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**MODELING OF GRAVITY-LOAD-DESIGNED RC FRAME BUILDINGS FOR NONLINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
**

M. Suthasit and P. Warnitchai

1 2

1

2

Doctoral Student, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Associate Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Email: msuthasit@hotmail.com, pennung@ait.ac.th

ABSTRACT: To evaluate seismic performance of Gravity-Load-Designed (GLD) RC buildings, accurate but yet efficient nonlinear models for GLD RC members are essential. The main objective of this study is to develop the nonlinear models for GLD RC members which are applicable to nonlinear dynamic analysis. Based on macro-modeling approach, nonlinear models for beams, columns, and beam-column joints were developed. These models are able to simulate hysteretic force-deformation relations which are governed by modes of failure experienced by RC members. In particular, the models can simulate lap-splice, shear, flexure, joint-shear, and bond-deterioration failures. To validate the models, experimental force-deformation relations of column and beam-column joint specimens were compared to those obtained from the models. A very good agreement was found. Finally, to illustrate the applicability of the proposed models, a mid-rise GLD RC frame building was analyzed. It was found that the seismic behavior of the building was controlled by interactions among different failure mechanisms experienced by critical members. The proposed nonlinear models can be used in future researches to conduct detailed seismic performance evaluation of GLD RC frame buildings. KEYWORDS: gravity load designed, nonlinear dynamic analysis, model, seismic performance evaluation 1. INTRODUCTION It is well recognized that gravity-load-designed (GLD) RC frame buildings are vulnerable to seismic hazard. These buildings contribute a major portion in existing building stocks around the world. Therefore, their seismic behavior has been a major research topic for decades. Non-ductile reinforcement detailing and configuration irregularities are primary factors responsible for poor seismic performance. Combinations of these factors result in a wide variety of seismic performance as evidenced in past earthquakes. To address the problem, many experiments have been conducted to investigate the seismic performance of isolated members and their sub-assemblages. Findings from these studies are very useful for understanding the behavior of individual members as well as for developing their nonlinear models. Nowadays the seismic behavior of GLD RC members is well understood and predictable to some extent. On the contrary, the behavior of overall framing system as a result of interaction among members is not well understood. Both experimental and analytical studies on this topic are rather scarce. Regarding the experimental approach, the high cost of specimen construction usually prohibits the study. On the other hand, the analytical approach requires a lot of computational effort and, thus, simplified models are usually adopted. Assumptions used in such models may result in an oversimplification of analysis results which hinder the actual seismic behavior of GLD RC frame buildings. To conduct an in-depth seismic evaluation on GLD RC buildings, nonlinear dynamic analysis is essential. The main objective of this study is to develop accurate and efficient nonlinear models applicable to such analysis. Specifically, nonlinear models for beams, columns, and beam-joint joints are developed and implemented in the computational platform named RUAUMOKO, which was developed by Carr (2005). Note that the models can also be applied in other software platforms with minor modifications due to the simplicity of adopted modeling tools. The models are validated through comparison between analytical and experimental force-deformation

