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MPLS overview

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wolfgang Riedel wriedel@cisco.com Systems Engineer ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing Cisco Systems GmbH

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Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Evolution of MPLS
• From tag switching • Proposed in IETF—Later combined with other proposals from IBM (ARIS), Toshiba (CSR)
Cisco Calls a BOF at IETF to Standardize Tag Switching MPLS Croup Formally Chartered by IETF Cisco Ships MPLS (Tag Switching) Cisco Ships Traffic Engineering Deployed MPLS TE MPLS VPN Deployed Large Scale Deployment

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© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Challenges
Service Providers Generate new services Protect existing Infrastructure—ATM/FR Combine private data services with Internet services Move into rapid deployment Cost saving Enterprise Lower cost of WAN connectivity Migration path Lower cost of managing separate Data and Voice networks Campus Service Provider “multiple customers” Replacement of campus wide vlan´s
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© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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GRE. All rights reserved. Restoration Mechanisms L2 protocols (PPP. Cisco Systems.) © 2001. Enet. POS..MPLS advanced services L2 VPN IPv6 6PE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF ATOM Any Transport over MPLS IP switching Virtual Private Networks DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Per-Label Forwarding. Inc. .. 12:24 5 . FR. ATM. Multicast. Queuing.

Inc. Enet. GRE. Queuing.MPLS Innovation & Standards L2 VPN IPv6 6PE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs * VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM ATOM 2702 Requirements for Virtual Private Networks Any Transport over MPLS Traffic Engineering Over MPLS IP switching DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) LDP 3031 Multiprotocol Label Switching Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) RSVP Architecture * 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding * 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services Per Label Forwarding. POS. 12:24 .. All rights reserved. . Multicast. Cisco Systems.. ATM. FR. Restoration 3034 Label Switching on Frame Field in IP Headers * CEF 2475 An Architecture for Differentiated Mechanisms Relay Networks Services 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC 2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group * Switching * L2 protocols (PPP.) 2598 An Expedited Forwarding PHB * 3036 LDP Specification * 2697 A Single Rate Three Color Marker 3037 LDP Applicability * 2698 © A Two Rate Three Color Marker 6 2001.

Multicast. Enet. Queuing.MPLS Innovation-in-Progress [Draft Rosen] • An Architecture for L2VPNs * draft-rosen-ppvpn-l2vpn-00.txt 7 . Cisco Systems... Restoration • Encapsulation for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Mechanisms • MPLS Support of Over MPLS * Differentiated Services * draft-martini-l2circuit-encapmpls-02.txt Information Base (LFIB) Per-LabelMethods Forwarding. FR. 12:24 L2 protocols (PPP. Inc.) draft-ietf-mpls-diff-ext-09. . ATM. POS.txt © 2001.txt L2 VPN IPv6 6PE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF ATOM Any Transport over MPLS IP switching Virtual Private Networks DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) [Martini Drafts] • Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS * Label Forwarding draft-martini-l2circuit-transmpls-06. GRE. All rights reserved.

Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. 12:24 8 .8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Technology Basics 3.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Cisco Systems.5 Traffic Engineering 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.9 QoS 5.7 Fast Reroute 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. All rights reserved.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Inc. Summary © 2001.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.

Inc. All rights reserved.MPLS Concept At Edge: Classify packets Label them In Core: Forward using labels (as opposed to IP addr) Label indicates service class and destination Edge Label Switch Router Label Switch Router (LSR) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) © 2001. 12:24 9 . Cisco Systems.

g.MPLS Operation 1a. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. IS-IS) establish reachability to destination networks 1b. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet. LSR switches packets using label swapping 12:24 10 . and “labels” packets © 2001. OSPF. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishes label to destination network mappings 4. Edge LSR at egress removes label and delivers packet 2. Existing routing protocols (e. 3. Inc. performs Layer 3 value-added services.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.Encapsulations ATM Cell Header GFC VPI VCI PTI CLP HEC DATA Label PPP Header (Packet over SONET/SDH) PPP Header Label Header Layer 3 Header LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Header Layer 3 Header © 2001. 12:24 11 .

Cisco Systems. 1 bit COS/EXP = Class of Service. All rights reserved. 12:24 12 .Label Header for Packet Media 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Tag COS S TTL Label = 20 bits S = Bottom of Stack. 8 bits • Can be used over Ethernet. or PPP links • Uses two new Ethertypes/PPP PIDs • Contains everything needed at forwarding time © 2001.3. Inc. 802. 3 bits TTL = Time to Live.

