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What Is Diabetes? What Causes Diabetes?

Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). There are three types of diabetes: 1) Type 1 Diabetes The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years. Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet. Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among the under 20s in the USA rose 23%, according to SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth data issued by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (Link to article) 2) Type 2 Diabetes The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease - it gradually gets worse - and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form. Overweight and obese people have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with a healthy body weight. People with a lot of visceral fat, also known as central obesity, belly fat, or abdominal obesity, are especially at risk. Being overweight/obese causes the body to release chemicals that can destabilize the body's cardiovascular and metabolic systems. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older. Experts are not completely sure why, but say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less physically active. Those with a close relative who had/had type 2 diabetes, people of Middle Eastern, African, or South Asian descent also have a higher risk of developing the disease. Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance. (Link to article)

Measuring the glucose level in blood

3) Gestational Diabetes This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy. The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and diet. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling medications. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be. Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats. (Link to article)

What Is Prediabetes?
The vast majority of patients with type 2 diabetes initially had prediabetes. Their blood glucose levels where higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis. The cells in the body are becoming resistant to insulin. Studies have indicated that even at the prediabetes stage, some damage to the circulatory system and the heart may already have occurred.

Diabetes Is A Metabolism Disorder
Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood - it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies. When our food is digested, the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream. Our cells use the glucose for energy and growth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being present - insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate

Type 2 usually lasts a lifetime.7% and 5. even though the blood has plenty of glucose.99% means prediabetes .9 mg/dl means prediabetes ..99 mg/dl means prediabetes . through a lot of exercise. or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood.quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells. however. How To Determine Whether You Have Diabetes. In least 126 mg/dl means diabetes . Prediabetes or Neither Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism.D. Mel in Latin means "honey". The term "Sweet Urine Disease" was least 200 mg/dl means diabetes . Diabetes mellitus could literally mean "siphoning off sweet water". Controlling Diabetes .between 5. and it means a "siphon".Treatment Is Effective And Important All types of diabetes are treatable. some people have managed.less than 5. there is no known cure.between 140 and 199. a Greek physician during the second century A. the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose. as soon as glucose enters the cells bloodglucose levels drop.there are three possible tests:  The A1C test .7% means normal  The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test . although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements. A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria) like a siphon. diet and excellent body weight control to get . Diabetes type 1 lasts a lifetime. So. named the condition diabainein. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in least 6. The word became "diabetes" from the English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes.less than 100 mg/dl means normal An abnormal reading following the FPG means the patient has impaired fasting glucose (IFG)  The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) . produces no insulin. prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways . because it was sweet. Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term. This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin. In ancient China people observed that ants would be attracted to some people's urine. and glucose is sweet like honey.5% means diabetes .less than 140 mg/dl means normal An abnormal reading following the OGTT means the patient has impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Why Is It Called Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes comes from Greek. Aretus the Cappadocian.between 100 mg/dl and 125.

as well as a special diet and exercise. Ads by Google Diabetic Diet & Meals . exercise and a special diet.rid of their symptoms without medication. Pay COD. said "The recurrence rate was mainly influenced by a longstanding history of Type 2 diabetes before the surgery. www." (Link to article) Patients with type 1 are treated with regular insulin injections.uncontrolled diabetes raises the risk of suffering from depression. Free Shipping. If diabetes is not adequately controlled the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications. Patients with Type 2 diabetes are usually treated with tablets. eye problems. Order Now!! www. diabetic population will improve the durability of remission of Type 2 diabetes.people with diabetes are more susceptible to skin infections and skin disorders Heart problems . and sometimes gangrene which may require that the foot be amputated Skin complications . ulcers. anxiety and some other mental disorders Hearing loss .glaucoma.. and some others.such as ischemic heart disease. Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients.Dessert.diabetes patients have a higher risk of developing hearing problems Gum disease .Dinner . Foot complications .com/DiabetesGlucometer type 2 diabetes food list .there is a much higher prevalence of gum disease among diabetes patients .Free Diabetic Recipes > Breakfast. This suggests that early surgical intervention in the obese.neuropathy. diabetic retinopathy.common in people with diabetes.Snack .org Blood Sugar Testers . but sometimes insulin injections are also required. They added that within three to five years the disease recurs in approximately 21% of them. Lunch .Upto 60% Off on Digital Complications linked to badly controlled diabetes:         Eye complications . heart attack and stroke Mental health .diabetescare. cataracts.diabetesinfocenter. which can raise the risk of kidney disease. MD.Manage your diabetes with free tools from DiabetesCare. when the blood supply to the heart muscle is diminished Hypertension . Yessica Ramos.

Neuropathy . PA) published a study which estimates that by 2025 there could be 53.the muscles of the stomach stop working properly Ketoacidosis . tingling and sometimes problems walking properly Stroke . Infections .2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet How many Americans have diabetes or pre-diabetes?  8.people with badly controlled diabetes are much more susceptible to infections Healing of wounds . and blood glucose levels are not controlled. He added that the lag in diagnosis involves both patients and doctors. the risk of stroke increases significantly Erectile dysfunction . MD.symptoms may include pain in the leg.cuts and lesions take much longer to heal USA . and there are no ketones present in the blood or urine.5% of the US population have diabetes .          Gastroparesis . cholesterol levels.9 million people aged 20 years or more were newly diagnosed with diabetes in 2010  215. Nephropathy . accumulation of ketone bodies and acidity in the blood. Researchers from the Jefferson School of Population Health (Philadelphia. who is presently Director of Research of the Harold Hamm Diabetes Center in Oklahoma City says that the disease is still not being detected promptly.a combination of ketosis and acidosis. Even though type 2 diabetes rates in the USA have risen sharply. (Link to article)  18.male impotence. (Link to article)  About 79 million people have pre-diabetes  1.000 (0.25.diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage which can lead to several different problems.blood glucose levels shoot up too high.if blood pressure.26%) people younger than 20 years have diabetes  Approximately 1 in every 400 kids and teenagers has diabetes .1 million people with the disease.8 million children and adults. HHNS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome) . Timothy Lyons. It is an emergency condition.8 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes  About 7 million people with diabetes have not been diagnosed.uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to kidney disease PAD (peripheral arterial disease) .

pre-diabetes.8% of men have diabetes. improves cardiovascular health. improves mood. More Chinese adults who live in Singapore are dying of heart disease and developing type 2 diabetes than ever before. researchers from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health and the National University of Singapore reported in the journal Circulation. 11.NOT TRUE!! Exercise is important for people with diabetes. The authors found that Chinese adults in Singapore who eat American-style junk foods twice a week had a 56% greater risk of dying prematurely form heart disease. helps blood sugar control. and the National Health Service will be spending as much as 17% of its health care budget on diabetes by then. Many people with type 2 diabetes were never overweight. Being overweight or obese raises the risk of becoming diabetic. Diabetes Spreads In Southeast Asia Diabetes is rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia as people embrace American fast foods. It is important that people with diabetes. a charity. but do not mean that an obese person will definitely become diabetic.6 million people Diabetes In The United Kingdom In the United Kingdom there are about 3. such as hamburgers. myths. according to the National Health Service. their loved ones.6 million individuals  26. compared to their counterparts who "never touched the stuff".this is not true. magazines and on the internet regarding diabetes. Diabetes UK. believes this number will jump to 6.9% of people aged 65+ years have diabetes. . a total of 12. a total of 25.2 million by 2035.3% of people aged 20+ years have diabetes. and relieves stress.  Fat people always develop type 2 diabetes eventually . a total of 10.8 million people with diabetes. Exercise helps manage body weight. employers and schools have an accurate picture of the disease.9 million people  11. a total of 13 million people  10. Below are some diabetes myths:  People with diabetes should not exercise . some of them are. Patients should discuss exercise with their doctor first. The majority of overweight people do not develop type 2 diabetes. in fact. There was a 80% higher likelihood of dying from coronary heart disease for those eating fast foods four times per week. as it is for everybody else.8% of women have diabetes. while their risk of developing type 2 diabetes rose 27%. hot dogs. (Link to article) Some Facts And Myths Regarding Diabetes Many presumed "facts" are thrown about in the paper press. French fries and pizza. they are risk factors.

