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Second planet from sun. named after the roman goddess of love and beuty. Venus is sometimes called the sister planet of the earth beacuse of its similar size,gravity and bulk composition. consist of 96% carbon dioxide. hottest planet in the Solar System. It has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features. Venus' surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism. Venus is always brighter than any star outside our solar system.


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Also known as our home planet. Earth formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within its first billion years. largest of our 4 teresstrial planets. During one orbit around the Sun, the Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times, creating 365.26 solar days, or one sidereal year. Earth's atmosphere and oceans formed by volcanic activity and outgassing that included water vapor. About 71% of the surface is covered by salt water oceans, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.


is Earth's only natural satellite.

located 22° south of the equator. • • • • SATURN • • Saturn is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth.846 mi) at its equator. a persistent anticyclonic storm that is larger than Earth. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth of that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron. although helium only comprises about a tenth of the number of molecules. the Moon recedes from Earth at the rate of approximately 38 mm a year. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet. nickel and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds). an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid . Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium. Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft. JUPITER • • Largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142. most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter.• • • • the Earth's Neighboor. diameter about one quarter of earth.984 km (88. Due to the moon and earth's tidal interaction.

ammonia. with stress on the first syllable. Saturn has at least 150 moons and moonlets. Humor: Uranus is frequently a subject of crude humor due to the colloquial pronunciation of its name as "your-anus". Uranus revolves around the Sun once every 84 Earth years.630 km to 120. Saturn's atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter's. and both are of different chemical composition than the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. Neptune is the most dense. • • • URANUS • • Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune. contains more "ices" such as water.700 km above Saturn's equator. average approximately 20 meters in thickness and are composed of 93% water ice with traces of tholin impurities and 7% amorphous carbon.xD • • • NEPTUNE • Among the gaseous planets in the solar system. Uranus's atmosphere. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus. .77 degrees. and methane. these jokes do not reflect the pronunciation preferred by astronomers. which is "you-ranus". composed mostly of ice particles with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. Uranus has an axial tilt of 97. The rings extend from 6.helium and an outer gaseous layer. • Saturn has a prominent ring system that consists of nine continuous main rings and three discontinuous arcs. but Saturn's bands are much fainter and are much wider near the equator. 53 of which have formal names. which is 15 times the mass of Earth but not as dense. However. so its axis of rotation is approximately parallel with the plane of the Solar System. although similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium. along with traces of hydrocarbons.

The rings may consist of ice particles coated with silicates or carbon-based material. except at the lowest elevations for short periods. and other elements that typically make up rock. Neptune's more varied weather when compared to Uranus is believed to be due in part to its higher internal heating. Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye. which most likely gives them a reddish hue. • • MARS • • it is often described as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. this planet has undergone differentiation. valleys. deserts. and polar ice caps of Earth. though one much less substantial than that of Saturn. as can its reddish coloring. Like Earth. • • • • MERCURY • Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System. Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere. extending from Neptune's orbit at 30 AU out to about 55 AU from the Sun. The Kuiper belt is a ring of small icy worlds.with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days. Neptune's atmosphere is 80% hydrogen and 19% helium. similar to the asteroid belt but far larger. Neptune has a planetary ring system. Neptune's orbit has a profound impact on the region directly beyond it. . metallic core region overlaid by less dense materials.• • At high altitudes. having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes. known as the Kuiper belt. metals. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure. resulting in a dense.

the Sun has been an object of veneration in many cultures throughout human history. such as the Earth. 800 °F) during the day at some equatorial regions. These fissionable materials trapped • • . Mercury's surface experiences the greatest temperature variation of all the planets. The brightness of the sun can cause pain from looking at it with the naked eye. SUN • • • • Is the star in the center of our solar system. it moves around its orbit in about 116 days. Humanity's most fundamental understanding of the Sun is as the luminous disk in the sky.which is more faster than other planets Because it has almost no atmosphere to retain heat. doing so for brief periods is not hazardous for normal non-dilated eyes. ranging from 100 K (−173 °C. Mercury does not experience seasons in the same way as most other planets. however. it appears to move around its orbit in about 116 days. Mercury makes three rotations about its axis for every two revolutions around its orbit. whose presence above the horizon creates day and whose absence causes night. −280 °F) at night to 700 K (427 °C. The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius.Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars may result in permanent damage to the retina without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. which is much faster than any other planet. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields. Like other natural phenomena.• • • • • Seen from the Earth. as seen relative to the fixed stars. Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy. The only other source of energy the Earth has are the fissionable materials generated by the cataclysmic death of another star.

in the Earth's crust is what gives rise to geothermal energy. . which drives the volcanism on Earth while also making it possible for mankind to fuel nuclear reactors.