Due to the uniformity of flexural moment capacity and the concentration of flexural moment demand at the column ends (Fig. shear span. BEAM AND COLUMN MODELS Because of similarity between the seismic behavior of beams and columns. Finally. Mode of failure and hysteretic relationship between lateral force and deformation of RC columns are determined by the contributions from these deformation modes. the fiber elements approach is adopted in this study. 3. lap-splice slip. to illustrate the applicability of the models. Additionally. Free-body.The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17. China relations. the inelastic flexural deformation is confined within the column-end zones while leaving the middle portion responds in the elastic manner. Nevertheless. In particular. However. 2). and (c) moment Figure 2 Deformation modes of RC column: (a) flexure. Note that. only the column model development is discussed here. core-concrete. Mt V V Mt th clear story height V Mb V Mb (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 1 RC column subjected to seismic load: (a) free-body. The uniaxial material response of the individual fiber is represented by a nonlinear zero-length translational spring (cover-concrete. and etc. The RC section of the plastic hinge being modeled is discretized into small fibers. anchorage slip. 2. Note that the 2D column model shown in Fig. (c) lap-splice slip. Lateral deformation of a column caused by these seismic demands consists primarily of 4 modes: flexural deformation. This results in an additional rotation to the plastic hinge. Beijing. Because some of these factors are varied during seismic excitation. and steel. in Fig. (b) anchorage slip. 3. (b) shear. significant loss of accuracy has to be sacrificed because of its inability to simulate the axial-flexure interaction. these fibers can be classified into 3 groups cover-concrete. 1c). the effective axial. and shear deformation (Fig. and (d) shear In case of GLD RC columns. 3 is drawn in 3D to facilitate the illustration only. nonlinear dynamic analysis of an example 6-story building is conducted. This behavior can be idealized using a zero-length fiber element connected in series to each end of an elastic frame element (Fig. flexural moment capacity is normally uniform along the clear story height because equal amount of reinforcement is usually provided. core-concrete. all deformation modes should be explicitly taken into account in the model. shear.and flexural-rigidity (EAc and EIc) recommended by ASCE (2000) are used to define its elastic properties to account for inherent nonlinearities in RC members. 2b). and steel springs shown in Fig. The former requires less computational time. 3). the contribution from each deformation mode to the overall response depends on various factors such as member dimensions. 2008. these springs are connected to nodes A and B via rigid links shown by the thicken lines in Fig. there are mainly 2 alternatives for simulating response of plastic hinges: (1) using nonlinear rotational springs and (2) using fiber elements. the steel springs are intentionally disconnected from node A to account for the effects of the anchorage slip (Fig. the hysteretic moment-rotation response (strength and stiffness) of plastic hinges depends on the magnitude of the applied axial load which is varied during seismic excitation. when the strength of the anchorage zone is inadequate to fully mobilize the . Regarding the elastic frame element. Based on macro modeling approach. the concept can also be applied to beams. To impose the plain-remains-plane assumption. Based on material characteristics. 3). axial force. The anchorage slip is caused by bond-deterioration of reinforcement extended into an adjacent member. As a consequence. and moment diagram of RC columns subjected to seismic load are shown in Fig 1. Additionally.

the flexural moment capacity of the plastic hinge is reduced. 3 connected serially to the elastic frame element to simulate the overall shear behavior of the column. Comparison between lateral force-deformation relations obtained from the experiment and the analytical model are shown in Figs. This causes both slippage and strength degradation of the spliced reinforcement. The increase in compressive strength and ductility due to the confinement effect is calculated according to Mander et al. 2002) are considered. 1992) k F kcombined = 0. appropriate backbone curves and hysteretic rules have to be applied to each spring in the model. the lap-splice is idealized as shown in Fig. For steel springs. 4. respectively. This assumption allows the effects of lap-splice slip to be simulated by replacing the steel springs in Fig. The Modified-Takeda hysteretic rule is used to simulate the response the anchorage-slip springs. 3 are used to simulate the strength and the stiffness of the anchorage zones. post peak stiffness. Anchorage-slip springs shown in Fig. Because the lap-splice in GLD RC columns is usually located immediately above the floor level. These specimens represent typical GLD RC columns in Thailand. 5a. the interaction between the anchorage zone and the plastic hinge is accounted for in the column model. China reinforcement strength. 6 and 7. 5c) is determined by assuming piece-wise constant bond stress distribution (Alsiwat and Saatcioglu. To simulate the effects of shear on the seismic performance of RC columns. 1b that the seismic shear demand is uniform throughout the clear story height. This permits a nonlinear shear spring in Fig. Subjected to a certain level of tension. .5k k F symmetry symmetry F spliced reinforcement surrounding concrete th Figure 3 Column model Figure 4 Idealization of lap-splices The mechanical model discussed previously is used to simulate the interaction among all deformation modes. The residual strength of core-concrete springs is assumed to be retained while that of cover-concrete springs is assumed to reach zero strength after spalling. it can be noticed from Fig. The adopted backbone curve for cover. 1992). a bilinear backbone curve which describes the elastic stiffness.and core-concrete springs is shown in Fig. and discrete cracks effects is shown in Fig. As a result. The lap-splice slip illustrated in Fig. 3 with lap-splice springs. The individual reinforcement in the lap-splice is assumed to behave as an anchored reinforcement. 5b). tension stiffening. In order to simulate the nonlinear response characteristics of these deformations. 2008. Beijing. To define the lap-splice springs. 4. 2c can significantly induce an additional deformation to RC columns. The backbone curve of anchorage-slip springs (Fig. 5b. The force-deformation relations as well as the modes of failure predicted by the proposed model match well with those found in the experiments. To validate the proposed column model.The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17. and yield strength of reinforcement is used (Fig. anchorage-slip springs steel springs F elastic frame element A B C core-concrete springs rigid-link cover-concrete springs nonlinear shear springs zero length LPH* half of clear span *Lph denotes plastic hinge length (Paulay and Priestley. The lap-splice spring is modeled as two anchorage-slip springs connected in series as shown in Fig. two cantilever column specimens subjected to quasi-static cyclic loading (Worakanchana. The adopted hysteretic rule of concrete in the form of stress-strain relation is also shown in Fig. A simplified hysteretic rule taking into account the Bauschinger. By connecting these springs directly to the steel springs. 5a. (1988) and Kent and Park (1971). tensile splitting-cracks are developed along the splice length. the slippage along the splice length can be assumed to be located in the plastic hinge zone. the lap-splice spring is identical to 2 anchorage-slip springs connected in series.