Nearly all children with diabetes have type 1. which can make people overweight/obese.the diet doctors and specialized nutritionists recommend for diabetes patients are healthy ones. such as weakness. .very high or low blood sugar levels may cause some symptoms. The only way to be sure about your blood sugar levels is to test them regularly. but not serious . Whole grain starchy foods are better. Anybody with higher-than-normal blood sugar levels or sugar in their urine should be checked for diabetes by a health care professional. potatoes or pasta . compared to the healthy things we can buy in most shops. unless a cure is found one day.  I know when my blood sugar levels are high or low . and they should be low in salt and sugar.   High blood sugar levels are fine for some.people with diabetes can eat starchy foods. Children with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin for the rest of their lives. Diabetics cannot eat bread. fatigue and extreme thirst. A parent may pass on. insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas have been destroyed. and saturated or trans fat.this is not true. Just like a broken leg is not infectious or contagious. Diabetes is a nuisance. a higher susceptibility to developing the disease. However.high blood-sugar levels are never normal for anybody. A person with diabetes type 1 developed the disease because their immune system destroyed the insulin-producing beta cells. Experts say that there is no need to buy special diabetic foods because they offer no special benefit. Researchers from the University of Copenhagen. healthy for everybody. levels need to be fluctuating a lot for symptoms to be felt. Meals should contain plenty of vegetables. they must keep an eye on the size of the portions. These never come back. as is the case for people without diabetes. A diet high in calories. mental stress and steroids can cause temporary hikes in blood sugar levels in people without diabetes. raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.  Don't eat too much sugar. including people without the disease. The life expectancy of a person with diabetes is from five to ten years shorter than other people's.  One person can transmit diabetes to another person . especially if there is a history of this disease in the family.two thirds of diabetes patients die prematurely from stroke or heart disease. However. Denmark showed that even very slight rises in blood-glucose levels significantly raise the risk of ischemic heart disease. whole grains. (Link to article)  Diabetes diets are different from other people's .this is not true. Some illnesses. through their genes to their offspring.NOT TRUE. you will become diabetic . while for others they are a sign of diabetes . fruit. Diabetes is a serious disease.  Children can outgrow diabetes .

poor diet. or is not there at all. You will be drinking more than usual. However. Have you been drinking more than usual lately? Intense hunger As the insulin in your blood is not working properly. If your insulin is ineffective. that's all.a person with diabetes with good diabetes control is no more likely to become ill with a cold or something else than other Here is a list of the most common diabetes symptoms :  Frequent urination Have you been going to the bathroom to urinate more often recently? Do you notice that you spend most of the day going to the toilet? When there is too much glucose (sugar) in your blood you will urinate more often.which in turn fills up your bladder. their diabetes becomes harder to control. or not there at all.     . the earlier diabetes is diagnosed the greater the chances are that serious complications.people take insulin when diet alone or diet with oral or non-insulin injectable diabetes drugs do not provide good-enough diabetes control.people with diabetes can eat chocolates and sweets if they combine them with exercise or eat them as part of a healthy meal. seem harmless. Disproportionate thirst If you are urinating more than usual. so they have a higher risk of complications. Unusual weight loss This is more common among people with Diabetes Type 1. The main reason for this is that the symptoms. your body may react by trying to find more energy . when a diabetic catches a cold. It does not usually have anything to do with the severity of the disease. The kidneys will take water from your blood in order to dilute the glucose . your kidneys cannot filter the glucose back into the blood.  I have to go on insulin.things are changing. Muscle tissue and fat will be broken down for energy. and physical inactivity. Insulin helps diabetes control. and your cells are not getting their energy.  If you have diabetes you cannot eat chocolates or sweets . You will become hungry. Weight gain This might be the result of the above symptom (intense hunger). A growing number of children and teenagers are developing type 2 diabetes. As your body is not making insulin it will seek out another energy source (the cells aren't getting glucose). Experts say that this is linked to the explosion in childhood obesity rates. this must mean my diabetes is severe . As Type 1 is of a more sudden onset and Type 2 is much more gradual.  Diabetes patients are more susceptible to colds and illnesses in general . weight loss is more noticeable with Type 1. Only older people develop type 2 diabetes . which can result from having diabetes. However. Symptoms of Diabetes People can often have diabetes and be completely unaware. when seen on their own. can be avoided. you will need to replace that lost liquid.

With proper treatment this can be treated. Women with diabetes find it especially difficult to recover from bladder and vaginal infections.          . glucose will not be entering your cells and providing them with energy. Your teeth could become loose as the gums pull away from them. it could be a symptom of diabetes. Sexual dysfunction among men If you are over 50 and experience frequent or constant sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction). red and/or swollen this could be a sign of diabetes. Cuts and bruises don't heal properly or quickly Do you find cuts and bruises take a much longer time than usual to heal? When there is more sugar (glucose) in your body.Gums pull away from teeth If your gums are tender. as could the tiny blood vessels that feed those nerves. More skin and/or yeast infections When there is more sugar in your body. This affects your eyes' ability to focus. or is not there at all. Frequent gum disease/infection As well as the previous gum symptoms. its ability to recover from infections is affected. Blurred vision This can be caused by tissue being pulled from your eye lenses. its ability to heal can be undermined. especially in your feet and hands If there is too much sugar in your body your nerves could become damaged. You may experience tingling and/or numbness in your hands and feet. This will make you feel tired and listless. you may experience more frequent gum disease and/or gum infections. Numbness or tingling. There are severe cases where blindness or prolonged vision problems can occur. Increased fatigue If your insulin is not working properly. Itchy skin A feeling of itchiness on your skin is sometimes a symptom of diabetes. Gums are red and/or swollen . Irritability Irritability can be due to your lack of energy.

The glucose is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen and stops the body from using fat as a source of energy. which finds out whether excess glucose is present. which measures blood glucose levels and can confirm if the cause of your symptoms is diabetes. It makes our body's cells absorb glucose from the blood. What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone. If you are worried that you may have some of the above symptoms.Diagnosis of diabetes Diabetes can often be detected by carrying out a urine test. you are recommended to talk to your Doctor or a qualified health professional. . This is normally backed up by a blood test.

It produces insulin and other digestive hormones. the mid-part is called the body. It produces pancreatic digestive juices. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. The pancreas has two principal functions: 1. When protein is ingested insulin is released. When this happens our body uses fat as a source of energy.© 3d Medical RF The pancreas is part of the digestive system. 2. Insulin is also released when glucose is present in the blood. The wide end is called the head while the narrower end is called the tail. Approximately 1 to 3 million Islets of Langerhans make up the endocrine part of the pancreas (mainly the exocrine gland). or none at all. Insulin is not identical in all animals . It is shaped like a leaf and is about six inches long. blood glucose levels rise. After eating carbohydrates. insulin from a pig. Within the pancreas. However. Insulin is also a control signal to other body systems. such as amino acid uptake by body cells. It is located high up in your abdomen and lies across your body where the ribs meet at the bottom. genetic engineering has allowed us to synthetically produce 'human' insulin.without glucose in our cells they would not be able to function. glucose is not taken up by most body cells. Without insulin the glucose cannot enter our cells. the Islets of Langerhans contain Beta cells. click for large diagram) . Insulin makes it possible for glucose to enter our body's cells . representing just one fiftieth of the pancreas' total mass. The endocrine pancreas is the part of the pancreas that produces insulin and other hormones. Humans can receive animal insulin. The exocrine pancreas is the part of the pancreas that produces digestive juices.their levels of strength vary. Porcine insulin. The pancreas (1. is the most similar to human insulin. Etymology (history) of the word pancreas .When there is very little insulin in the blood. which synthesize (make) the insulin.