7 Fast Reroute 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Technology Basics 3. 12:24 13 . Evolution of MPLS 2. Summary © 2001.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Inc. Cisco Systems.9 QoS 5.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. All rights reserved.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

Label Distribution Protocol • Defined in RFC 3036 and 3037 • Used to distribute labels in a MPLS network • Forwarding equivalence class How packets are mapped to LSPs (Label Switched Paths) • Advertise labels per FEC Reach destination a. Inc.d with label x • Neighbor discovery Basic and extended discovery © 2001. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.b. 12:24 14 .c.

TDP and LDP • Tag Distribution Protocol Pre-cursor to LDP Used for Cisco tag switching • TDP and LDP supported on the same box Per neighbor/link basis Per target basis © 2001. 12:24 15 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

12:24 16 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.RSVP and Label Distribution • Used in MPLS traffic engineering • Additions to RSVP signaling protocol • Leverage the admission control mechanism of RSVP • Label requests are sent in PATH messages and binding is done with RESV messages • EXPLICT-ROUTE object defines the path over which setup messages should be routed • Using RSVP has several advantages © 2001.

BGP-Based Label Distribution • Used in the context of MPLS VPNs • Need multi-protocol extensions to BGP • Routers need to be BGP peers Works in both RR and non-RR environment • Label mapping info carried as part of NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information) © 2001. All rights reserved. 12:24 17 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

128.89 128... All rights reserved. .... ..... .MPLS Example: Routing Information In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl 128. 0 0 1 1 . …) © 2001. You can reach 171.89 through me 1 171. ... ..89 128.89 171..69 Routing Updates (OSPF...89 and 171. 0 128.69 . 1 1 1 1 ..89 171. 128..69 through me 18 .89 .69 171. Inc. .89 128. 0 0 ..69 ... EIGRP.69 171.69 through me 0 You can reach 128.89 1 You can reach 128. Cisco Systems.....

9 9 7 7 9 9 128.89 171..69 .89 .69 171. 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 128...69 ...69 171.69 0 Use Lbl 9 for 128...89 128. 0 0 ....... ... All rights reserved. Inc. 0 0 1 1 ..MPLS Example: Assigning Labels In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl - 128. .69 Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) (Downstream Allocation) © 2001.... . . Use Lbl 7 for 171.. .89 1 Use Lbl 4 for 128.89 1 171.89 171. . 1 1 1 1 .89 128. Cisco Systems...89 and Use Lbl 5 for 171.69 19 . - 0 128.89 128...

. . 9 9 7 7 9 9 128...89 171.4Data 4 128.89 128...89...MPLS Example: Forwarding Packets In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out I’face I’face Out Out TLbl TLbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face I’face Lbl Lbl - 128. .69 171. 0 0 .69 128.4 Data 9 128.69 171.4 Data Label Switch Forwards Based on Label © 2001...25..69 . ..89.25. 1 1 1 1 .. Inc.25.89 . . All rights reserved.. 20 .89 171. . 0 0 1 1 ..89 128..89. 0 - 128....89. Cisco Systems. 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 128.... .25.89 128.89 1 0 128.69 ...4 Data 1 171..

Cisco Systems. E. All rights reserved. etc. 12:24 21 . fast re-route • Outer label used to route/switch the MPLS packets in the network • Allows building services such as MPLS VPNs Traffic engineering and fast re-route VPNs over traffic engineered core Any transport over MPLS Inner Label IP Header Outer Label TE Label IGP Label VPN Label © 2001. Inc.g.Label Stacking • Arrange labels in a stack • Inner labels can be used to designate services/FECs. VPNs.

7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.5 Traffic Engineering 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.7 Fast Reroute 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Inc. Summary © 2001. All rights reserved. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Technology Basics 3. Cisco Systems. 12:24 22 .9 QoS 5.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.

MPLS Features ... That’s all nice but .. Cisco Systems. 12:24 23 .. All rights reserved. How can you make money with it? © 2001. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. service transparency Storage TDM PL GigE PL Wavelength Enterprise VoIP Internet Access L3 VPN L2 VPN © 2001. Cisco Systems.Metro Solutions – Architectural flexibility. Residential Data/Voice/Video L2 VPN Internet Access L3 VPN 12:24 24 .

with enough fiber you could do anything? In what room do you want me to put it? © 2001. Inc. 12:24 25 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.MPLS IP-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Site TDM MUX Frame-Relay ATM Branch Remote Sites LL INTERNET INTERNET Home MPLS IP-VPN Central Site PSTN ISDN ADSL/Cable IPSec Travel Branch Home Travel Services © 2001. Branch Home 12:24 26 .

