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Strawberry From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other species of strawberry, see Fragaria

. For other uses, see Strawberry (d isambiguation). Garden strawberry Fragaria × ananassa Garden strawberries grown hydroponically Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Rosales Family: Rosaceae Subfamily: Rosoideae Genus: Fragaria Species: F. × ananassa Binomial name Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne Fragaria × ananassa, commonly known as strawberry (/'str??b(?)ri/ or Listeni/'str? ??b?ri/) or garden strawberry, is a hybrid species that is cultivated worldwide for its fruit. The fruit (which is not a botanical berry, but an aggregate acces sory fruit) is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color , juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in prepared foods such as preserves, fruit juice, pies, ice creams, milkshak es, and chocolates. Artificial strawberry aroma is also widely used in many indu strialized food products. The garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cro ss of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, wh ich was brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714.[1] Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the wood land strawberry (Fragaria vesca), which was the first strawberry species cultiva ted in the early 17th century.[2] Technically, the strawberry is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fl eshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that h olds the ovaries.[3] Each apparent "seed" (achene) on the outside of the fruit i s actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it.[3] Contents 1 History 2 Cultivation 2.1 Manuring and harvesting 2.2 Pests 2.3 Diseases 2.4 Production trends 2.5 Domestic cultivation 3 Uses 4 Nutrition 5 Allergy 6 Chemistry 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History Main article: The breeding of strawberries [icon] This section requires expansion. (November 2011) Closeup of a healthy, red strawberry Fragaria × ananassa 'Gariguette,' a cultivar grown in southern France Strawberries on display at Chelsea Flower Show, 2009 The first garden strawberry was grown in France during the late 18th century.[2] Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit. The strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to i ts medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to thei r gardens for harvest in the 1300s. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 1400s western Euro pean monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts. The strawberry is found in Italian, Flemish, German art, and English miniatures.[cit ation needed] The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses . By the 1500s references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common. Peo ple began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began nam ing the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-1500s. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawber ries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 1500s three European specie s had been cited; F. vesca, F. moschata, and F. viridis. The garden strawberry w as transplanted from the forests and then the plants would be propagated asexual ly by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified; F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 1600s is an important part of history because this species gave ri se to the modern strawberry. The new species gradually spread through the contin ent and did not become completely appreciated until the end of the 18th century. When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the strawberr y plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry spec ies until 1551 when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European ex plorer recorded the cultivation of F. chiloensis, the Chilean strawberry. At fir st introduction to Europe, the plants grew vigorously but produced no fruit. It was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit; F. moschata, F. virginiana, and F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-onl y or female-only flowers. As more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated t he Chilean strawberry slowly decreased in population in Europe, except for aroun d Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawbe rry was caused by F. ananassa.[4] Cultivation Strawberry cultivars vary widely in size, color, flavor, shape, degree of fertil ity, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.[5] Some vary in foliage, and some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, bu t function as either male or female.[6] For purposes of commercial production, p lants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare ro ot plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models annual plasticul ture,[7] or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds.[8] A small amount of st

rawberries are produced in greenhouses during the off season.[9] A large strawberry field with plastic covering the earth around the strawberry p lants. A field using the plasticulture method The bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year, fumigated, and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants, usually obtained from northern nurseri es, are planted through holes punched in this covering, and irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development. At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed int o the ground.[7][10] Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plan ts each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings.[7][10] However, be cause it requires a longer growing season to allow for establishment of the plan ts each year, and because of the increased costs in terms of forming and coverin g the mounds and purchasing plants each year, it is not always practical in all areas.[10] The other major method, which uses the same plants from year to year growing in rows or on mounds, is most common in colder climates.[7][8] It has lower investm ent costs, and lower overall maintenance requirements.[8] Yields are typically l ower than in plasticulture.[8] A third method uses a compost sock. Plants grown in compost socks have been show n to produce significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), fla vonoids, anthocyanins, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid t han fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems.[11] Similar results in an earlier 2003 study conducted by the US Dept of Agriculture, at th e Agricultural Research Service, in Beltsville Maryland, confirms how compost pl ays a role in the bioactive qualities of two strawberry cultivars.[12] Strawberries are often grouped according to their flowering habit.[5][13] Tradit ionally, this has consisted of a division between "June-bearing" strawberries, w hich bear their fruit in the early summer and "ever-bearing" strawberries, which often bear several crops of fruit throughout the season.[13] Research published in 2001 showed that strawberries actually occur in three basic flowering habits : short-day, long-day, and day-neutral. These refer to the day-length sensitivit y of the plant and the type of photoperiod that induces flower formation. Day-ne utral cultivars produce flowers regardless of the photoperiod.[14] Strawberries may also be propagated by seed, though this is primarily a tivity, and is not widely practiced commercially. A few seed-propagated s have been developed for home use, and research into growing from seed ally is ongoing.[15] Seeds (achenes) are acquired either via commercial pliers, or by collecting and saving them from the fruit. Strawberries can also be grown indoors in strawberry pots. Kashubian strawberry (truskawka kaszubska or kaszëbskô malëna)[16] are the first Polis h fruit to be given commercial protection under EU law. They are produced in Kar tuzy, Koscierzyna and Bytów counties and in the municipalities of Przywidz, Wejher owo, Luzino, Szemud, Linia, Leczyce and Cewice in Kashubia. Only the following v arieties may be sold as kaszëbskô malëna: Senga Sengana, Elsanta, Honeoye that have be en graded as Extra or Class I. Manuring and harvesting A diorama created from beeswax by Dr. Henry Brainerd Wright at the Louisiana Sta te Exhibit Museum in Shreveport, Louisiana depicts strawberry harvesting. Strawb erries are particularly grown in the southeastern portion of the state around Ha hobby ac cultivar commerci seed sup