Type 1 diabetes is fatal unless the patient regularly takes exogenous insulin. As external insulin has no Cpeptide a lack of it would indicate Type 1. It is considered that the words "so-called pancreas" imply that the word pancreas had been popular at the time of Aristotle. People with Diabetes Type 1 are unable to produce insulin. but so far with no proven success. Several clinical trials have attempted to find ways of preventing or slowing down the progress of Type 1. there is a line saying "another to the so-called pancreas". meaning sweetbread.It is said that the pancreas was described first by Herophilus of Chalcedon in about 300B. Although a large number of diabetes Type 1 patients become so during childhood.the person's body has destroyed his/her own insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease .) before Herophilus. Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes or childhood diabetes.C. However. The word pancreas comes from the Greek pankreas. unlike Type 2. Approximately 15% of all people with diabetes have Type 1. The test is only effective when ALL the endogenous insulin has left the body . is not preventable. A C-peptide assay is a lab test that can tell whether somebody has Type 1 or Type 2. The majority of people who develop Type 1 are of normal weight and are otherwise healthy during onset.C.D However. Some patients have had their beta cells replaced through a pancreas transplant and have managed to produce their own insulin again. the word pancreas presumably has been accepted as an anatomical term since Herophilus. Type 1.this can take several months. Diet for a person with type 1 . Quite simply. Exercise and diet cannot reverse Type 1. Developing Type 1 after the age of 40 is extremely rare. Most patients with Diabetes Type 1 developed the condition before the age of 40. the person has lost his/her insulin-producing beta cells. In Aristotle's Historia Animalium. it is an established fact that the word pancreas had been used by Aristotle (384-322B. it can also develop after the age of 18. and the organ was named by Rufus of Ephesus in about 100A. but it had not been authorized yet as an anatomical term.

the bad news and the good news A person with Type 1 has a two to four times higher risk of developing heart disease. Meal planning needs to be consistent so that the food and insulin can work together to control blood glucose levels. kidney failure. with equal portions of carbs. How to help prevent complications Keep your blood pressure under 130/85 mm Hg. salt and have no or very little added sugar are ideal. Keep your cholesterol level below 200 mg. Portion size is also important in order to maintain a healthy bodyweight. A dietitian can help you create a food plan that suits you. Complications . Even sugary foods are acceptable now and again if you include them in your food plan. The Clinic says you do not need to restrict yourself to boring bland foods.foods that are highly nutritious. vegetables and whole grains . and low in calories. low in fat. gum disease and nerve damage. The good news is that treatment is available and it is effective and can help prevent these complications from happening. If left untreated the problem may become such that a foot has to be amputated. stroke.A person with Type one will have to watch what he/she eats. Rather you should. as well as fruits and vegetables. Foods that are low in fat. According to the Mayo Clinic there is no 'diabetes diet'. as mentioned above. Check your feet every day for signs of infection. blindness. high blood pressure. Get your dentist to check your teeth and gums twice a year. A diet that controls the person's blood sugar level as well as his/her blood pressure and cholesterol levels will help achieve the best possible health. proteins and fats at the same time each day. compared to a person who does not have any type of diabetes. If you have Type 1 you should seek the help of a registered dietitian. consume plenty of fruits. Get your eyes checked once a year. A person with Type 1 is more likely to have poor blood circulation through his/her legs and feet. rather than fast carbohydrates. Physical activity helps regulate blood sugar levels . He/she should consume foods that have complex carbohydrates. Most dietitians agree that you should aim to consume the same quantity of food. A person with Type 1 will likely go into a coma if untreated.

The scientists identified and isolated stem cells from the adult pancreas. You should try to do at least 30 minutes of exercise or physical activity each day. Victoria. The authors explain that their finding raises the hope that one day soon patients with diabetes type 1 will be able to produce their own insulin in their own regenerated beta cells in the pancreas. The benefits are enormous for your physical and mental health. Type 2 diabetes ." Possible cure for diabetes type 1 closer with stem cells Stem cells in the pancreas which can turn into insulin-producing cells have been identified by researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. If you have not done any exercise for a while. Try to make physical activity part of your daily life. Remember that exercise is good for everybody. Physical activity helps lower your blood sugar. not just people with Type 1. fitter. You will become stronger. Remember that a person with Type 1 has to manually adjust his/her insulin doses .Before starting exercise make sure your doctor tells you it is OK. "Gary Hall won an Olympic gold medal in swimming. Remember to check your blood sugar level more frequently during your first few weeks of exercise so that you may adapt your meal plans and/or insulin doses accordingly. They then developed a method for making them become insulin-producing cells that can secrete insulin in response to glucose in the bloodstream. Australia. They published their breakthrough in PLoS One (November 9th.the body will not respond automatically.and after some time you will look great! Exercise will help your circulation . 2012). your sleep will improve as will your skin tone . Physical activity or exercise means aerobic exercise. Parkville. start gently and build up gradually.helping to make sure your lower legs and feet are healthy. He had Type 1 diabetes.

the body is producing the insulin.abdominal fat secretes a group of hormones called adipokines. "Sometimes all the patient needs is to do more exercise. lose weight and eat fewer carbs" It is not uncommon for people to achieve long-term satisfactory glucose control by doing more exercise. The majority of people with Type 2 have developed the condition because they are overweight. Central obesity does not include subcutaneous fat . regulate the release of glucose by the liver. and the patient will often need to be given replacement insulin. A build-up of glucose in the blood.fat concentrated around the waist in relation to abdominal organs . Or Suffers from 'insulin resistance'. "Excess abdominal fat is much more likely to bring on Type 2 Diabetes than excess fat under your skin" Many experts say that central obesity . a combination of oral medicines will usually improve insulin production.fat under the skin. but insulin sensitivity is reduced and it does not do the job as well as it should do. 2. The risk factors for type 2 . However. As a person with Type 2 does produce his/her own insulin. The cells are not getting the glucose they need for energy and growth. bringing down their bodyweight and cutting down on their dietary intake of carbohydrates. monitored diet and bodyweight. causing two problems: 1. Type 2 generally appears later on in life. There are medications which can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce glucose production by the liver. despite these measures. This means that the insulin is not working properly. the tendency towards insulin resistance will continue. It is thought that adipokines may impair glucose tolerance. In the case of insulin resistance. The majority of people who develop diabetes Type 2 were overweight during the onset. As the disease progresses the production of insulin is undermined. The fat around your waist . In the early stages of Type 2 insulin sensitivity is the main abnormality . The glucose is not entering the body's cells properly. and treat insulin resistance to some extent. If the beta cells become further impaired the patient will eventually need insulin therapy in order to regulate glucose levels. compared to Type 1. while 55% of all Type 2 patients were obese during onset.may make individuals more predisposed to develop Type 2 diabetes. Does not produce enough insulin. so the patient must persist with his/her increased physical activity.A person with diabetes type 2 either: 1. 2. If the diabetes mellitus continues the patient will usually be prescribed orally administered anti-diabetic drugs.also there are elevated levels of insulin in the blood. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes.

