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS As can be seenfrom Fig.maybeemployed.0% (w/v) is usedas a rule.g.5%. Guargumsolution viscosities . In short.Syncro-Lectric typewith a No. Brook field RVF.however.in common with mostotherhydrocolloids . Variation of viscositywith concentration. At concentrations higherthan about3% (depending on a grade).andcanbemore properly described as"apparent viscosities".

the guar solschange their viscosity with temperature(Fig.g. 6). The effect of temperatureon the rate of hydration and the time to attain the full viscositypotentialhas already been discussed. e. the gum may be dissolved more readily in certain salt solutions than in water. etc. ascoldaspracticable. As all solutions. sugar. water leaking through a chancepuncturein a cartridgeis taken up by the gumto form a thick solwhichcompletely blocks the puncture to prevent further water entry. To effectsolution.glycerine. 60 On 5O 40 3O S01s prepared and ! '•e•ring fullyhydrated 20 _ temperature chencje 25* C before I I ß I I I -•o c• Io 2o 3o 40 50 o 7o Bo 9o Viscosity measurement temperature. As in most other hydrocolloids.The tremendous affinity for water possessed by guar gum is utilized industrially. glycols. It is usedas a "water sealer"in oil well drilling or in protectingexplosives from getting wet. with vigorous stirring. . badly dispersed lumps tend to become"encapsulated" with a hydrated layer preventing further water penetration.the gum must be thoroughlydispersed by sprinkling it ontowater.alcohol.On an industrial scalesifting througha screen or grid from the edgeof a shakertray or the use of an eductor are recommended. In the latter case.acetone. Finally.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 53 The prerequisitefor the sol formation is an efficientdispersion of the gum particlesin water.) beforeits additionto water. Other expedients to promotesolutionincludepremixingthe gum with other powderedsubstances. or dispersing it in pre-retardants (e. Measurementof temperature effect on fully hydrated sol. øc Figure 6. in solutions of sodiumof calciumchloride. e.g.g.

This knowledge is usefulin preparingsolutions of "difficult" formulationswhichcanbe easilydispersed in coldwater at pH 3. It is possible to preparefairly high viscosityguar gum solsat high pH valuesby first effectingtheir hydration at a neutral pH for 30-60 min and then adjustingthe pH with alkalis. They can also be maintainedat high temperatures for long periodsof time with practically no effecton their ultimate viscosity measured at roomtemperature.54 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS Compared. One of the characteristics of guar gum solutions is their stability over virtually the entire usablepH range.0 c• 2. and the practicalstabilityrangefrompH 4-10. Moreaffected by the pH is the rate of hydrationwhichagainis highest betweenthe pH valuesof 6-9 and the lowestat approximately 3. Viscosity of a guar gum as a function of pH value. They are completely unaffected by hard water. Its peak is between pH valuesof 7-9. This property is attributed to the nonioniccharacter of galactomannans. and will toleratelarge quantities of . and .if necessary . 3. With the exceptionof values over 10.5. however.heatingthe solution to 80øC.5. with the desired viscosity "released" by adjusting the pH to 8.5.with many other gums' solutionsthey exhibit excellentretention of viscosityat high temperatures. and the solution obtained speedily.? u 2.4 o u 2 $ 4 'õ 6 7 8 9 I0 I1 pH Figure 7. In the presence of strongalkalisthe viscosityfalls fairly sharply.although there is a suggestion that this may be due to destructionof the proteins which form a complexwith the carbohydrate polymer (1).5 the viscositypotential is not greatly affectedby pH. Anotherconsequence of the nonionic characterof guar gumsis the fact that their solutions are uncommonly resistantto electrolytes.

