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Frontier of Environmental Science March 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, PP.

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Ammonia Removal in Different Depth of Vertical Flow Wetland under Different Preaeration Time
Hao Wang#, Jianwei Chen
College of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan, P.R. China. E-mail: wanghao1689@gmail.com

Abstract
In this paper, the pre-aeration, activated carbon and anthracite filler vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland simulation system was described. The main changes under different pre-aeration time and hydraulic loading were discussed in the vertical flow wetland system on NH3-N removal effect. When ammonia nitrogen concentration changed under hydraulic loading of 0.064 m3 / (m2•d) and preaeration time of 10 minutes, the removal effect of ammonia reached the best. Keywords: Vertical Flow Wetland; Hydraulic Loading Rate; Preaeration Time; Ammonia Nitrogen

1 INTRODUCTION  
Vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland, whose treatment effect on nitrogen and phosphorus via temperature and other environmental factors is insignificant/limited, holds a unique structural and hydraulic conditions [1~3]. Vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland has been gradually applied to urban district and township sewage treatment and water source protection work[4~7]. Studies have shown that the nitrogen removal process in the subsurface flow constructed wetland nitrogen is completed by the growth in the plant root surface and the matrix within the microbial nitrification and denitrification, but the matrix internal low dissolved oxygen content, inhibition of microbial activity and a variety of biochemical reactions, have seriously hampered the removal efficiency of constructed wetlands[8]. In order to improve dissolved oxygen environment and its ability to nitration within the wetland substrate, enhancing artificial wetland has become a hot spot[9~11]. In this study, starting from the operating conditions of the pre-aeration, we described the vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland for sewage treatment effect of ammonia nitrogen.

2 MATERIALS AND METHODS  
2.1 Experimental system
The experiment took place in a laboratory with a controlled environment in Tangshan of P.R.China. Vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland models the main 50L white plastic barrel, with 385mm diameter, from bottom to top packed by gravel whose particle size is 8~16mm, in which the packing layer height is 10cm with particle size of 0.8 ~1.6mm. The finished packing height lifts for 25 cm with particle size of 0.5~1.0mm. Activated Carbon, packing layer height was 10cm, and soil packing layer height was of 5cm. The wastewater flow into the wetland from the top center, and flow through the packing layer to the bottom vertically. The soil filler layer of the top was 5~10 cm thick. In addition, wetlands on the internal vertical cross-section was as a uniform water quality. Three sampling ports were arranged in the top 10, 28, 45cm from flat center. Sampling ports of the raw material was plastic tube with winding diameter of 0.5 cm, 3.5 cm long.

2.2 Influent quality
The raw wastewater as well as the secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plants, was collected from wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan. The composition of the influent used in all experiments is shown in TABLE 1.
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FIG.1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF VERTICAL SUBSURFACE WETLAND TABLE 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WASTEWATER SAMPLE USED IN THE EXPERIMENTS
Parameter pH Ammonia Nitrogen(NH3-N) Total Nitrogen(TN) Total Phosphorus (TP) Unit mgL-1 mgL-1 mgL-1 Concentration 6.5~8.0 9.5~11.7 15.7~21.1 0.89~1.22

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  
In the vertical flow reactor, when the hydraulic retention time were of 6h, 12h, 20h, 24h, 48h, meaning the hydraulic loadings were taken as 0.513m3/(m2·d), 0.256m3/(m2·d), 0.154m3/(m2·d), 0.129m3/(m2·d), 0.064m3/(m2·d). The system effluents were sampled and measured by the ammonia concentration under the different hydraulic loads. The data were obtained, and then the change diagram of the effluent ammonia concentration and removal rates were drawn.

3.1 Pre-aeration 10 minutes
10
NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N concentration of up hole concentration of middle hole concentration of under hole removal rate of up hole removal rate of middle hole removal rate of under hole

NH3-N concentration/(mg/l)

90

NH3-N removal rate/%

8

75

6

60

45 4 30 2 15

0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

0

hydrolic loading rates/m3/(m2·d)

FIG.2 AERATION 10MIN OUTLET AMMONIA CONCENTRATION CURVE
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As shown in Fig.2, in the upper soil matrix, catchy effluent ammonia concentration gradually increased with the hydraulic loading to the middle the outlet, and after activated carbon adsorption of ammonia concentration decreased significantly under the outlet was also change. When the hydraulic loading rate was 0.154 m3/(m2 • d), the ammonia concentration in the middle of outlet increased faster than that under outlet ammonia concentration, even beyond the middle of the outlet, which indicated that the treatment effect on the the outlet was better than that in the middle of the outlet of the processing anthracite matrix. It was suggested that the lower gravel matrix may be due to the smooth surface to which micro-organisms was more difficult to attach, leading to the poor performance on the ammonia removal. From bottom to top, as the matrix height increases, the ammonia concentration was gradually increasing.