Inc. Evolution of MPLS 2. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. All rights reserved.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Technology Basics 3.7 Fast Reroute 4. Summary © 2001.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.9 QoS 5. 12:24 28 . Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Cisco Systems.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.

MPLS L2-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Sites Regional Site Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM Ethernet Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM MPLS IP-VPN L2 VPN Ethernet Ethernet Central Site Central Site © 2001. Ethernet Frame-Relay ATM Regional Site 12:24 29 . Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

12:24 30 .What Is a VPN? • VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to communicate with each other • VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies Policies determine both connectivity and QoS among sites Policies established by VPN customers Policies could be implemented completely by VPN service providers Using BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms © 2001. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

MPLS-based IP-VPN Architecture • Scalable VPNs • IP QoS and traffic engineering • Easy to manage and No VC provisioning required • Provides a level of Security equivalent to Frame-relay and ATM • Supports the deployment of new value-added applications • Customer IP address freedom Corp B Site 3 VPN A Site 2 MPLS Network Corp A Site 1 MPLS VPN Renault MPLS VPN Bankcorp Corp B Site 1 Traffic Separation at Layer 3 Each VPN Has Unique RD Corp B Site 2 VPN MembershipBased on Logical Port VPN A Site 3 © 2001. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. 12:24 31 .

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Using Labels to Build an IP VPN Cust A A --------- A --------- Cust A B B --------- Cust A Cust B --------- MPLS Network Cust B • The network distributes labels to each VPN Only labels for other VPN members are distributed Each VPN is provisioned automatically by IP routing • Privacy and QoS of ATM without tunnels or encryption Each network is as secure as a Frame Relay connection • One mechanism (labels) for QoS and VPNs—no tradeoffs © 2001. Inc. 12:24 32 .

Service Provider Benefits of MPLS-Based VPNs VPN B VPN A VPN C VPN C VPN B Multicast Hosting Intranet VPN A VPN A VPN B VPN C VPN A VPN B VPN C VoIP Extranet • Overlay VPN Pushes content outside the network Costs scale exponentially Transport dependent Groups endpoints. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. not groups Complex overlay with QoS. Inc. tunnels. IP • MPLS-based VPNs Enables content hosting inside the network “Flat” cost curve Transport independent Easy grouping of users and services Enables QoS inside the VPNs © 2001. 12:24 33 .

March 30.MPLS Based IP-VPN Security Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the Security of Frame Relay and ATM Miercom. Inc.pdf Security © 2001. Cisco Systems.mier. 2001 http://www. 12:24 35 . All rights reserved.com/reports/cisco/MPLS-VPNs.

2 POS 2/1/0 100.200.3 1750 100.4.200.111 YELLOW-Oxford 3640 100.2 10.200.200.200.200.200.200.1 OC3 POS OC3 POS 9 Customers network topology is not revealed to the outside world POS 1/0 100.110.3.104 BLUE-Oxford BLUE-Dover 2611 100.4 3.200.103.200. Cisco Systems.101 10.102.1 POS 2/0 100.102 9 Attackers cannot gain access into VPNs or Service Provider’s network Test Network Topology Security 9 Impossible for attacker to insert “spoofed” label into a Cisco MPLS network and thus gain access to a VPN or the MPLS core © 2001. 12:24 36 .200.4.200.200.200.200. All rights reserved.200.4.105.200.1 LONDON GSR12008 100.4.3.105.1 Si DOVER 7505 100.2 T1 FR dlci 101 OSPF Ser 0 100.106.110.200.101.110.110 10.111.1 OC3 POS OXFORD 7206 100.101.3.2 SER 5/0:0 100. Inc.4.200.5.109.5 T1 FR dlci 110 Static pvc 0/11 eBGP AS71 ATM1/0 100.200.200.1 T1 FR dlci 109 RIP v2 Ser 0 100.200.200.2 Ser 0/0 100.4 RED-Dover 1750 100.102.105 RED-Glascow 2611 100.200.104.200.112.3 3.104.4.103 Ser 5/0:0 100.200.5.200.200.4 BLUE-Glascow 3640 100.200.200.200.200.2 pvc 1/1 OS PF ATM1/0 100.2 10.200.200.3.106.200.5.109.112.2 Ser 3/0 100.2 Ser 1/0 100.200.103.107 POS 1/0 100.200.200.200.200.1 POS 1/0 100.106 ATM 1/0 100.200.1 GLASCOW 7206 100.112 SER 1/0/1:0 100.111.Validating Cisco MPLS Based IP-VPN as a Secure Network Miercom independent testing confirmed Cisco MPLS VPN is secure: POS 2/0 100.1 Si Si 9 Customers can maintain own addressing plans and the freedom to use either public or private address space T1 FR dlci 104 RIP v2 SER 1/0:0 100.1 POS 1/1 100.5 10.5.200.1 SER 1/0/0:0 100.200.2 T1 FR dlci 102 eBGP AS72 ATM2/0/0 100.109 YELLOW-Dover 3640 100.