China Stress.and core-concrete springs Force.The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17.5 m) gravity load collapse Vcr = 0.1992) Compression anchorage failure r Ke = elastic shear stiffness Ku = unloading stiffness Vp = shear strength [Elwood and Moehle.. 1 2 1 2 th Stress.. 1979] = p + Co Co = clear lug-spacing of anchored reinforcement Ke = elastic stiffness Ku = unloading stiffness = Ke (c) backbone curve and hysteretic rule for anchorage-slip and lap-splice springs (d) backbone curve and hysteretic rule for shear-springs Figure 5 Backbone curves and hysteretic rules adopted for the column model 150 +112 kN 100 50 Lateral force (kN) Lateral force (kN) 0 -50 -100 -112 kN -150 -80 -40 0 lateral displacement (mm) 40 80 lateral displacement (mm) (a) experimental result (failure mode: shear) (b) analysis result (failure mode: shear) Figure 6 Lateral force-displacement relations obtained from the experiment and the analysis – specimen R1 . 2008. Ke p (b) backbone curve and hysteretic rule for steel springs 1 Shear force. 1971) *response is assumed symmetrical on both sides (bar buckling is neglected) (a) backbone curve and hysteretic rule for cover. Ke y m Ku gravity load collapse Ku = Ke ( y/ 0. Ku residual strength assumed for core-concrete Ku F’cc = confined strength (Mander et al. r) Slip.20F’cc Ke Strain.1992) p = slip at failure (Alsiwat and Saatcioglu . Beijing. V V = V 2 21 F Fp Vp shear failure Vcr = 0.10Vp Shear displacement.1992) Fr = residual strength (Alsiwat and Saatcioglu .10Vp Fp = anchorage strength (Alsiwat and Saatcioglu . fracture fu fy yielding Kp = ¡ 2- 1 = 2- 1 Tension + Tension + Strain. 1988) = elastic stiffness = unloading stiffness = Ke Ke Compression crushing Ke F’cc Ku Kdeg = degrading stiffness (Kent and Park. 2003] Vp shear failure *hysteretic rule shown is proposed by [Saiidi and Sozen. 1988) cc Compression - Ke = elastic stiffness Kp = post-peak stiffness Ku = unloading stiffness = Ke fy fu yielding = actual yield strength = ultimate strength = confined strain (Mander et al. spalling assumed for cover-concrete cc assumed no tensile strength 0. F anchorage failure Tension + *backbone curve is assumed symmetrical on both sides (Fr.

crushing of the concrete inside the BC-joint. This results in Eqn. Beijing.1 where C’c. 8c) and. In summary. In some case. can be determined by writing equilibrium equation of horizontal force acting on the BC-joint. in some cases. tensile force acting on one side of the reinforcement is totally transferred to the other side. 9a). 8a. joint-shear. 2008. 9a is proposed. At a connection between two consecutive steel springs. This shear stress results in joint-shear deformation (Fig. Vj. China th 150 100 50 Lateral force (kN) Lateral force (kN) +95 kN 0 -50 -81 kN -100 -150 -80 -40 0 40 80 lateral displacement (mm) lateral displacement (mm) (a) experimental result (failure mode: lap-splice) (b) analysis result (failure mode: lap-splice) Figure 7 Lateral force-displacement relations obtained from the experiment and the analysis – specimen R2 4. Assuming lever-arm depth. Eqn. respectively. C’s. The proposed mechanical model can simulate these effects. jd.The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17. the reinforcement is discretized into small segments. 3. Note that severe bond deterioration is very common in GLD BC-joints. 8a that shear stress is induced by simultaneous action of forces transferred to the BC-joint. The lateral deformation of the overall framing system is significantly contributed by deformation in BC-joints. 8a shows a free-body diagram of an interior BC-joint subjected to seismic load. there are 2 deformation modes associated with BC-joints: (1) bond-slip and (2) joint-shear deformation. This causes two major consequences: (1) a reduction in join-shear stress and (2) an additional deformation in the plastic hinge of the adjacent beams and columns. 3. and Ts denote resultant force of concrete compression. and steel tension. a bond-slip spring is added to simulate the force transferring between the steel and the surrounding concrete. ’ ’ (a) free-body diagram (b) bond-slip (c) joint-shear deformation Figure 8 A beam-column joint subjected to seismic load Unlike the anchorage of column reinforcement in a foundation. Refer to Fig. is known (see Fig. 8a). BEAM-COLUMN JOINT MODEL Beam-column joints (BC-joints) are one of the most critical components in RC frame structures. the bond stress distribution along a reinforcement passing through a BC-joint can not be determined in advance. As a result. 8b). It can also be noticed in Fig. The mechanical model shown in Fig. This usually causes bond-slip (Fig. It can be seen that the force acting at the ends of reinforcement in the BC-joint are in the same direction. Each segment is represented by steel springs (see Fig. steel compression.1 can . Fig.

