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GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II

-CLASS NOTES-

by

Giovanni Cascante

Department of Civil Engineering

University of Waterloo

Note: This set of notes contains numerous spaces to

be filled in during lectures

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2001

© Giovanni Cascante

CIV E 354: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II

1 – INTRODUCTION

Geotechnical Problems Review of Soil Mechanics (Chapter 3):

Design Philosophy (21-1) Effective stresses,

Design Loads (2.1) Shear strength: drained and undrained,

Mohr circle

“The most important thing is to keep the most important thing the most important thing”

“A structure is not stronger than its connections”

Foundations transmit all the structural loads to the underlain soils. The foundation engineer must be multi-

disciplinary and have knowledge of Geotechnical Engineering, Structural Engineering and Construction

Engineering.

…and we can save 1000 Lira by not

conducting soil studies!

1.1 Geotechnical problems

Principal aspects of the project

Expected performance: strength and deformation

Factor of safety: P[failure] by Code (cost, uncertainties,

tolerances, compounding the cost)

e.g. Earth dams 1.3 – 1.5, Retaining walls 1.5 – 2.0,

Foundations 2.0 – 3.0

Site investigation

Predicted strength and time effects: settlement

(data from adjacent facilities, consolidation test)

Performance and safety check

Construction and design recommendations

Contingency Plan

Monitoring program during

construction

Redesign

Site-improvement

1.2 Design philosophy

Since the behaviour of soils is quite complex, most of our analysis and design methods include a mixture

of rational and empirical techniques. The success of a geotechnical engineer relays on his solutions to

practical design problems based on his understanding of the strengths and limitations of this mix of

rationalism and empiricism (CE 353). A successful structure will fulfill the following performance

requirements:

• Strength

• Serviceability

• Constructibility

• Economy.

Settlement

• Connection with existing structures

• Utility lines

• Surface drainage

• Access

• Aesthetics.

In spite of uncertainties in analysis and design, the society expects engineers to develop economical,

timely, and reliable designs. The factor of safety (F.S.) is based on required reliability (i.e. the acceptable

probability of failure), consequences of failure, uncertainties in soil properties and applied loads,

construction tolerances (design and as-built dimensions), ignorance of true behaviour, cost-benefit ratio

of additional conservatism in the design. Therefore, the factor of safety is used to compensate for

uncertainties.

We use the factor of safety:

F.S.= Strength / Load (deterministic method)

In Geotechnical Engineering there are two main approaches for design:

• Working stress design or allowable stress design (WSD, ASD): forces from working conditions

• Limit state design or load and resistance factor design (ULS, LRFD): forces from maximum loads

P

u

= γ

1

P

D

+ γ

2

P

D

+ …

P

u

≤ φP

n

P[ failure ] = P[ L > S ] = ∑ ∑ P[ S = So ] P[ L > So ]

1.3 Design loads

D

R) or S or

r

(L T H F L D + + + + +

E)] or (W R) or S or

r

(L L 0.75[D + + +

E)] or (W D [ 75 . 0 +

where:

D: dead loads; W: wind loads

L: live loads; T: self-straining loads;

S: snow loads; I: impact loads;

R: rain loads; SF: stream flow loads;

H: earth pressure loads; ICE: ice loads;

F: fluid loads; CF: centrifugal loads; and,

E: earthquake loads; BF: braking loads.

FAILURE

Load

Strength

Probability

Force

Cost

Probability of failure

1.4 Review of soil mechanics

1.4.1 Total and effective stresses u

T

− σ · σ′

Example 1.1

Soil 1: H= 5m, γ

Τ

=16 kN/m

3

, φ’=30

o

, c’= 15 kPa

Soil 2: H= 7m γ

Τ

=19 kN/m

3

and φ’=35

o

Compute the total and effective stresses

at the soil 2 – bedrock interface.

What is the water content of soil 2 if the in-situ

void ratio is 0.60?

1.4.2 Drained (τ τ

f

) and undrained shear strength (τ τ

f

)

Drained shear strength:

) tan(

n

c

f

φ′ σ′ + ′ · τ

Example 1.2:

Compute the maximum shear stresses that can be applied on a vertical or horizontal plane at depth H.

Soil 1

Soil 2

τ

H

τ

V

H1

Undrained shear strength:

Cu

f

· τ

Example 1.3:

Compute the maximum load “q” for a strip footing on clay for fast loading. Cu= 80 kPa.