) • Connectivity to the Internet: VPN service providers may also provide connectivity to the Internet to its VPN customers Common infrastructure is used for both VPN and the Internet connectivity services • Simplifies operations and management for VPN service providers: No need for VPN service providers to set up and manage a separate backbone or “virtual backbone” for each VPN © 2001. Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 38 . Cisco Systems.Key Features (Cont.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.BGP/MPLS VPN—Summary • Supports large scale VPN service • Increases value add by the VPN service provider • Decreases service provider cost of providing VPN services • Mechanisms are general enough to enable VPN service provider to support a wide range of VPN customers © 2001. 12:24 39 .

7 Fast Reroute 4. Inc.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Summary © 2001. All rights reserved. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Cisco Systems. Evolution of MPLS 2.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.9 QoS 5.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. 12:24 40 .7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.

Cisco Systems. Inc. B 12:24 41 .Ethernet Virtual Circuit – EoMPLS Access (L2) Ethernet Core MPLS Access (L2) Ethernet MPLS PE Cisco 7600 MPLS PE Cisco 7600 MPLS 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet Enterprise Campus A Ethernet Circuit EoMPLS Tunnel in Core Ethernet Mapped Circuit To the Enterprise this network is a pair of Pt to Pt 10/100/Gbit Bridged Ethernet Links Enterprise Campus B A © 2001. All rights reserved.

Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Technology Basics 3.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Summary © 2001.9 QoS 5.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Inc.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. Cisco Systems.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. All rights reserved. 12:24 42 .Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.VPLS ( Transparent LAN Services) • Point to Multipoint Service • Multipoint to Multipoint Service • The network will simulate a L2 switch © 2001. 12:24 43 .

MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Technology Basics 3.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.9 QoS 5. Evolution of MPLS 2.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.7 Fast Reroute 4. 12:24 44 .Agenda MPLS Overview 1.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. All rights reserved. Inc.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Cisco Systems. Summary © 2001.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.

FR -->| |<-----.ES:FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC ---------->| |<-. Inc. 12:24 45 .L2 Transport: AToM |<---------. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.PW:Emulated VC ------>| Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC PSN Tunnel: MPLS Tunnel Site1A CE 1A Attachment VC / L2 circuit Attachment VC / L2 circuit |<--FR -->| Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC PE1 MPLS (LSP or RSVPRSVP-TE) PE2 Site1B CE 1B MPLS Core Site 2B Site 2A CE 2A Attachment VC / L2 circuit IP Network Attachment VC / CE 2B L2 circuit AToM Reference Model ES Æ Emulated Services: FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC Attachment VC (AVC): FR DLCI/Ethernet VLAN/ATM PVC/PPP/HDLC PW Æ Pseudo-Wire: Emulated VC (EVC): MPLS LSP PSN Æ Packet Switched Network (Tunnel): MPLS LSP or RSVP-TE © 2001.

All rights reserved. 12:24 46 . Cisco Systems.Any Transport over MPLS AToM FR Cust DLCI 101 IPoFR cust Edge-LSR LSR DLCI 202 Service Provider Example: Frame Relay over MPLS © 2001. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.txt • Ethernet • 802.txt draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01. Cisco Systems.1Q (Ethernet VLAN) • Frame Relay PDU • ATM AAL5 PDU • ATM cells (non AAL5 mode) • Cisco HDLC • PPP © 2001. 12:24 47 .Transports over MPLS AToM draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05.

Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Technology Basics 3.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.7 Fast Reroute 4.9 QoS 5. Summary © 2001.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. 12:24 48 .2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.