85db Ke = elastic stiffness Ku = unloading stiffness = Ke fp = 2. 5b are applied to the steel springs. Stress.5 (Eligehuasen et al. upper column. c c Ku fr Ke 0. a backbone curve proposed by Eligehausen et al. 2008.The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17. cu. 1988). Beijing. and br denote. f slip Fbl Fbr *backbone curve is assumed symmetrical on both sides fp bond-slip spring Vcu Slip.35co co nonlinear rotational spring M bl M br 0. To simulate the nonlinear bond-slip response. 1983) Fcu zero length F’cu Vcl slip fr Co = clear lug-spacing of anchored reinforcement F’br M cu c F’bl steel springs (b) Shear Stress. (2) Fxx denotes bar force acting on BC-joint by member xx (see note 1) c (3) M xx denotes moment acting on BC-joint as a result of concrete compression in member xx (see note 1) (4) amount of steel and bond-slip springs shown in the figure is for illustration only..2 where MC denotes moment acting on the BC-joint due to concrete compression and Mj denotes joint-shear force in term of moment.1) (3. Note that only one comparison is shown here. In order to simulate the nonlinear response of the individual deformation mode.15co 0. lower column. 10.2. By connecting a nonlinear rotational spring to other elements in fig. Comparison between lateral force-deformation relations obtained from the experiment and the analytical model are shown in Fig.75dc Vbr 0. 1988] s joint-shear failure *hysteretic rule adopted is proposed by Saiidi and Sozen (1979) (c) Figure 9 BC-Joint model: (a) mechanical model. and right beam. A hysteretic rule proposed by Saiidi and Sozen (1979) is adopted. 1988] = crushing stress and strain determined using MCFT [Vecchio and Collins. the moment acting on the nonlinear rotational spring is identical to Mj in Eqn. 3. the backbone curve and the hysteretic rule shown in Fig. Fig. 8a. Quasi-static cyclic loading were applied to these specimens.75(f’c)0. Vs. For the nonlinear rotational spring. (b) backbone curve and hysteretic rule for the bond-slip springs. 3. (1983) and the Modified Takeda-hysteretic model is applied to the bond-slip springs (see Fig. th Vj Mj jd V j C c' C s' Ts MC jd C s' Vc jd Ts jd Vc (3. left beam. cr = tensile cracking stress and strain determined using MCFT [Vecchio and Collins. bl. a backbone curve is determined using the Modified Compression Field Theory (Vecchio and Collins. The force-deformation relations as well as the modes of failure predicted by the proposed model match well with those found in the experiments. appropriate backbone curves and hysteretic rules have to be applied to each spring in the model. cr s c Fcl F’cl (a) NOTES (1) subscripts cl. To validate the proposed BC-joint model. v vs tensile cracking vcr joint-shear failure M cl Vbl 0. To simulate the discretized reinforcement.. 1983) = 0. tensile cracking Vcr. and (c) backbone curve and hysteretic rule for the nonlinear rotational spring. two beam-column joint specimens tested by Cheejaroen (2004) are considered. China be rewritten as shown in Eqn. 8c shows the backbone curve and the hysteretic rule applied to the nonlinear rotational spring. 9b).1vs Shear Strain. These specimens represent typical GLD RC beam-column subassemblages in Thailand. . repectively.35fu (Eligehuasen et al.2) The mechanical model discussed previously can be used to simulate the interaction between of the bond slip and the joint-shear deformation.