mmond. Harvest Most strawberry plants are now fed with artificial fertilizers, both before and after harvesting, and often before planting in plasticulture.[17] To maintain top quality, berries are harvested at least every other day. The ber ries are picked with the caps still attached and with at least half an inch of s tem left. Strawberries need to remain on the plant to fully ripen because they d o not continue to ripen after being picked. Rotted and overripe berries are remo ved to minimize insect and disease problems. The berries do not get washed until just before consumption. They are covered in a shallow pan and refrigerated whe n storing.[18] Soil test information and plant analysis results are used to determine fertility practices. Nitrogen fertilizer is needed at the beginning of every planting yea r. There are normally adequate levels of phosphorus and potash when fields have been fertilized for top yields. In order to provide more organic matter a cover crop of wheat or rye is planted in the winter the year before planting the straw berries. Strawberries prefer a pH from 5.5 to 6.5 so lime is usually not applied .[19] The harvesting and cleaning process has not changed substantially over time. The delicate strawberries are still harvested by hand.[20] Grading and packing ofte n occurs in the field, rather than in a processing facility.[20] In large operat ions, strawberries are cleaned by means of water streams and shaking conveyor be lts.[21] Pests See also: List of Lepidoptera that feed on strawberry plants Around 200 species of pests are known to attack strawberries both directly and i ndirectly.[22] These pests include slugs, moths, fruit flies, chafers, strawberr y root weevils, strawberry thrips, strawberry sap beetles, strawberry crown moth , mites, aphids, and others.[22][23] The caterpillars of a number of species of Lepidoptera feed on strawberry plants . Diseases See also: List of strawberry diseases Strawberry plants can fall victim to a number of diseases.[24] The leaves may be infected by powdery mildew, leaf spot (caused by the fungus Sphaerella fragaria e), leaf blight (caused by the fungus Phomopsis obscurans), and by a variety of slime molds.[24] The crown and roots may fall victim to red stele, verticillium wilt, black root rot, and nematodes.[24] The fruits are subject to damage from g ray mold, rhizopus rot, and leather rot.[24] To prevent root-rotting, strawberri es should be planted every four to five years in a new bed, at a different site. [25] The plants can also develop disease from temperature extremes during winter.[24] When watering strawberries, advice has been given to water only the roots and n ot the leaves, as moisture on the leaves encourages growth of fungus.[26] Production trends World strawberry production in tons[27] Rank Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1 USA 1,090,436 1,109,215 1,148,350 1,270,640 1,294,180 1,312,960 2 Turkey 211,127 250,316 261,078 291,996 299,940 302,416 3 Spain 330,485 269,139 281,240 266,772

275,355 4 238,432 5 226,657 6 165,000 7 177,500 8 231,803 9 153,410 10 156,911 11 153,850