The explanationof the latter phenomenon seems to lie in the fact that the gum. This in turn may affecttheir properties e. Complexing with boron. say. salts like sodium sulphateinhibit hydration of the gum. This is generallyattributed to the presence and behaviourof numerous hydroxyl groups. however. the inhibitors preferentiallytake it up.and dispersed.that rapidly deprivethe gum of water causing the former'sprecipitation.asin saltsforminghydrates . On the other hand. chromiumand other salts have already beendiscussed.It has alreadybeenmentioned that sodiumand calciumchloridesolutionspeed up guar gum hydration without affectingviscosity. Another important property of guar gum explaininga great deal of its behaviouris its hydrogen bondingactivity.the stronger the inhibiting effect.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 55 electrolytesthat will "salt out" most of the other gums. This effectis then negated by dilutionuponwhichthe gum'shydrationproceeds normally (13). Although nonionic in nature.acetoneor glycerine.The stronger the affinityof the saltfor water. resultin a product that exhibitsan unusual effecton otherhydratedcolloidal systems through hydrogen bonding.aluminium. This also explainsincompatibilityof the gum with water misciblesolventslike alcohol. however. The understandingof thesefacts also supplies a rationalefor empiricallyevolved methodsof dispersing the gum using dry mixing techniques with.and in large quantitiesmay cause its precipitation.not only accelerates the rate of hydration. it can be saidthat guar gum in appreciable quantities .Sodiumbenzoate. rate of hydration and ultimate viscosity.but alsoconsiderably increases viscosityof the resultingsolution. • As a broadrule.the gumparticles may acquire an ionic chargeby absorbing other ionsfrom solution.that there is no singlerule as there exist severalmanners of interactionbetweenthe gum and the dissolved substance.andthe dissolved substance.The addition of even extremelysmall quantities of guargumcanmarkedlyalter the electrokinetic properties of the system treated. Because guargumwill hydrogen bondto both. when in contact with water. or wetting out with alcohol.copper.The basic straight chain structureof the galactomannan molecule. arecompeting for water.g. depress viscosity. there are few systemswhich will be unaffected by its action.along with the regularityof the single membered galactose branches. slowinghydration of the gum and allowingit to become thoroughly wetted. sugar.Apart from mechanicallyseparatingthe particles.acetoneor glycerine. It must be borne in mind.hydrated mineral and organic surfaces.

and this property has beenutilized in some industries (e. subjectto microbiological deterioration.meansthat cautionmust be exercised when usingguar gum solution for pigmentsuspension. however.the excellent compatibilityof guar gum solutions with other hydrocolloids.Textile sizings. starches.A smallamountof guargum solutionaddedbreaksup agglomerated cellulose pulp fibres and disperses them uniformly in the pulp slurry.pectin.use such temporary films for protectionof fibresduring the weavingprocess. however.mining)whereguargumis employed asa flocculant. settlingagent. and other water solubleproteins.and stabilities than either ingredient alone.togetherwith its relatively low yield value . like agar. cellulose derivatives. This property.gums karaya and tragacanth.56 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS will act as dispersant for organicsystems.there is evidence that in many instancesthere is a distinctly synergisticaction. especially thosewith functional hydroxyl groups.which resultsin a lossof viscosityas the first tangiblemanifestation and in a loweringof the pH value. alginates. Thereare.British gum. If unpreserved. gelatin. The hydrogen bondingphenomena explain. guar gum solutionshouldbe usedwithin 24 h. exhibitmuchhigher viscosities. Hydrogen bonding also explainswhy guar gum is such an excellent beateradditivein the processing of paperpulp. carrageenan.1). Solutionsof most guar gum gradescan be dried to form flexible films which resistmost organicsolvents. Combination of guar with agar or carrageen promotes formationof a structuralgel.g.5-6. gumarabic. It is not only a questionof compatibility. Somederivatives producewater resistantfilms.amongothers.in particular for thosewith "clay" characteristics. Co-solutions of several of those hydrocolloids (e.locustbeangum. In extremelysmallquantitiesguar gum tends to act as a flocculantfor both inorganic and organic systems.g. and filtration aid.as are the other natural hydrocolloids. well suitedfor that purpose {15). In the foodindustry sodiumbenzoateand sorbicand benzoicacidsare most commonlyusedfor that purpose. and if sterile are perfectly stablein storage. Guar solutions have slightly acidicreaction(pH 5.but which readily redissolvein water or aqueoussolutions.and as a coagulantfor inorganicones.They are.starches) with guar. guar triacetate being the most prominent example.for instance. Should its usebe delayedpreservatives must be employed.availableanionic gradesof guar.Other industries may successfully .