reinforcement yielding.6 0.25 -0. Cross sectional dimensions of beams and columns are 0. However. during cycle back to the positive direction.8 -1. a nonlinear model of a 6-story 3-bay GLD RC building is constructed and analyzed using nonlinear dynamic analysis.30 m. Subjecting the model to ground motion.65 m. the building was sustained no damage. lap-splice failure..45m. . At point C. Strong motion obtained during December 1979. and rectangles indicates respectively. Reinforcement detailing of all structural members in the building are of non-seismic type. various brittle modes of failure are expected during ground motion. lap-splice failure. AN ANALYSIS EXAMPLE To illustrate the applicability of the proposed models.6%. by 0. plastic hinges were developed in some of the 2nd floor beams. China 100 th 50 lateral force (kN) lateral force (kN) 0 -50 -100 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 lateral displacement (mm) lateral displacement (mm) (a) experimental result (failure mode: joint-shear) (b) analysis result (failure mode: joint-shear) Figure 10 Lateral force-displacement relations obtained from the experiment and the analysis – specimen M2 5. the failures including reinforcement yielding..The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17. These damages were concentrated in the lower stories.5 ground acceleration (g) 0.30g.5 0 1.60 m. the roof drift time history is plotted in Fig. where roof drift was peak at 1. respectively.8 B 2 4 6 C 8 10 time (sec) 12 14 16 18 20 A B roof drift (%) 0 -0. 11. Therefore. PGA of the original record is scaled to 0. and joint-shear failure. white dots. Typical span length and story height are 7. respectively. by 0. and joint-shear failure were found. and 3. At point A. Beijing.0 m. Imperial Valley Earthquake is selected for analysis. 0. and 0.6 0 2 4 6 A D 8 10 time (sec) 12 14 16 18 20 C D Figure 11 Nonlinear dynamic analysis results: solid dots. This analysis example illustrated that the proposed models are practically applicable to nonlinear dynamic analysis and can be used to conduct seismic performance evaluation in a very detailed manner. 2008.7 m.25 0 -0.

(2003). and failure mode of GLD RC members. Berkeley. column and BC-joint model were proposed. Eng. 83:2. American Concrete Institute. J. Kent.J.K. M. College of Engineering. Eligehausen. PEER Report 2003/01. Priestley. Mander. Department of Civil Engineering. it is suggested that an additional experiments should be used to validate the models. Flexural Members with Confined Concrete. Effects of Bond Deterioration on Seismic Behavior of Interior Beam-Column Joints.N. China 6. However. To make a further improvement. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings. it was found that the models give acceptable accuracy in predicting the strength. C. J.B. Reinforcement Anchorage Slip under Monotonic Loading. F. Journal of Structural Engineering. The Modified Compression Field Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear. American Society of Civil Engineers. Urbana. CONCLUSION The nonlinear models for GLD RC members including beam. V. R. R. and Saatcioglu. (1992).C. J. John Wiley and Sons. (1988).. and Collins. and Moehle. Report UILU-ENG-79-2031. Journal of Structural Division. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Journal of American Concrete Institute. J. EERC Report 83/23. By comparing the hysteretic force-displacement relations obtained from the analysis to those from the experiments.J. K. 1969-1990. (1992).. 97:ST7. stiffness. (2004). Thailand. University of Illinois. D. T. M. Carr. Cheejaroen. Alsiwat. Berkeley. Beijing. ASCE (2000). P.. 2008. Asian Institute of Technology. Christ Church. Paulay. (1983). Department of Civil Engineering. A. (2005). 1804-1826. and Priestley. Thesis. A. M. M. Inc. The proposed models can be used in future researches to investigate seismic performance of GLD-RC buildings.. M. Applicability of the models to nonlinear dynamic analysis was confirmed by conducting the analysis example. (1986). V. University of California. and Park. M. The University of Canterbury. Vecchio. 219-231. and Bertero.The 14 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Simple and Complex Models for Nonlinear Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures. Elwood. Journal of Structural Engineering. Asian Institute of Technology. J. (2002). Quasi-static cyclic loading test of reinforced concrete columns with lap splice in typical mid-rise buildings in Thailand. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA-356). M. only a few numbers of experiments were used in the validation. Worakanchana. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318M-05). (1979). R. E. REFERENCES ACI (2005). and Park. Illinois. 118:9. J. and Sozen. Popov. th . Saiidi. M. New Zealand. 2421-2438. Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete. P. (1971).N. Local Bond Stress Slip Relationships of Deformed Bars under Generalized Excitations. Eng Thesis ST-02-3. 114:8. Thailand. RUAUMOKO Manual.P. University of California. Shake-Table Tests and Analytical Studies on the Gravity Load Collapse of Reinforced Concrete Frames.

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