South Asian and some minority groups). Women who give birth to a large baby may run a higher risk. Gestational Diabetes. researchers from Saint Luke's Mid-America Heart Institute in Kansas City. Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases People with diabetes type 2 are much more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases. and over 25 (for black.gestational diabetes . Although stents may be cheaper and appear initially to be a better option. Diabetes in the family. Treatments tend to be similar to the ones used on patients who do not have diabetes. said "Our results demonstrate that bypass surgery is not only beneficial from a clinical standpoint. Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) . The more overweight a person is the higher his/her risk will be. A woman who became temporarily diabetic during pregnancy . The economic data are important because of the large number of people with diabetes who are in need of procedures to unblock clogged arteries. or have had a heart attack. Cardiovascular problems and stroke. If you have a relative who has/had diabetes your risk might be greater. A person who has been diagnosed as having impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired glucose tolerance and does not have diabetes runs a significantly higher risk of eventually developing Type 2. bypass surgery patients in a trial had fewer heard attacks and were less likely to die prematurely. It has been found that people with severe mental health problems are more likely to develop Type 2. Any diagnosis of a problem with circulation indicates a higher risk of developing Type 2. The risk increases if the relative is a close one . A person who has had a stroke runs a higher risk of developing Type 2. It has been found in the UK that black people and people of South Asian origin have five times the risk of developing Type 2 compared to white people. The highest risk is for a person who is overweight and physically inactive. 2012). explained at the American Heart Association's (AHA's) Scientific Sessions 2012 in Los Angeles (4 November. Stents versus bypass surgery for clogged artery Patients with diabetes who have one clogged artery tend to have better results from heart bypass surgery than drug coated stents. Four-fifths of people who have Type 2 became so because they were overweight. stroke." The findings confirm the American Heart Association’s recommendations which have been in place since the 1990s that diabetes patients with one clogged heart artery should receive bypass surgery.if your father or mother has/had diabetes your risk might be greater than if your uncle has/had it. keep an eye on your weight and do exercise. especially if you are over 40 (for white people). This is also the case for people who suffer from hypertension (high blood pressure). the investigators explained. Bodyweight (and inactivity combined with bodyweight). In other words. but also economically attractive from the perspective of the US healthcare system. over the long term. The older you are the higher your risk is.Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). People with IFG or IGT have higher than normal levels of glucose in their blood. Elizabeth A Magnuson. In order to prevent diabetes it is crucial that you eat healthily. if you are very overweight and do not do any exercise your risk is greatest.Age and ethnicity. such as coronary heart disease. hypertension. Severe mental health problems. . too. Missouri. inflammatory heart disease and other cardiovascular conditions. Senior author.runs a higher risk of developing Type 2 later on.

we cannot live without them. Remember that brown rice has more fiber than white rice. Dark green leafy vegetables and dark yellow ones have a slower release of carbohydrates than most other vegetables. fruits and vegetables. as well as appropriate quantities you can significantly improve your ability to control your blood glucose and blood lipids. It is important that you do not skip meals. fat and protein you consume each time you eat. your daily intake of calories should consist of:  Carbohydrates 45% to 65% . If you consume the same amount of carbohydrates each time you eat . All it means is that you will have to be much more aware of how much carbohydrate. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are most abundantly found in fruit. no matter what your blood glucose readings indicate. Include pulses. will be well on your way towards controlling your blood glucose. triglycerides) levels    What you eat How much you eat When you eat By selecting the right types of foods. opt for whole-wheat or whole grain flours. If your consumption of glucose can follow a regular pattern. You can still consume the food you like.something you want to try to avoid. sweets. vegetables. they are a great source of fiber.glucose is needed by our cells for energy and growth. whole-grain breads have the most fiber. protein and fat mix According to the Mayo Clinic. All you will achieve by skipping meals is a more aggressive fluctuation in your blood glucose levels . They have plenty of fiber . such as beans. Carb.How is diabetes managed? Planning your food consumption Three things will have a major impact on your blood glucose and blood lipids (cholesterol.especially if those times are at the same time each day . our bodies turn the carbohydrate into blood glucose . If you are cooking or baking. Your carbohydrate intake should consist of a variety of grains. pasta and bread. Variety and moderation A varied and moderated diet is ideal if you want to enjoy good health. Our body needs carbohydrates. What does healthy eating mean? Healthy eating most certainly does not mean you will go hungry and have to spend much of your life desperately trying to resist temptation.fiber helps control blood glucose. You just have to get the balance right. it will be easier for you to balance food with your medicine(s) and physical activity with optimum blood glucose control. When consumed.

Information on the Glycemic Index from the Canadian Diabetes Association . they will probably mention the Food Pyramid. A high GI tends to cause more blood glucose fluctuations than a low one. as will your weight. The rewards will be worth it The ideal eating pattern for a person with diabetes is not really any different from what a non-diabetic person would do if he/she aimed for optimum health and fitness.  Proteins 15% to 20% Fats 20% to 35% If you adhere to your meal plan for portion sizes and eating times you should eat the same mix of carbohydrates. At the top are the fatty foods. age. the Mayo Clinic informs. The food pyramid When you talk to your health care professional. the diabetes patient has the added incentive of trying to prevent complications from developing. when during the day you are likely to be the most active). The Glycemic Index (GI) describes what effect certain foods can have on our blood glucose levels. However. diabetes educator or dietician. Your blood sugar control will be ideal. and less from those at the top. vision problems and leg and feet sores. proteins and fats each day. It is vital that you talk to an expert about your eating plan. Ask your dietician. Almost all diabetes and medical associations say that you should eat more from the groups at the bottom of the pyramid. if so. Above are meat. It needs to be tailored according to your weight. Glycemic index Not all carbohydrates are the same. kidney problems. such as grains. which medications you are taking and how physically active you are (and. then there are fruit and vegetables. Foods on offer for a diabetes patient are extensive and varied. . the more your blood glucose will fluctuate. such as cardiovascular disease. fish. At the base there are foods rich in carbohydrates. which are rich in protein. The more you vary from your food plan. You will be able to plan a wide range of tasty and interesting meals. milk and cheese.

In fact. Not all body fat is created equal The biggest risk factor for developing diabetes is being overweight. You are at an increased risk of developing diabetes if you are:   A woman with a waist circumference of 35 inches or more A man with a waist circumference of 40 inches or more To measure your waist circumference. and following complicated food charts sounds like way too much work. especially if you feel helpless to do anything about it. Taking steps to prevent and control diabetes doesn’t mean living in deprivation. you don’t have to give up sweets entirely or resign yourself to a lifetime of bland ―health food‖. but not all body fat is created equal. Be sure that the tape is snug (but does not compress your skin) and that it is parallel to the floor. While eating right is important. exhale. yet most cases are preventable with healthy lifestyle changes. Here’s a scenario that may sound familiar: your doctor’s telling you how important it is to lose weight and transform your eating habits. and measure your waist.Diabetes Diet and Food Tips Eating to Prevent. It’s not too late to make a positive change. as well as lower your bl ood pressure and cholesterol levels. After all. measuring portion sizes. ―Apples‖ store their weight around their middle. much of it deep within the belly surrounding their abdominal organs and liver. you’ve tried dieting in the past without success. place a tape measure around your bare abdomen just above your hip bone. but you’re already discouraged. You can make a big difference with healthy lifestyle changes. . Relax. The bottom line is that you have more control over your health than you think. you can still enjoy your favorite foods and take pleasure from your meals without feeling hungry or deprived. Taking control of diabetes Have you recently been diagnosed with diabetes or prediabetes? Or has your doctor warned you that you’re at risk? It can be scary to hear that your health’s on the line. Control and Reverse Diabetes Diabetes is on the rise. many studies show that waist size is a better predictor of diabetes risk than BMI (body mass index). even if you’ve already developed diabetes. This type of deep fat is closely linked to insulin resistance and diabetes. Some can even be reversed. The most important thing you can do for your health is to lose weight—and you don’t have to lose all your extra pounds to reap the benefits. So why are ―apple‖ shaped people more at risk than ―pears‖? ―Pears‖ store most of their fat close below the skin. With these tips. Your risk is higher if you tend to carry your weight around your abdomen—the so-called ―spare tire‖—as opposed to your hips and thighs. Small changes equal big results Whether you’re trying to prevent or control diabetes. there is some good news. Experts say that losing just 5% to 10% of your total weight can help you lower your blood sugar considerably. And counting calories.