The industry tendsto be shy of materialsnot createdspecifically for its use. stable.due to its uniquecombination of properties it hasproved to be a valuableaid in a multitude of industrial applications. however.In the textile industryit alsoserves as a pigmentdispersing aid.not the case. and many other applications. In the pharmaceutical industry. porcelain.etc. and as an ingredient in paints. cheese spreads. It has also suchmiscellaneous usesas a thickener for battery electrolytes. and in gastriculcer treatment. lollipopsand sherbets. safeand cheap. in bakery productsand confections.and phenyl ruercurie acetate. and slowto translate to its benefit the experience of other industries.mining and food. substituted phenols. On accountof its hydrophilic propertyand the ability to form bulky. untroubled by pH changes and the presence of salts.with a widerangeof compatibilities.nontoxic. excellent cold solubility. The ceramicindustry also usessizeablequantities of guar gum as a binder. . ice creams. wouldbe immediately accepted by the cosmetic industry.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 57 use formaldehyde.apart from as a dispersant and suspending agent .also for sizingand coating. In the food industry it is widely usedin salad dressings. lauryl sarcosinate. and aboveall as a thickeningagent for colourprinting pastesfor whichuseit is unsurpassed.adhesives and polishes.printinginks. a solventresistantfilm former.Indeed. protectivecolloid. This is. It is alsousedin liquid dieteticpreparations asa low caloriethickenerto improve their mouth feel. GUAR GUM IN THE COSMETIC INDUSTRY It would appear that a raw material endowed with sucha variety of usefulproperties. body and pour characteristics. jelly-like masses. meats and sausages. it is used in appetitedepressants as a bulking agentin laxatives. thickenerand fixing agentfor enamels. In the paperindustryit is further used. a formidable viscosity builderwith an unusual. paper and textile. USES OF GUAR GUM Table I shows that guar gum is used in massive proportions in industry.asdiverseas alreadymentioned.dry guar gum is usedas a disintegrant andin solutionas a binder in compressed tablets manufacture(14).

stable emulsion was. successfully. When mineral oil was replacedby ShellsolT the resultingemulsionwas film forming. althoughmost guar gum manufacturers recommend its use in cosmetics in general.as a protectivecolloid. It lendsitself perfectlyto be usedin emulsified systems: creams and lotions.58 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS This may alsobe true because. Excellent hair colourants were also prepared usingguargumsolution as thickener. An excellent. etc.For instance. prepared in the cold adding30-40% mineraloil into a 10% solution of polyvinylalcohol(80% hydrolysis low molecular weight) under vigorous stirringand then adding3% guargum solutionand mixingto uniformity. whereit stabilizes the system. Guar gum solutions are compatible and mix well with mostdetergent systems (shampoos. cleansers. In use.and the content of this paper will help them in solving.Dry facemask mixeswereeasilyand conveniently preparedusingguargum plus additives which in suchsystemmay even be heat. It alsopreventsdegradation of emulsion due to freeze-thaw conditions whichcausethe water phaseto condense out of the system. It is hoped that these few exampleswill stimulate the interest of cosmeticformulators. the mixesneedonly to be stirredinto a sufficiency of cold or tepid water (half a cupful)to produce a rich creamypaste. Similarly it is usedin someshaving creams. water loss.and improves facial skin after feel (16). Guar gum is usedon a sizeable scalein the manufacture of tooth paste to whichit impartsslip.increasing emulsionstability.and moisture-sensitive. for instance. impartsslip in extrusion and on the skin.while shaving.and phaseseparation.) givingthem "body" and abolishing or minimizingtheir harsh after feel. Self-emulsifying gradesof guar gum are also available. used in an ordinary TriethanolamineStearate type lotion it gives it a stableviscosity. so that the pastecan be extrudedfrom the tube without applyingexcessive pressure.owing to its ready compatibility-guar gum solutions can be usedin conjunction with other gumsendowed with emulsifying properties. Although not an emulsifier . (Received: 18thAugust1969) . concreteinformation is scarce as are patentsand availableformulations. In aerosols dispensing aqueous liquid preparations as a sprayor mist it is said to reducemigrationof "fog" (16). the ensuing problems. preventing syneresis. improvedspreadability and impartsto it an agreeable after feel associated with bestquinceseedformulatedlotions.