All rights reserved. online trading. Inc. point-to-point bandwidth guarantees • Capacity planning TE improves aggregate availability of the network © 2001. transparently to users Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching) • Build new services—Virtual leased line services VoIP toll-bypass applications.Why Traffic Engineering? • Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns Election news. Cisco Systems. major sports events • Better utilization of available bandwidth Route on the non-shortest path • Route around failed links/nodes Fast rerouting around failures. 12:24 49 .

50 . Traffic to R3. All rights reserved. R4. Inc. R5 Use Upper Route Alternate Path Under-Utilized © 2001.IP Routing and the Fish R3 R4 R8 R2 R5 R1 R6 R7 IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing Flows from R8 and R1 Merge at R2 and Become Indistinguishable From R2. Cisco Systems.

Inc.Solution: Toll Bypass with Voice/Data Converged Network PBX with Circuit Emulation Interface PSTN – Traditional TDM Network Class 5 legacy switches CE Fast Reroute in the core CE Enterprise LAN PE Toll Bypass Enterprise LAN PE GB Tunnel Solution Requirements ⇒ QoS on CE Router + QoS on PE Router + Mapping Traffic to Tunnels + QoS on Core Routers = DiffServ-Aware Traffic Engineering 12:24 © 2001. Cisco Systems. 52 . All rights reserved.

DiffServ Aware TE Virtual Leased Line Traditional Central Telephony Office PSTN— Traditional TDM Network MPLS Network Voice Trunking VoIP Gateway PE PE CE Enterprise LAN VPN Service Regular TE Tunnel PE PE GB-TE Tunnel Regular TE Tunnel Physical Link Class 5 Legacy switches Central Office Traditional Telephony Toll Bypass GB Tunnel PE PE VoIP Gateway CE Enterprise LAN Internet Service Enterprise LAN Internet Access Router Internet Access Router Enterprise LAN 12:24 © 2001. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 53 . Inc.

Summary © 2001. Inc.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. All rights reserved.7 Fast Reroute 4. Cisco Systems.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.5 Traffic Engineering 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Technology Basics 3.9 QoS 5. 12:24 55 . Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.

All rights reserved. 56 .What Is Fast Reroute? Definition Fast ReRoute (FRR) is a link or node protection feature. Cisco Systems. Inc. while the head-end is rerouting the failed LSP © 2001. allowing for temporary bypassing of the failed link or node over a preestablished tunnel.

What is Fast Re-route? (cont.)
Head-end Router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Link Resilience (Next-hop Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Node Resilience (Next-next Hop Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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All rights reserved.Carrier Supporting Carrier & Inter-Provider Access Carrier Supporting Carrier • Hierarchical relationship • Opportunity: Offer backbone services to peer or smaller carriers Inter-Provider Access • Peer relationship • Opportunity: Provide carrier services on behalf of other carriers Backbone Carrier Carrier A Customer Carriers Carrier B © 2001. Cisco Systems. 12:24 61 . Inc.

Dedicated IPv4 routing session per VRF – usually eBGP. © 2001. Cisco Systems. Adjacent ASBR is seen as a CE through separate logical interface. All rights reserved. Inc.) VRF-to-VRF Connections Between AS Border Routers ASBRs collect the client VPN routes through configured VRFs. 12:24 62 .Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 12:24 63 . Inc.Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.) VPN Routing Distribution Between MPLS VPN Backbones •VPN routing information distributed across inter-AS network © 2001.

12:24 64 .) Data Flow – Label Switching and IP Forwarding Data flow: Label switching within AS and IP forwarding on InterAS link © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.

All rights reserved.) © 2001. Cisco Systems.) Customer Carrier is Not Running MPLS (Cont. 65 . Inc.MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.

Inc. 66 . Cisco Systems.) Customer Carrier is Running MPLS (Cont.MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont. All rights reserved.) IBGP © 2001.

Technology Basics 3. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Summary © 2001. Cisco Systems.5 Traffic Engineering 4. All rights reserved. 12:24 67 .2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Inc.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.9 QoS 5.

PE PE Receiver 3 CE D Dallas Dallas C CE for that customer starts sending traffic • Interested receivers 1 & 2 join that High Bandwidth source • Data-MDT is formed for this High-Bandwidth source High bandwidth multicast source Join high bandwidth source Receiver 2 12:24 © 2001.Multicast VPN (MVPN) Receiver 4 Join high bandwidth source CE A New New York York CE B1 San San Francisco Francisco CE B2 Receiver 1 • Customer CE devices joins the MPLS Core through provider’s PE devices CE E A B PE PE E PE Default MDT For low Bandwidth & control traffic only. All rights reserved. Los Los Angeles Angeles MPLS VPN Core • A Default MDT is created connecting all the PE’s within a VPN for signaling and low bandwidth flows CE • A High-bandwidth source F Data MDT D C For High Bandwidth traffic only. Inc. 68 . Cisco Systems.