In general. Diabetes and diet tip 1: Choose high-fiber. Fact: The principles of healthy eating are the same—whether or not you’re trying to prevent or control diabetes. candy and granola bars) are more likely to turn you into an "apple" by adding weight around your abdomen. cauliflower mash Whole-wheat pasta Whole-wheat or whole-grain bread High-fiber breakfast cereal (Raisin Bran. MYTH: A high-protein diet is best. You can easily eat with your family and friends if you eat in moderation. MYTH: You have to cut way down on carbs. Cutting back on sugary foods can mean a slimmer waistline as well as a lower risk of diabetes. Focus instead on high-fiber complex carbohydrates—also known as slow-release carbs. thus preventing your body from producing too much insulin.The dangers of "sugar belly" Calories obtained from fructose (found in sugary beverages such as soda. Fact: Again. a key factor in diabetes. muffins.) . You just need to be smart about what types of carbs you eat. as long as it’s a part of a healthy meal plan or combined with exercise. The serving size and the type of carbohydrates you eat are especially important. Dessert doesn’t have to be off limits. MYTH: You’ll no longer be able to eat normally. especially animal protein. Focus on whole grain carbs since they are a good source of fiber and they are digested slowly. Slow-release carbs help keep blood sugar levels even because they are digested more slowly. etc. pasta. You need special diabetic meals. carbohydrates. But what does eating right for diabetes mean? You may be surprised to hear that your nutritional needs are virtually the same everyone else: no special foods or complicated diets are necessary. winter squash. and moderate in calories. They also provide lasting energy and help you stay full longer. low in fat. What you need to know about diabetes and diet Eating right is vital if you’re trying to prevent or control diabetes. cereal. may actually cause insulin resistance. candy. Our bodies need all three to function properly. the key is to eat a balanced diet. slow-release carbs Carbohydrates have a big impact on your blood sugar levels—more so than fats and proteins—but you don’t have to avoid them. energy and sports drinks. A diabetes diet is simply a healthy eating plan that is high in nutrients. keeping blood sugar levels more even. Expensive diabetic foods generally offer no special benefit. what you eat has the biggest impact when it comes to weight loss. A healthy diet includes protein. and rice. it’s best to limit highly refined carbohydrates like white bread. and snack foods. Fact: Studies have shown that eating too much protein. While exercise is also important. and fats. yams. Choosing carbs that are packed with fiber (and don’t spike your blood sugar) Instead of… White rice White potatoes (including fries and mashed potatoes) Regular pasta White bread Sugary breakfast cereal Try these high-fiber options… Brown rice or wild rice Sweet potatoes. as well as soda. coffee drinks. Fact: The good news is that you can enjoy your favorite treats as long as you plan properly. and processed foods like doughnuts. The key is a balanced diet. Myths and facts about diabetes and diet MYTH: You must avoid sugar at all costs. It is a healthy diet for anyone! The only difference is that you need to pay more attention to some of your food choices—most notably the carbohydrates you eat.

peaches. white bread. sweets. Add some healthy fat to your dessert. As your eating habits become healthier. and fruits such as apples. They should be limited in your diet. Eat slowly and stop when full. pears. Limit white potatoes and refined grain products such as white breads and white pasta to small side dishes. Eating sweets at a meal adds extra carbohydrates. pecans). Eat a healthful type of protein at most meals. and you may find yourself craving healthier options. You can find glycemic index and glycemic load tables online. which are in fast food and many packaged foods. a newer term. 3. Because of this it is best to cut back on the other carb-containing foods at the same meal. 7. the better. beans. They include nuts and seeds. and natural granola or muesli breakfast cereals. nuts (almonds. fish. but you don’t have to rely on food charts in order to make smart choices. white pasta. dried fruit. 5. Australian chef Michael Moore has come up with an easier way to regulate the carbs you eat.    Fire foods have a high GI. such as stone-ground bread. Eat a lot of non-starchy vegetables. But maybe you have a sweet tooth and the thought of cutting back on sweets sounds almost as bad as cutting them out altogether. and beans. Completely eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks. Choose foods with healthful fats. 2. looks at both the glycemic index and the amount of carbohydrate in a food. and many processed foods. and berries. such as ice cream— to occasional treats. High GI foods spike your blood sugar rapidly. you can still enjoy a small serving of your favorite dessert now and then. and canned fruit packed in syrup spike blood sugar quickly and are not considered water foods). by David Ludwig with Suzanne Rostler (Houghton Mifflin. and papayas tend to have a lower glycemic index than typical desserts. while low GI foods have the least effect. millet. mangoes. It may seem counterintuitive to pass over the low-fat or fat-free desserts in favor of their higher-fat counterparts. and whole-wheat pasta. They include ―white foods‖ (white rice. or traditionally processed. Limit concentrated sweets—including high-calorie foods with a low glycemic index. most baked goods). The good news is that cravings do go away and preferences change. whole grains. steel-cut oats. foods that you used to love may seem too rich or too sweet. Reduce fruit juice to no more than one cup a day. such as beans. potatoes. But fat slows down the digestive process. Limit saturated fats from dairy and other animal products. seafood. lean meats. Glycemic load. brown rice. The key is moderation. and don’t skip breakfast. 4. Coal foods have a low GI and are high in fiber and protein. chips. and coal. Even tropical fruits like bananas. Have three meals and one or two snacks each day.Choosing carbs that are packed with fiber (and don’t spike your blood sugar) Instant oatmeal Croissant or pastry Steel-cut oats or rolled oats Bran muffin Making the glycemic index easy What foods are slow-release? Several tools have been designed to help answer this question. and avocados. The glycemic index (GI) tells you how quickly a food turns into sugar in your system. and whole barley. and wheat berries. such as olive oil. Diabetes and diet tip 2: Be smart about sweets Eating for diabetes doesn’t mean eliminating sugar. How to include sweets in a diabetes-friendly diet   Hold the bread (or rice or pasta) if you want dessert. Water foods are free foods—meaning you can eat as many as you like. and are low in fiber and protein. 8 principles of low-glycemic eating 1. water. 2008). or skinless chicken. Completely eliminate partially hydrogenated fats (trans fats). He classifies foods into three broad categories: fire. 8. whole -wheat bread. The harder your body needs to work to break food down. They also include ―white food‖ replacements such as brown rice. They include all vegetables and most types of fruit (fruit juice. Eat grains in the least-processed state possible: ―unbroken. walnuts. If you have diabetes.‖ such as whole-kernel bread. meaning blood sugar . 6. Adapted from Ending the Food Fight. giving you a more accurate idea of how a food may affect your blood sugar level.

