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Fasting Blood Sugar

A fasting blood sugar (FBS) level is one of the tests used to diagnose diabetes mellitus (another being the oral glucose tolerance test). In a person with symptoms of osmotic diuresis and an elevated fasting blood sugar level, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is usually made. The fasting blood sugar is determined by taking a sample of venous blood after an overnight fasting. The sugar level is then evaluated in the blood sample.

VDRL test: A blood test for syphilis (VDRL stands for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) that detects an antibody that is present in the bloodstream when a patient has syphilis. A negative (nonreactive) VDRL is compatible with a person not having syphilis, but in the early stages of the disease, the VDRL often gives false negative results. Conversely, a false positive VDRL can be encountered in infectious mononucleosis, lupus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hepatitis A, leprosy, malaria and, occasionally, pregnancy.

Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Other bacteria in the same genus cause the diseases yaws and bejel, which are transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact or sharing of drinking vessels. T. pallidum has a characteristic helical shape, and is a member of the Spirochete family of bacteria. However, not all helical bacteria are Spirochetes: • Spirilla, the majority of which are saprophytes • Spiroplasma, including mycoplasmas • Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter • Spirochetes, a group of five genera, very widespread in nature and found in the fresh waters, of which only the first three are pathogenic for humans: ◦ Treponema

therefore. Disease may also affect the values of hemoglobin. At higher altitudes there is less oxygen in the air. resulting in a decrease in red cell counts and hemoglobin values. The formation of hemoglobin takes place in the developing red cells located in bone marrow. Changes in altitude affect the oxygen content of the air and. Above-normal hemoglobin values may occur when dehydration develops. or hemoglobinometry. iron deficiency anemia may drop hemoglobin values from a normal value of 14 grams per 100 milliliters to 7 grams per 100 milliliters. This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells. the hemoglobin concentration also falls. and altitude. also affect hemoglobin values. sex. Since hemoglobin is contained in red cells. . At lower altitudes there is more oxygen. causing the red cell count to fall. During pregnancy. For example. Hemoglobin determination. gains in body fluids cause the red cells to become less concentrated. The hematocrit is almost always ordered as part of a complete blood count. Hemoglobin's main function in the body is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and to assist in transporting carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. resulting in an increase in red cell counts and hemoglobin values. disease. Hemoglobin values are affected by age. is the measurement of the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. pregnancy. HEMOGLOBIN DETERMINATION A routine test performed on practically every patient is the hemoglobin determination.◦ Borrelia ◦ Leptospira ◦ Spirocheta Cristispira Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells.

Base – supports burner . In this lab you will learn how to light and adjust a burner flame and to locate the hottest part of the flame. Burners come in a variety of designs but most operate on the principle of mixing gas with air to produce a hot flame. Parts of the Bunsen Burner: • Barrel – where gas and air are mixed • Collar – adjust the air intake • Air intake openings – air enters here • Gas Flow Valve – regulates flow of gas (can also be controlled from table gas valve) • Gas intake tube – gas enters burner from table source.Background: Often a chemist needs to heat materials. F. The Bunsen Burner is one of the most efficient ways of doing this.