262,730 Egypt 128,349 174,414 200,254 242,776 240,284 Mexico 191,843 176,396 207,485 233,041 228,900 Russia 227,000 230,400 180,000 185,000 184,000 Japan 190,700 191,400 190,700 184,700 177,300 South Korea 205,307 203,227 192,296 203,772 171,519 Poland 193,666 174,578 200,723 198,907 166,159 Germany 173,230 158,658 150,854 158,563 154,418 Italy 143,340 160,560 155,590 163,055 150,200 Total world 3,973,243 4,001,721 4,136,802 4,596,61 4 4,366,889 4,594,539 A closeup view of hundreds of red strawberries. Fragaria × ananassa 'Chandler,' a short-day commercial cultivar grown in Californi a Fresh Strawberries from La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines Domestic cultivation Garden strawberry flower Strawberries are popular and rewarding plants to grow in the domestic environmen t, be it for consumption or exhibition purposes, almost anywhere in the world. T he best time to plant is in late summer or spring. Plant in full sun or dappled shade, and in somewhat sandy soil. The addition of manure and a balanced fertili zer aids strong growth. Alternatively they can be planted in pots or special pla nters using compost. Fibre mats placed under each plant will protect fruits from touching the ground, and will act as a weed barrier. Strawberries are tough and will survive many conditions, but during fruit format ion, moisture is vital, especially if growing in containers. Moreover, protectio n must be provided against slugs and snails which attack the ripe fruit. The fru that is, the fruit it matures in midsummer and should be picked when fully ripe is a uniform bright red colour. The selection of different varietes can extend t he season in both directions.[28] Numerous cultivars have been selected for cons umption and for exhibition purposes. The following cultivars have gained the Roy al Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:'Cambridge Favourite'[29] 'Hapil'[30]

'Honeoye'[31] 'Pegasus'[32]

'Rhapsody'[33] 'Symphony'[34] Propagation is by runners, which can be pegged down to encourage them to take ro ot,[35] or cut off and placed in a new location. Established plants should be re placed every three years, or sooner if there are signs of disease.

When propagating strawberries, one should avoid using the same soil or container s that were previously used for strawberry cultivation. After cultivating strawb erries, rotating to another culture is advisable, because diseases that attack o ne species might not attack another.[36] Uses Strawberry charlotte (Charlotte aux fraises) In addition to being consumed fresh, strawberries can be frozen, made into prese rves, as well as dried and used in prepared foods, such as cereal bars.[37] Stra wberries and strawberry flavorings are a popular addition to dairy products, suc h as strawberry-flavored milk, ice cream, milkshakes, smoothies, and yogurts. St rawberries and cream is a popular dessert, famously consumed at Wimbledon. In Sw eden, strawberries are a traditional desert served at Midsummer Eve, 23 June.[38 ] Depending on area, strawberry pie, strawberry rhubarb pie, or strawberry short cake are also popular. In Greece, strawberries are usually sprinkled with sugar and then dipped in Metaxa, a famous brandy, and served as a dessert. In Italy, s trawberries have been used for other desserts, especially for making strawberry tiramisu, a special form of the original tiramisu and as a flavoring their gelat o (gelato alla fragola). Strawberry juice is a fruit juice made from strawberries. Strawberry juice or co ncentrate is added to cocktails, such as Minute Maid Strawberry Passion and Cool Best Strawberry Hill.[citation needed] Strawberry pigment extract can be used as a natural acid/base indicator due to t he different color of the conjugate acid and conjugate base of the pigment.[39] Strawberries contain fisetin, an antioxidant that has been studied in relation t o Alzheimer's disease and to kidney failure resulting from diabetes.[40] Nutrition Nutrition Strawberry Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 136 kJ (33 kcal) Carbohydrates 7.68 g - Sugars 4.89 g - Dietary fiber 2 g Fat 0.3 g Protein 0.67 g Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.024 mg (2%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.022 mg (2%) Niacin (vit. B3) 0.386 mg (3%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.125 mg (3%) Vitamin B6 0.047 mg (4%) Folate (vit. B9) 24 µg (6%) Choline 5.7 mg (1%) Vitamin C 58.8 mg (71%) Vitamin E 0.29 mg (2%) Vitamin K 2.2 µg (2%) Calcium 16 mg (2%) Iron 0.41 mg (3%) Magnesium 13 mg (4%) Manganese 0.386 mg (18%) Phosphorus 24 mg (3%) Potassium 153 mg (3%) Sodium 1 mg (0%) Zinc 0.14 mg (1%) Fluoride 4.4 µg Link to USDA Database entry Percentages are roughly approximated