Instead of frying. But if you eat them along with other healthy foods as part of your meal. whole milk dairy products. 2 for men). and eggs. You’ll enjoy it more. When you eat dessert. Nut butters are also very satisfying and full of healthy fats. When it comes to successful weight loss. soda and juice you drink. however. How many times have you mindlessly eaten your way through a bag of cookies or a huge piece of cake. When eaten on their own. Or enjoy a small chunk of dark chocolate. Rather than using heavy cream. rather than as a stand-alone snack. Trans fats. That doesn’t mean.   Unhealthy fats – The two most damaging fats are saturated fats and trans fats. If a recipe calls for 1 cup of sugar. including beer and wine. and flaxseeds. broil. Good sources include salmon. A recint study found that for each 12 oz. rather than your usual milk chocolate bar. Find healthy ways to satisfy your sweet tooth. or vanilla extract. choose calorie-free drink mixers. as alcohol can interfere with diabetes medication and insulin. But all fats are high in calories. If you’re diabetic. And cocktails mixed with soda and juice can be loaded with sugar. . are created by adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid and less likely to spoil—which is very good for food manufacturers. Cook with olive oil instead of butter or vegetable oil. You can also boost sweetness with cinnamon. do so in moderation (no more than 1 drink per day for women. yogurt.  levels don’t spike as quickly. And you don’t have to obsessively count calories or starve yourself to do it. Saturated fats are found mainly in animal products such as red meat. always monitor your blood glucose. Also focus on omega-3 fatty acids. but improve the health factor. bake. ricotta cheese. Reduce the amount of creamers and sweeteners you add to tea and coffee drinks. People with diabetes are at higher risk for heart disease. Add them to your morning cereal or have a little handful for a filling snack. or some nuts. Serve fish 2 or 3 times week instead of red meat. Eat sweets with a meal. also called partially hydrogenated oils. If you miss your carbonation kick. so it is even more important to be smart about fats. and drink only with food. your blood sugar won’t rise as rapidly. Ways to reduce unhealthy fats and add healthy fats:         Diabetes and diet tip 4: Eat regularly and keep a food diary If you’re overweight. Healthy fats – The best fats are unsaturated fats. choose to grill. that you should reach for the donuts. Instead of chips or crackers. truly savor each bite. research shows that the two most helpful strategies involve following a regular eating schedule and recording what you eat. such as peanut butter. This will keep the creamy texture. canola oil. use ⅔ or ¾ cup instead. try snacking on nuts or seeds. frozen treat. sweets and desserts cause your blood sugar to spike. Add avocado to your sandwiches instead of cheese. try sparkling water with a twist of lemon or lime or a splash of fruit juice. nutmeg. make your soups creamy by adding low-fat milk thickened with flour. Start with half of the dessert you normally eat. your risk for diabetes increases by about 15 percent. tuna. plus you’re less likely to overeat. Some fats are unhealthy and others have enormous health benefits. Primary sources include olive oil. so you should always watch your portion sizes. Reduce the amount of sugar in recipes by ¼ to ⅓. Instead of ice cream. and avocados. and replace the other half with fruit. pureed potatoes. Can you really say that you enjoyed each bite? Make your indulgence count by eating slowly and paying attention to the flavors and textures. Diabetes and your diet tip 3: Choose fats wisely Fats can be either helpful or harmful in your diet. you may be encouraged to note that you only have to lose 7% of your body weight to cut your risk of diabetes in half. blend up frozen bananas for a creamy. or reduced-fat sour cream. or stir-fry. Trim any visible fat off of meat before cooking and remove the skin before cooking chicken and turkey. If you’re going to drink. and very bad for you. nuts. When baking. which come from plant and fish sources and are liquid at room temperature. which fight inflammation and support brain and heart health. Think healthy fats. Proceed with caution when it comes to alcohol It’s easy to underestimate the amount of calories and carbs in alcoholic drinks. serving of a sugar sweetened beverage you drink a day. for example. Tricks for cutting down on sugar     Reduce how much soft drinks. use canola oil or applesauce instead of shortening or butter.

fats and proteins. Two servings of milk in a daily diet is a good option. or reversing diabetes. Keep a food diary Research shows that people who keep a food diary are more likely to lose weight and keep it off. In fact. You don’t have to become a gym rat or adopt a grueling fitness regimen.Intake of 6 almonds (soaked overnight) is also helpful in keeping a check on diabetes. People tend to eat larger portions when they are overly hungry. pulses with husk and sprouts are a healthy option and should form a part of the diet. rather than overeating one day or at one meal. Also. fats and proteins. Start your day off with a good breakfast. beans. "Per day calorie intake should be between 1. and how much you’re eating. the doctor explains.Drink tomato juice with salt and pepper ever morning on an empty stomach.Eat at regularly set times Your body is better able to regulate blood sugar levels—and your weight—when you maintain a regular meal schedule. . broccoli and spinach /leafy vegetables should be included in one's diet. green vegetables. buttermilk. Why does writing down what you eat and drink help you drop pounds? For one. What about exercise? When it comes to preventing. We move now to nutritionist Rekha Sharma to look for elaborate answers to diabetes diet for Indians. . One of the easiest ways is to start walking for 30 minutes five or more times a week. The doctor shares his recipe for diabetes diet for Indians: . it should always be accompanied with vegetable /sprouts. There is also evidence that regular exercise can improve your insulin sensitivity even if you don’t lose weight. you can’t afford to overlook exercise. Try to eat roughly the same amount of calories every day. why. controlling. . If one feels like consuming pasta or noodles. which helps you cut back on mindless snacking and emotional eating. Sanjiv Bhambani with Moolchand Medcity suggests "A diabetes diet should be high on fiber. Dr. it helps you identify problem areas —such as your afternoon snack or your morning latte—where you’re getting a lot more calories than you realized. millets and other high fiber foods should be included in the meals. or any other moderate-intensity activities— meaning you work up a light sweat and start to breathe harder. Aim for moderate and consistent portion sizes for each meal or snack. and then skimping on the next. oats. respectively.500-1. You can also try swimming. Diabetologist. channa atta. President and Director of Indian Dietetic Association shares some major diabetes diet pointers that one should follow at home or at a restaurant. so eating regularly will help you keep your portions in check. must contain milk without cream. a recent study found that people who kept a food diary lost twice as much weight as those who didn’t." He adds that a diabetes diet should "have at least two seasonal fruits and three vegetables in a diet plan.Exercise can help your weight loss efforts. Expert speak: Diabetes diet for Indians Whole grains.    Don’t skip breakfast. biking. It also increases your awareness of what. Regulating the amount of calories you eat on a day-to-day basis has an impact on the regularity of your blood sugar levels. Eat regular small meals—up to 6 per day. fresh seasonal fruits." As for dry fruits. Milk is the right combination of carbohydrates and proteins and helps control blood sugar levels. etc. the fructose can spike up your sugar level. Eating breakfast every day will help you have energy as well as steady blood sugar levels.800 calories with a proportion of 60:20:20 between carbohydrates. Even house and yard work counts. High fiber vegetables such as peas. Rekha Sharma. Diabetes diet for Indians should have the ratio of 60:20:20 for carbs. Keep calorie intake the same. and is especially important in maintaining weight loss.One teaspoon of methi seeds soaked overnight in 100 ml of water is very effective in controlling diabetes." But remember to consume these components in moderation.