(GeneralMills Inc.and in my experienceit has proved quite compatible with all polyols used in cosmeticsup to a level of approx. and Montgomery. W. L. MXDDOX:Natural gums such as tragacanth are often highly contaminated with bacteria and as a result products containing them are difficult to preserve. C. judging from its properties. Z.A. can you give someidea of the bacterial count? THE LECTURER:It should not be contaminated in this way.70 2249 {1948). Chem. Swanson. Ahmed. (Reinhold Publishing Corp. Am.S. THE LECTURER:I do not know which companies are concerned as I have that information from the guar gum manufacturers' handout. E. Bulletin 1 GF-5 Supercol Guar Gum . because one of the processes which the natural guar gum undergoesis autoclaving. G.). "Gums. Am. 1962). N. I am not aware of any major U. J. E.16 50 (10. They just state categorically that a few leading American companies use guar gum as a hydrocolloid in their toothpastes. Encyclopaediaof Chemical Technology. toothpaste brand which relies on guar gum thickener. M.9.creams and the like . This expedient is directed not so much against the bacteria. Assoc. I-Ieyne. Chem. (Stein. Soc.Pract. Ziegenfuss. (1962). W. Chem. Kirk and Othmer. R. Pharm. Drug Standards. and Whistler. and Meer. DISCUSSION MR. 5%. J. Jr. guar gum would seem very useful because of its relatively high yield value. and Smith. J. R. P. W. P. G. Gerding. Natural Plant Hydrocolloids. 71 1510 {1945). Am. However. "Guartec" (1963). D. J. WATSON:In reply to the statement that guar is used in several leading dentifrices in the U. Natural" by M. quick shear recovery and generally good compatibility. (September. F. W. Moer.A. 401. You probably know better but..). Soc. 42-47 (19SS). 1962). Am.Cosmeticand Pharmaceutical Uses. if so.. $chimmel Brief No.){1954) Brit.Roy L. Rafique.4684 (1950). Compatability and manipulation of guar gum. ?9.8 No. I have not tried it in toothpaste systems. J. "Jaguar".). 1968). J. Eherton. MR. neither have we found the Jaguar products fully satisfactory. L. Eileen and Whistler.J. Gliksman. New York). and that has struck me as being feasible. as against the enzymes which could have . Soc. Food Technol. "Guar Gum. A.Soc. Inc.GUAR GUM AND ITS APPLICATIONS 59 REFERENCES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) {9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) Smith. D. Platz. 2. M. (General Mills Inc. 10 (1966). Chem.. J. Chemistry of plant gumsand mucilages (1959). Is guar gum normally contaminated and. Pat 1 076 420. Am. I wish to state that we have not succeededin making satisfactory toothpastesbecauseof its incompatibility with glycerine.S. F. Whistler.Soc. P.F. Am. and Cosgrove. Perturner 77 49 {4.E. and Sperandio. Hall & Co. F. A. C. A. t5 856 {1954) Carlson. Am. Chem. Ed. J. and Overton. I have tried guar gum in various emulsifiedsystems.2524 {1950).?9. Locust Bean Gum and Others" {Advances in Chemistry Seriet11. Roy L.

I wish to emphasisethat guar gum is widely used in the food industry where the microbiologicalconsiderationsare certainly important. very few guar formulations need to contain borax to achieve the viscosity potential. N. . Coupled with the hydrogen bonding effect this would give two reasonsfor viscosity. Quite a few authors also postulate the ramification of the chains. MR. R. and further changes which may occur in processing.or rather their germs. which incidentally has an interesting property of increasing its viscosity. being compatible with sodium benzoate. •BUSF•ELD: It seemsto be widely assumedthat a lot of guar formulations contain borax.R: You are perfectly right. GREINER:Could you clarify that the "viscosity potential" figures in pages 50 and 51 are for pure guar gum or are there additives. M. 5). The existenceof short branched chains of galaclose rather than units on the mannose chain is said to explain quite a few anomalies (1.at the same time .consequently it has been assumedthat they are in the formula in the proportion of roughly 1:2. This possibly may account for some of the rheological effects in that if the chains are longer than one molecule units there will be some entanglement of the branches in the solution. and has been arrived at by the way of quantitative analysis which gives about •6% of galacloseand 63% of mannose. and Heyneetal (5) comment on that. LECTURER:This concernsnatural guar gum. and that . to get rid of them. First of all. The order of viscosities averages 5 000 cP. and with benzoic and sorbic acids.The germscontain enzymes which tend to depolymerise the galactomannan. It is easy to preserve. MR. such as borax in the product cited? T•F. G. for a 1% solution. the proportions notwithstanding.probably takes care of the bacteria as well.and may possibly account for the pseudothixotropic effect. In the literature it has been reported that perhaps the structure of guar gum is not as simple as you put it in the paper. DR. LERoux: Would you like to comment further about the synergistic effect of guar gum with other hydrocolloids? T}m LEcx'•mE•: I have no experienceof that. Both Smith et al (1). This has led to an idealised picture but all investigators agree that this is not as simple as that. rather than single D-galactose units positioned at regular intervals on every other D-mannose molecule. It must be realised that the formula quoted is an idealised one. I would like to discount this belief because. A. ID. Would you care to comment? T• LF_c. and one of the common beliefs is that the structure consistsof short chains of D-galactose units randomly positionedalong the D-mannose chain. the preservatives most frequently used in the food industry.60 JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF COSMETIC CHEMISTS crept into the flour from the seeds. the standard procedureis to autoclave the bulk. the distribution of side chains may vary according to the natural process(•s occurringin the forming of the galactomannan. A.in fact.ut•.