using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database One cup (236 g) of strawberries contains approximately 45 kilo-calories (188 kJ) and is an excellent source of vitamin C and flavonoids.[41][42][43] This fruit is very low in saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. It is also a go od source of folate and potassium, and a very good source of dietary fiber, and manganese[44] One serving of about eight strawberries provides more vitamin C th an an orange. The strawberry is among the top 20 fruits in antioxidant capacity. [45] Allergy Some people experience an anaphylactoid reaction to the consumption of strawberr ies.[46] The most common form of this reaction is oral allergy syndrome, but sym ptoms may also mimic hay fever or include dermatitis or hives, and, in severe ca ses, may cause breathing problems. Some research suggests that the allergen may be tied to a protein involved in the ripening of fruits, which was named Fra a1 (Fragaria allergen1). Homologous proteins are found in birch and apple, which su ggests that people may develop cross-reactivity to all three species. White-fruited strawberry cultivars, lacking Fra a1, may be an option for strawbe rry allergy sufferers. Since they lack a protein necessary for normal ripening, they do not produce the flavonoids that turn the mature berries of other cultiva rs red. They ripen but remain white, pale yellow or "golden", appearing like imm ature berries; this also has the advantage of making them less attractive to bir ds. A virtually allergen-free cultivar named 'Sofar' is available.[47][48] Chemistry Garden strawberries contain the dimeric ellagitannin agrimoniin which is an isom er of sanguiin H-6.[49][50] Chemicals present in the fragrance of strawberries include; methyl acetate, ethy l acetate, methyl propanoate, isopropyl acetate, ethyl propanoate, methyl butyra te, (E)-2-pentenal, butyric acid, methyl isovalerate, 3-hexanone (IS), ethyl but yrate, n-hexanal, butyl acetate, methyl pentanoate, 2-methyl butanoic acid, isop ropyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, (E)-hexanal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-heptanone , propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, 2-heptanol, amyl acetate, (E,E)-2,4-hexadie nal, methyl hexanoate, hexanoic acid, benzaldehyde, butyl butyrate, ethyl hexano ate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, isopropyl hexa noate, ethyl-2-hexenoate, d-limonene, amyl butyrate, furaneol, heptanoic acid, m esifurane, propyl hexanoate, linalool, nonanal, methyl octanoate, octanoic acid, ocimenol, benzyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, butyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, oct yl acetate, alpha-terpineol, isoamyl hexanoate, nonanoic acid, octyl butyrate, e thyl decanoate, decyl acetate, octyl butyrate, ethyl decanoate, decyl acetate, o ctyl isovalerate, beta-farnesene, gamma-decalactone, alpha-farnesene, (E)-neroli dol, octyl hexanoate, decyl butyrate, gamma-dodecalactone.[51] See also California Strawberry Commission Fraise Tagada (strawberry-shaped candy popular in France) List of strawberry cultivars Musk Strawberry (hautbois strawberry) Plant City, Florida (winter strawberry capital of the world) References Jump up ^ "Strawberry, The Maiden With Runners". Retrieved 2009-12-05.

^ Jump up to: a b "Strawberries by Martin Welsh, history, variety and cultiv ation of strawberries". Retrieved 2009-12-05. ^ Jump up to: a b Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons , New York. Jump up ^ Darrow, George M. "The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiolog y". ^ Jump up to: a b "G6135 Home Fruit Production: Strawberry Cultivars and The ir Culture | University of Missouri Extension". Retrieve d 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ Strawberry Growing, Stevenson Whitcomb Fletcher, The Macmillan Co. , New York, 1917. Google Books ^ Jump up to: a b c d "Strawberry Plasticulture Offers Sweet Rewards". Ag.oh 2002-06-28. Retrieved 2009-12-05. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Production.pdf Jump up ^ "Pritts Greenhouse Berried Treasures". Retrieved 2009-12-05. ^ Jump up to: a b c "Strawberry Fields Forever". Retrieved 2009-1 2-05. Jump up ^ Wang SW., Millner P. (November 2009). "Effect of Different Cultura l Systems on Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolic Content, and Fruit Quality of Strawb erries (Fragaria × aranassa Duch.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (A CS Publications) 57 (20): 9651 9657. doi:10.1021/jf9020575. Jump up ^ Wang SY, Lin HS (November 2003). "Compost as a soil supplement inc reases the level of antioxidant compounds and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in strawberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (23): 6844 50. do i:10.1021/jf030196x. PMID 14582984. ^ Jump up to: a b "Proper Cultivation Yields Strawberry Fields Forever". Lar 1992-04-15. Retrieved 2009-12-05.[dead link] Jump up ^ S. C. Hokanson, J. L. Maas, 2001. Strawberry biotechnology, ''Plan t Breeding Reviews'' 21:139 179. Retrieved 2013-03-09. Jump up ^ "Journal Article". SpringerLink. Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ 9:0004:0008:EN:PDF Jump up ^ "HS1116/HS370: Nitrogen Fertilization of Strawberry Cultivars: Is Preplant Starter Fertilizer Needed?". 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2 009-12-05. Jump up ^ Bordelon, Bruce. "Growing Strawberries". Purdue University. Jump up ^ "Production Guide for Commercial Strawberries". Iowa State Univers ity. ^ Jump up to: a b "Commercial Postharvest Handling of Strawberries (Fragaria spp.)". Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ "Conveyors improve the fruits of processor's labors.(Frexport S.A. de C.V.)". AccessMyLibrary. 2000-01-01. Retrieved 2009-12-05. ^ Jump up to: a b "Insect Pests of Strawberries and Their Management". Virgi 2000-05-03. Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ "Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook | CFANS | University of Minnesota" . 2009-11-20. Retrieved 2009-12-05. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e "Strawberry Diseases". Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ Pleasant, Barbara (2011). "All About Growing Strawberries". Mother Earth News (248): 23 25. Jump up ^ Davis, Julie Bawden (2009). "Strawberry Success". Organic Gardenin g 56 (5): 52 56. Jump up ^ "Faostat". 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-03-09. Jump up ^ Klein, Carol (2009). Grow your own fruit. UK: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845334345. Jump up ^ "RHS Plant Selector Fragaria × ananassa 'Cambridge Favourite' (F) AG M / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-17. Jump up ^ "RHS Plant Selector Fragaria × ananassa 'Hapil' (F) AGM / RHS Garden