This is why too much glucose builds in the bloodstream. exercise and dietary control. orange. the body either does not make enough insulin or it cannot use the insulin correctly. Here. It occurs most often in childhood or in the teens and could be inherited. this occurs around 35 to 40 years. and grapes contain high sugar.Pulses are important in the diet as their effect on blood glucose is less than that of most other carbohydrate containing foods. heed these diet tips! Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the body fails to convert sugars. insulin. Many of the foods you eat are normally converted into a type of sugar called glucose during digestion. body cells show reduced sensitivity towards it. The bloodstream then carries glucose through the body. There are two major types of diabetes: 1. Type 1 This is popularly known as Juvenile Onset Diabetes. the body produces little or no insulin. 2. Sometimes. pear and guava should be consumed. therefore these fruits should be consumed lesser than the others. Mangoes. itchy skin . Vegetables rich in fiber help lowering down the blood sugar levels and thus are healthy. it accounts for about 80 per cent of the diabetics. starches and other foods into energy. ~ Symptoms of diabetes Here are a few:     Extreme thirst and hunger Frequent urination Sores or bruises that heal slowly Dry. Part I: Diabetics. though the pancreas produce adequate insulin. Type 2 Also known as Adult Onset Diabetes. Fruits high in fiber such as papaya. apple. The more common of the two types. They must balance their daily intake of food and activites carefully with their insulin shots to stay alive. In diabetic people. fatty fish and nuts. People with this type of diabetes need daily injections of insulin. These are also low in cholesterol and are trans fat free. oral medication or insulin injections are also needed. flax seed oil. The hormone. Natural sources for these are canola oil. The best way to fight it is by weight loss. Good fats such as Omega 3 and MUFA should be consumed as they are good for the body. Type 2 diabetes is usually triggered by obesity. bananas. then turns glucose into quick energy or is stored for futher use. Here.

wholewheat or soya breads and unpolished rice. vii.   Unexplained weight loss Unusual tiredness or drowsiness Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Whether Type 1 or 2. so reduce the intake of inorganic salt. remember. Fat Excessive fat intake is definitely not a good habit. iii. If you cannot. iv. . Insufficient sucrose intake might lead to calcium being leached off the bones. You can. For non-vegetarians Try and stop the intake of red meat completely. vi. a table sugar. But. eat lean fish two to three times a week. Replace high fat cheese with low fat cottage cheese. diabetics need a balance of diet and exercise. Salt Salt is the greatest culprit for diabetics. you must have a small quantity of oil to absorb fat-soluble vitamins. Also. decrease the consumption of eggs and poultry. etc. Try and exclude fried items from your diet totally. especially vitamin E. Whole milk and products Try to switch to low fat milk and its products like yogurt (curd). Try to switch to herbal teas. White flour and its products Replace these with whole grains. you need calcium to digest sucrose. Tea and coffee Do not have than two cups of the conventional tea or decaffeinated coffee every day. and some foods you must avoid! Foods you must avoid! i. You get enough salt from vegetables in inorganic form. ii. Sugar Sucrose. provides nothing but calories and carbohydrates. Substitute sucrose with natural sugar. jaggery (gur). Try to go in for a vegetarian diet. Here are some foods you can eat. however. v. like honey.

or mix them in wheat flour to make chapattis. onion works against diabetes. Have the water in which the seeds were soaked. which prevents the conversion of starch into sugars. ii. Foods with a high glycemic index Avoid white rice. You can make a chutney with methi seeds. carrots. Onion Because of its diuretic and digestive properties. Indian blackberry (jamun) This fruit is very effective in preventing and controlling diabetes. v. Flaxseed This is the richest source of Omega 3 fatty acids. Powder the seeds of karela (measuring 1 teaspoon). Gulp a teaspoonful of these seeds with a glass of water daily. Have the juice of three to four karelas early morning on an empty stomach. Special food for diabetics i. As a vegetable. vi. mix with water and drink it.viii. which are components of insulin. it can be taken on a regular contains glucoside. Bitter gourd (karela) This vegetable contains a high dosage of 'plant insulin'. dried and powdered. too. breads and banana -. Powder the stone of the fruit and eat it -.they increase the blood-sugar levels. Garlic is rich in potassium and replaces the potassium which gets lost in urine. Raw onion is more useful. It also contains zinc and sulphur. . Garlic This is used to lower blood-sugar levels. Soak the seeds overnight. iv. You can also eat them sprouted. potatoes. It lowers the blood-sugar levels effectively. iii. Take about three to four flakes of freshly crushed garlic daily. Fenugreek (methi) It is the most common food used to control diabetes.

6. These aid slow digestion and absorption of nutrients. make sure you include antioxidants. diabetic retinopathy. 2. 5. Eat food at fixed hours. Fibre Soluble fibre. Do not overeat. oatmeal. selenium. soyabean. and thereby the uptake of glucose by the cells.It helps control diabetes because it maintains the sensitivity of the cell membrane. Many are caused by free radical damage. 8. Do not eat immediately after a workout. in your diet. etc. If you are on insulin. the same acids that are converted to blood cholesterol. They soak up excess bile acids found in the intestinal tract. Make sure the gaps between your meals are short. vii. make sure you have three proper meals with light snacks in between. found in apples. . 7. Antioxidants Diabetes is often associated with conditions like heart disease. facilitates insulin. Do not eat fast. especially vitamin C (lemons). Avoid fried foods and sweetmeats. zinc and chromium (Brewer's yeast). 3. Diet dos and don'ts for diabetics! 4. masticate and munch your food well before you swallow. resulting in a slow and steady release of glucose. ix. immune deficiency and kidney disease. kidney beans. You can boil cinnamon sticks in water and drink this water.  ~ Healthy tips for diabetics 1. help control diabetes. Therefore. as they have been shown to control blood sugar levels. E. They also help empty the stomach and trigger satiety that can help Type 2 diabetics to achieve weight loss goals. Cinnamon solution Water extracts of cinnamon have been found to promote glucose metabolism and reduce cholesterol. viii. Drink a lot of water that will help flush the toxins off your system.

8. Walking is the simplest aerobic activity. 11. Avoid alcohol consumption before and immediately after exercise. wheat bran and barley. Sprouts are a fountain of nutrients. Drink enough fluids to keep your body well hydrated. Wear appropriate shoes and socks while exercising. You can also make diabetic flour by mixing wholegrain cereal. This helps increase fibre in your diet. Avoid exercising when you have just taken your insulin shot. Include fresh vegetable salad in every meal. 10. candies /sweets or juice. You can also add flaxseed and methi seeds into the wheatflour. 4. 3. Include sprouts in the diet. Avoid hot tubs and saunas immediately after exercise. Bengal gram (kala chana). Always carry a carbohydrate snack. It is very important that you check with your doctor first before starting on an exercise regime. Check your blood-glucose levels before and after exercising. soyabean. 7. Ensure you take the following precautions: 1. Add wheat bran to your wheatflour (50% wheatflour + 50% wheat bran). ~ Now for that X-rated word: Exercise! Exercise is a good way to increase calorie deficit. 5.9. especially if you lead a sedentary lifestyle. jowar. If you want to go in for other exercise regimes. But it is very important to take certain precautions before you exercise. Have at least 20 to 25 grams of raw onion daily. 6. Always have an exercise partner. . Start an exercise routine that you will enjoy and stick to. too. Cycling is a good form of exercise. 12. blackgram (urad dal). please consult your doctor and fitness trainer. 2. bajra.

such as "a touch of diabetes." and "sugar's a little high. mental health workers. diabetes educators." are not correct and should no longer be used. nurses. People at high risk include those who:  are older than 45      are overweight have a close family member such as a parent. or steps. pharmacists. Some people are at higher risk for diabetes than others. It Is Important to Control Diabetes Taking good care of diabetes can lower the chances of getting:  heart disease      stroke eye disease that can lead to a loss of vision or even blindness nerve damage that may cause a loss of feeling or pain in the hands. feet. Diabetes affects almost every part of the body and good diabetes care requires a team of health care providers. Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes is always a serious disease. ask your doctor whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Talk to your health care team about a treatment plan that is best for you." "mild diabetes. Print out and take this information with you when you visit your doctor or other members of your team to talk about your treatment plan. Diet and daily physical activity help to control type 2 diabetes. People who have this type of diabetes need to takeinsulin every day. or a sister who has or had diabetes had diabetes during pregnancy had a baby that weight more than 9 pounds . They include doctors. Type 2 diabetes is very common and used to be called adult onset diabetes. look for things with a Principle 1: Learn as Much as You Can About Diabetes The more you know about diabetes. Terms that suggest that diabetes is not serious. Most people also need to take diabetes pills or insulin. Every person who has diabetes has different needs. will help you manage your diabetes and live a long and active life. legs. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms and do not know they have diabetes. or other parts of the body and lead to problems such as lower limb amputation or erectile dysfunction kidney failure gum disease and loss of teeth to help you take action to control your diabetes. This type of diabetes used to be called juvenile diabetes. As you read through this information.7 Principles for Good Diabetes Care These principles. the better you can work with your health care team to manage your disease and reduce your risk for problems. If you do not know. and social workers. eye specialists. You should know what type of diabetes you have. dentists. dietitians. Many People Who Have Diabetes Do Not Know It Finding and treating diabetes early can prevent health problems later on.  Type 2 diabetes. foot specialists. a brother.