Technology Basics 3.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Summary © 2001. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Inc.9 QoS 5.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Cisco Systems. 12:24 69 .2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. All rights reserved.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

All rights reserved.Backbone and Edge QoS Design Scope • • • • Loss rate Latency Jitter Throughput • Loss rate • Latency • Jitter © 2001. Availability • Subsecond Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) convergence • Sub-100 ms Fast Reroute (FRR) • High availability12:24 70 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

and Short Pipe.Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. Inc. Cisco Systems. Pipe.) QoS Transparency • An MPLS packet carries two (or more) DiffServ markings. 71 . © 2001. • Modes are only relevant when a label is popped/pushed. • Three modes of interaction are defined between markings: Uniform. All rights reserved.

12:24 72 .Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. Inc.) QoS Transparency: Uniform Mode © 2001. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

12:24 75 . Cisco Systems.) QoS Transparency: Pipe Mode © 2001. All rights reserved.Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. Inc.

Inc.) QoS Transparency: Short Pipe Mode © 2001. 12:24 78 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.

7 Fast Reroute 4. All rights reserved. Technology Basics 3.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Cisco Systems.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Inc.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2.9 QoS 5. 12:24 81 . Summary © 2001.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.

Cisco Systems. and transport IP+ATM Switch • Network-based VPNs with MPLS: a foundation for value-added service delivery Flexible user and service grouping (biz-to-biz) Flexibility of IP and the QoS and privacy of ATM Enables application and content hosting inside each VPN Transport independent Low provisioning costs enable affordable managed services © 2001. Inc. Business IP VPNs.MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery IP ATM Services Services • IP+ATM: MPLS brings IP and ATM together IP PNNI MPLS Eliminates IP “over” ATM overhead and complexity One network for Internet. 12:24 82 . All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved.MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery • MPLS traffic engineering Provides routing on diverse paths to avoid congestion Better utilization of the network Better availability using protection solution (FRR) • Guaranteed bandwidth services Combine MPLS traffic engineering and QoS Deliver point-to-point bandwidth guaranteed pipes Leverage the capability of traffic engineering Build solution like virtual leased line and toll trunking © 2001. Cisco Systems. 12:24 83 .

Inc.MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery IP Optical Services Services IP O-UNI MPLS • IP+Optical: MPLS brings IP and Optical together Eliminates IP “over” optical complexity Uses MPLS as a control plane for setting up lightpaths (wavelengths) One control plane for Internet (GMPLS). business IP VPNs. 12:24 84 . All rights reserved. and Optical transport IP+Optical Switch Frame Relay Frame Relay • Any transport over MPLS Transport ATM. Cisco Systems. PPP over MPLS Provide services to existing installed base Protect Investment in the installed gear Leverage capabilities of the packet core Combine with other packet-based services such as MPLS VPNs ATM © 2001. FR. Ethernet.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Literature MPLS and VPN Architectures Ivan Pepelnjak Jim Guichard ISBN 1-58705-002-1 © 2001. 12:24 85 .

All rights reserved. 12:24 86 . Inc. Cisco Systems.© 2001.

That’s all nice but . All rights reserved... Inc. How does this help me for my datacenter ? © 2001.MPLS Features ... Cisco Systems. 12:24 87 .

All rights reserved. 12:24 88 .Customer Strategies Mapping Customer Problems to Cisco Solutions Data Center Solution Set Data Center Networking Distributed Data Centers Data Center Data Security Application/Server Optimization Highly Availability Infrastructure Strategies • Server. Application and DC consolidation • Migration to Web Apps • Comprehensive Security • Services Model • Storage Consolidation • Business Continuance & Disaster Recovery Storage Network Inter-Data Center Connectivity © 2001. Inc. Cisco Systems.

Data Center Networking Internet ISP A ISP B Primary Data Center IP Network Distributed Data Center Internet SP A SP B Intranet Campus Core External protection Internal protection Primary Data Center Distributed Data Center IP Network Data Center Infrastructure Server & Application Optimization Server farm protection Data Center Security Storage Networking Distributed Data Centers © 2001. 12:24 89 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc.© 2001. 12:24 101 . Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems.© 2001. All rights reserved. 12:24 187 . Inc.