3.2 Pre-aeration 20 minutes
NH3-N concentration/(mg/l) NH3-N removal rate/%

10

90
NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N concentration of up hole concentration of middle hole concentration of under hole removal rate of up hole removal rate of middle hole removal rate of under hole

8

75

60

6 45 4 30 2

15

0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
3 2

0 0.5

hydrolic loading rates/m /(m ·d)

FIG.3 AERATION 20MIN OUTLET AMMONIA CONCENTRATION CURVE

In addition, the upper soil matrix, and the outlet of the ammonia concentration increased gradually with the hydraulic loading to the middle the outlet, and after activated carbon adsorption of ammonia concentration decreased significantly, then down to the outlet and the middle of the outlet concentration of ammonia nitrogen in Fig.3. On the two outlet in the hydraulic retention time of 6-48 hours, the hydraulic loading was in 0.129 m3/(m2•d) ~0.513 m3/(m2•d) between the ammonia removal efficiency; but the subsequent period of ammonia nitrogen content was going up, not the results we expected, following a period of nitrogen removal, in the mouth of the last paragraph of the exception. However, the outlet ammonia concentration has decreased on the incremental development in the last paragraph. Analysis curves of activated carbon treatment effect is this: after a large section of the ammonia removal efficiency appeared, ammonia released in the mechanism of filter media for some time. After the absorption of nitrogen saturated, microorganisms could not be fully disposed, filters released the ammonia into water, or water intake from the filter top-level close to water is not treated, but the overall curve of view or removal. The ammonia concentration of bottom outlet increased rapidly than the middle, even beyond the middle of the outlet, which indicated that under the outlet at the gravel matrix treatment effect than the middle matrix. It was suggested that the lower gravel matrix may be due to the smooth surface, micro-organisms made it more difficult attachment, poor ammonia removal.

3.3 Pre-aeration 30 minutes
As shown in Fig.4, the aeration change curve of the outlet ammonia concentration at 30 minutes was exhibited. In addition, in the upper soil matrix, catchy effluent ammonia concentration gradually increased with the hydraulic loading to the middle the outlet, and after activated carbon adsorption of ammonia concentration decreased significantly as the outlet was also increasing with the increase of hydraulic loading. However, because the ammonia concentration of bottom outlet increased rapidly than the middle, even beyond the middle, which indicated that the bottom outlet at the gravel matrix treatment effect was better than the middle. It was suggested that the lower gravel matrix may be due to the smooth surface to which micro-organisms was more difficult to attach, leading to the poor
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performance on the ammonia removal.From bottom to top, with the matrix height increases, the ammonia concentration was gradually increasing. But in the mouth of the ammonia concentration smaller that under the mouth of the concentration may be the middle of activated carbon adsorption. But the total curve of ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency was still very high.
10

NH3-N concentration/(mg/l)

90 8

75

6

60

45 4
NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N NH3-N concentration of up hole concentration of middle hole concentration of under hole removal rate of up hole removal rate of middle hole removal rate of under hole

30

NH3-N removal rate/%

2

15

0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
3

0 0.4
2

0.5

hydrolic loading rates/m /(m ·d)

FIG.4 AERATION 30MIN OUTLET AMMONIA CONCENTRATION CURVE

4 CONCLUSIONS 
In summary, under the hydraulic loading of 0.064 m3/(m2 • d), the ammonia concentration was generally the lowest and the highest ammonia nitrogen removal rate, with the increase of hydraulic loading rate and the gradually increased ammonia concentration, which indicated that the smaller the hydraulic loading rate was, the better ammonia removal efficiency was achieved.When ammonia nitrogen concentration changed under preaeration time of 10 minutes, the removal effect of ammonia was the best.

5 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
The research gets the financial support from the National Science and Technology Major Project on Water Pollution Control and Treatment (2008ZX07209-003-07) and Tangshan foundation for development of science and technology, P. R.China (111302007b) gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES 
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[10] Vymazal J. Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Sci. Total Environ., 2007, 380(1/3), 48-65. [11] Ye, Z.H., Whiting, S.N., Lin, Z.-Q., Lytle, C.M., Qian, J.H., Terry, N. Removal and distribution of iron, manganese, cobalt, and nickel within a Pennsylvania constructed wetland treating coal combustion by-product leachate. J. Environ. Qual. 2001, 30, 1464–1473. [12] Zhang, X., Liu, P., Yang, Y., Chen, W. Phytoremediation of urban wastewater by model wetland with ornamental hydrophytes. J. Environ. Sci. 2007, 19, 902–909.

AUTHORS 
1

Hao Wang, male, 1982~, Ph.D., Lecturer.

2

Jianwei Chen, male, 1978~, Ph.D., associate professor.

Chief field of research is wastewater controlling engineering. And now as a teacher at College of Civil and Architecture Engineering of Hebei United University, and graduated from China University of Mining and Technology of Beijing with doctor's degree in 2011. Email: wanghao1689@gmail.com

Chief field of research is constructional engineering. And now as a teacher at College of Civil and Architecture Engineering of Hebei United University, and graduated from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics with doctor's degree in 2010. Email: heuu2010@163.com

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