ing". Retrieved 2012-11-17. Jump up ^ "RHS Plant Selector Fragaria × ananassa 'Honeoye' (F) AGM / RHS Gard ening". Retrieved 2012-11-17. Jump up ^ "RHS Plant Selector Fragaria × ananassa 'Pegasus' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-11-17. Jump up ^ "RHS Plant Selector Fragaria × ananassa 'Rhapsody' (F) AGM / RHS Gar dening". Retrieved 2012-11-17. Jump up ^ "RHS Plant Selector Fragaria × ananassa 'Symphony' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 2012-06-06. Jump up ^ "Propagating Strawberry runners". Retrieved 2012-11-17. Jump up ^ Takeguma, Massahiro. "Growing Strawberries". Retrieved 28 April 20 13. Jump up ^ Ree Drummond (2011). "Strawberry Oatmeal Bars". Food Network. Retr ieved March 27, 2013. Jump up ^ cking-in-scandinavia/ Jump up ^[dead link] Jump up ^ Pamela Maher and David Schubert, et al. Fisetin Lowers Methylglyox al Dependent Protein Glycation and Limits the Complications of Diabetes; PLoS On e 1; June 2011, 6, 6, -e 21226. 371%2Fjournal.pone.0021226 Jump up ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Strawberries, raw". Nutritiondat Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ BonkeurInternet. "Strawberry Nutrition Facts. Health, Food, Diet". Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ "Strawberry Nutrition". 1997-07-14. Retrieved 20 09-12-05. Jump up ^ (cite web |url= t-juices/2064/2 Jump up ^ (cite web |url= fits-of-the-strawberry Jump up ^ Robinson, Kerry. "Food Safety, Healthy Eating and Nutrition Inform ation". IFIC. Retrieved 2009-12-05. Jump up ^ Hjernø K, Alm R, Canbäck B, et al. (March 2006). "Down-regulation of t he strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynth esis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant". Proteomics 6 (5): 1574 87. doi:10.10 02/pmic.200500469. PMID 16447153. Jump up ^ Idea TV GmbH (2005-06-21). "The chemistry of strawberry allergy (i ncludes 'Sofar' reference)". Retrieved 2013-03-09. Jump up ^ Clarifying the Identity of the Main Ellagitannin in the Fruit of t he Strawberry, Fragaria vesca and Fragaria ananassa Duch. Urska Vrhovsek, Grazia no Guella, Mattia Gasperotti, Elisa Pojer, Mirella Zancato and Fulvio Mattivi, J . Agric. Food Chem., 2012, 60 (10), pages 2507 2516, doi:10.1021/jf2052256 Jump up ^ Identification of phenolic compounds in strawberries by liquid chr omatography electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Navindra P. Seeram, Rupo Lee, H. Samuel Scheuller, David Heber, Food Chemistry, Volume 97, Issue 1, July 2006, Pages 1 11, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.047 Jump up ^ Jouquand, Celine; Chandler, Plotto, Goodner (2008). "A Sensory and Chemical Analysis of Fresh Strawberries Over Harvest Dates and Seasons Reveals Factors that Affect Eating Quality". Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 133 (6): 859 867. Further reading Hancock, J.F. (1999). Strawberries (Crop Production Science in Horticulture) . CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-339-3 External links Look up strawberry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Search Wikimedia Commons

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