Cu

Triaxial test

Unconfined

compression

test

B = 3.0m

1.4.3 Mohr Circle: Graphical representation of the state of stress at any direction, at a given

point

Characteristics of Mohr circle:

1- A change of an angle θ in the element represents an angle 2θ in the circle

2- Principal stresses σ

1

and σ

3

à Null shear stress

3- Radius and centre of the circle:

From principal stresses

2

R

2 1

σ − σ

·

2

C

2 1

σ + σ

·

From non-principal stresses

2

YX

2

X Y

2

R τ +

,

_

¸

¸ σ − σ

·

2

C

Y X

σ + σ

·

4- The resultant stress at any plane is given by

2

N

2

N R

) ( ) ( τ + σ · σ

=

Y

X

5- The maximum shear stress is equal to the radius of the circle. Maximum shear

stress acts on planes at 45

o

with respect to principal stresses.

1- Stresses at any given orientation à Pole or origin of planes. Locate any given

state of stresses (σ, τ) on the Mohr circle (Point A). Draw a line parallel to the

plane on which the stresses (σ, τ) are acting at Point A and extend this plane until

intersects again the circle (Point P). The intersection of this plane with the Mohr

circle (Point P) defines the pole. This procedure can be used with any known

state of stresses and the same pole should be obtained.

B

A

B

A

Sign convention:

+

+

Example 1.4:

For a triaxial test, σ

1

= 10 kPa and σ

2

= 5 kPa. Find the normal and shear stresses in

a plane inclined +30° with respect to the horizontal.

Example 1.5:

Find the maximum height H for an open-cut excavation on Soil 1.

Soil 1: γ

Τ

=16 kN/m

3

, φ’=30

o

, c’= 15 kPa

H

Review Formula Sheet

w

s

s

G

ρ

ρ

·

Vs

Vv

e·

V

Vv

n·

Ws

Ww

· ω

γ

w

= 9.81 kN/m

3

Vv

Vw

S·

e

s

G

S

ω

·

V

a

V

A·

d T

) 1 ( ρ ω + · ρ

w s T

G

) e 1 (

) 1 (

ρ

+

ω +

· ρ

w

s

s

d

) G 1 (

) A 1 ( G

ρ

ω +

−

· ρ

2 / 1

2

n v

T D

dd

1

]

1

¸

∝

Cu = D

60

/D

10

Cu ≥ 6

Cu ≥ 4

Cc = (D

30

)

2

/(D

10

D

60

)

1 ≤ Cc ≤ 3 (SW)

1 ≤ Cc ≤ 3 (GW)

A i k q ·

s

h

i

T

∆

∆

·

w

w

T

c

i

γ

γ − γ

·

q · k h

T(st-last)

( N

f

/N

d

)

h

T

· h

p

+ h

e

Load

Strength

FS·

u

T

− σ · σ′

) tan(

n

c

f

φ′ σ′ + ′ · τ

50

2

t

d 0.196

v

C ·

S

O

= Surface/Mass

Sphere

Area=4πR

2

Volume=4/3

*

πR

3

v

2

T M

0 m

0

e

d

Mz

sin

M

u 2

u

−

∞

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

∑

) 1 m 2 (

2

M +

π

·

H S

e 1

e

0

+

∆

·

∞

H S

e 1

log C

1

2

0

'

'

+

,

_

¸

¸

σ

σ

·

∞

1 0 I

E

B q

S µ µ ·

q

E

I

z

z

ε

·

( ) 0 . 0 B 2 I 6 . 0

2

B

I

z z

· ·

,

_

¸

¸

( ) ( ) 0 . 0 B 4 I 6 . 0 B I

z z

· ·

)

2

45 (

2

tan

A

K

φ′

− ·

)

2

45 (

2

tan

P

K

φ′

+ ·

A V A H

K c 2 K ′ − σ′ · σ′

P V P H

K c 2 K ′ + σ′ · σ′

6 . 0 U

4

v

T

2

U

< ·

π

6 . 0 U

085 . 0 ) U 1 log( 933 . 0 T

v

>

− − − ·

[ ]

[ ]

[ ] ) 2 sin( sin

q

xy

) 2 cos( sin

q

x

) 2 cos( sin

q

z

β + α α

π

· τ

β + α α − α

π

· σ

β + α α + α

π

· σ

)

'

sin( 1

o

K φ − ·

φ′

·

sin

OCR

o

K

oc

K

OCR

2

C

2 1

σ + σ

·

2

C

Y X

σ + σ

·

2

R

2 1

σ − σ

·

2

YX

2

X Y

2

R τ +

,

_

¸

¸ σ − σ

·

φ′ ′ · ′ cos c a

φ′ · α′ sin tan

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