Hispanic or Latino. Write down the date and time for your next visit: Date of my next visit is:____________________  Ask your doctor. or dietitian how to . and medical supplies. You should be able to get Medicare or other insurance to help you pay for diabetes supplies. medicines.    are African American.* Blood pressure. how to be physically active. Make a list of questions and concerns you want to talk about at your next visit to your health care team. or Native American have high blood pressure have high cholesterol or other abnormal blood fats are inactive Ask your doctor if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If you know someone who has any of the risk factors for diabetes. Asian American or Pacific Islander. and how to look after yourself. and co-workers for help and support when you need it Work with your health care team to get the best help to control your diabetes. If it is not. it is important to know how to eat the right foods. Ask your health care team how often you need to see them for check-ups. I talk to my health care team about:      my special needs to help control my diabetes ways to improve my ABC numbers: A1C. clinic or office staff. and Cholesterol aspirin therapy to prevent heart problems getting regular physical activity quitting smoking. Check all of the statements that describe you. pharmacist. if needed I learn from my doctor. or pharmacist to help you find resources if you have problems paying for food. ask your health care team to help you change it ask your family. To stay healthy. Using the following checklist will help you learn how to control your diabetes. How Active Are You in Controlling Your Diabetes? Look at the list below. Principle 3: Learn How to Control Your Diabetes Diabetes affects many parts of the body. it is important to:    see your health care team regularly make sure your treatment plan is working. Principle 2: Get Regular Care for Your Diabetes If you have diabetes. suggest they talk to their doctor about getting tested. podiatrist. friends. diabetes educator.

Blood pressure. Get involved in setting goals and making a treatment plan for your diabetes. . Learning how to control your diabetes can help you stay healthy. You can do this in many ways. Get the A1C Test The A1C test is usually done by your doctor. ask your pharmacist how they may affect your diabetes or prescription medicines. It should be done at least twice a year. Ask your health care team to help you learn more about diabetes and how to control it. or herbal products. You should get this test at least twice a year.    follow a meal plan to control my diabetes check my feet every day take my medicines as prescribed check my blood glucose levels *A1C (pronounced A-one-C) is a measure of your average blood glucose over the last three months. Before taking any non-prescription medicines. vitamins. and cholesterol and know your target numbers. losing a foot or leg. This test is very important because it tells how well you are taking care of your diabetes over the long term. Talk to your health care team about how to reach your target numbers. Talk to your health care team about the best ways to control your A1C. Be active every day.      I visit my doctor at least twice a year eye doctor each year and report any changes in vision dentist twice a year specialists as my doctor advises Go over any items you did not check with your health care team. Take your medicine as prescribed. Test your blood glucose on a routine basis. Principle 4: Take Care of Your Diabetes ABC's A major goal of treatment is to control the ABCs of diabetes: A1C (blood glucose average). Blood pressure. and early death from heart attack or stroke. kidney disease.      Follow a meal plan that was made for you. and Cholesterol. and Cholesterol. blood pressure. you and your health care team need to monitor the diabetes ABCs: A1C. Principle 5: Monitor Your Diabetes ABCs To reduce your risk for diabetes problems such as blindness. It measures how well your blood glucose has been controlled over the last three months.

Check Your Own Blood Glucose You may need to check your own blood glucose on a regular basis to help control your diabetes. The target glucose range for most people using plasma is 90 to 130 before meals and 110 to 150 at bedtime. Discuss what you need to do to reach your target. Talk to your health care team about the best ways to check your own blood glucose. You may need to check it yourself. Keep a record of your results and show it to your health care team. If so.  The target blood pressure for most people with diabetes is less than 130/80. Discuss what you need to do to reach your target. Most insurance companies. Know Your Cholesterol LDL is the bad cholesterol that builds up in your blood vessels. and what supplies you need. when. Discuss what you need to do to reach your target. including Medicare. It will tell you what your blood glucose is at the time you test. Some meters and test strips report blood glucose results as plasma glucose values which are 10 to 15 percent higher than whole blood glucose values. Ask your health care team what your blood glucose targets are before meals. Ask your doctor or pharmacist whether your meter and strips provide whole blood or plasma results. . It helps you know when you and your health care team need to take extra action. Discuss your A1C target with your health care team and write it down.   The target glucose range for most people using whole blood is 80 to 120 before meals and 100 to 140 at bedtime. Your doctor should check your LDL at least once a year. find out how. Ask how to get the supplies you need to do the tests. Know Your Blood Pressure High blood pressure makes your heart work too hard. now pay for diabetes supplies. Keep a Record of Your Results Keeping a record of your results helps you reach your targets. Use the record card to keep track of your ABC numbers. It causes the vessels to narrow and harden. Ask your health care team what your blood pressure is and keep a dated record of the results. and at bedtime and write them down. which can lead to a heart attack. This leads to strokes and other problems such as kidney disease. after meals. Discuss your LDL cholesterol target with your health care team and keep a record of the results. Discuss your blood pressure target with your health care team and write it down. Ask your health care team what your A1C is and keep a dated record of the results. The target A1C for most people with diabetes is less than 7. Ask what to do if your blood glucose is often higher or lower than it should be. Your blood pressure should be checked at every visit.  The target LDL cholesterol for most people with diabetes is less than 100. Ask if you need to test your blood pressure yourself.

nerve damage. Call your dentist right away if you have problems with your teeth or gums.     Be active every day. If you have questions. impotence. blood pressure. talk to your pharmacist or doctor about your medicines. Eat a variety of foods that are high in fiber and low in fat and salt. gum disease. Make sure your eyeglasses or contact lens prescription is up to date so you can see clearly. Check your mouth daily for gum or tooth problems. loss of feeling. Here are the key self-care activities to help you manage your diabetes and live a long and healthy life.     Check your blood pressure as prescribed by your doctor. eye and kidney problems. Daily  Follow your diabetes meal plan with the correct portion sizes. stroke. and cholesterol to prevent the problems of diabetes: heart attack. foot or leg amputation. As Needed  Test your blood glucose as prescribed by your doctor. Work with your health care team to prevent diabetes problems. and cholesterol (see Principle 5). here are some tests that you will need: Triglycerides (a type of blood fat) Dilated eye exam to check for eye problems Foot check Complete foot exam to check for circulation. Principle 7: Get Checked for Long-Term Problems and Treat Them See your health care team regularly to check for problems that diabetes can cause. Tell your podiatrist or health care team about any changes with your feet. or changes in shape Urine test to check for kidney problems Dental exams to prevent gum disease and loss of teeth Get yearly Get yearly Get every visit Get yearly Get yearly . Look at your feet and wash and dry them well each day. Report any changes in your vision to your health care team. Reach and stay at a healthy weight. Take medicines as prescribed. blood pressure. Along with the checks of your A1C.Principle 6: Prevent Long-Term Diabetes Problems People with diabetes must control their blood glucose. Stop smoking. Regular check-ups help to prevent problems or find them early when they can be treated and managed well. and loss of teeth. sores.