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Nofrijon Sofyan, Ph.D.

 Many modern aircraft are designed to be able to move
large loads over long distances at subsonic high speed.
 Aircraft components for this purpose can only be
satisfied by materials with a specific combination of
high strength and lightweight properties.
 Because of that modern aircraft are built with complex
structures and consist of variety of materials.
 The best materials for these aircraft components, which
have the balance of lightweight and high mechanical
strength, are aluminum alloys.
 Up to the present time, aluminum alloys are still the
materials of choice and constitute the biggest
proportion of modern aircraft, followed by steel,
titanium alloys, and structural composites.
 Other components within the cabin such as overhead
luggage compartments, sidewalls, and ceilings usually
consist of lightweight plastics and polymers.
Some aircraft metallic materials
 2024 Aluminum Alloy
 Fuselage skins
 Dorsal fin
 Trailing edge
 Upper wing spars
 Lower wing skins
 7075 Aluminum Alloy
 Circumferential frames
 Stringers
 Lower wing spars
 Upper wing skins
 304 Stainless Steel
 Sanitary fittings
 Galley surfaces
Light Weight
 Easily bent -- good for
production, but bad for
 The disadvantageous of being low strength can be
overcome by alloying this pure aluminum with some
elements of transition, alkali, and/or alkaline earth
 These alloying elements, when combined with
appropriate thermo-mechanical processing, greatly
improve aluminum mechanical properties and increase
its usefulness especially as materials of choice for
aircraft applications.
Properties of aluminum
Aluminum has a face-centered cubic crystal
The pure metal is very ductile, even at cryogenic
(subzero) temperatures, and has very low strength in
the annealed condition.
The metal is strengthened by alloying, cold working,
heat treatment, or a combination of these.
Heating during welding, brazing, or soldering may
alter these strengthening mechanisms and change
the mechanical properties of the base metal.
This must be considered in the component design,
the selection of the joining process, and the
manufacturing procedures.
Alloying addition
Aluminum is alloyed principally with copper,
magnesium, manganese, silicon, and zinc.
Small additions of chromium, iron, nickel, and
titanium are sometimes added to specific alloy
systems to obtain desired properties and grain
Magnesium, manganese, silicon, and iron, singly or
in various combinations, are used to strengthen
aluminum by solid solution or by dispersed
intermetaIlic compounds within the matrix.
Silicon addition also lowers the melting point and
increases the fluidity of aluminum.
Copper, magnesium, silicon, and zinc additions in
appropriate amounts produce alloys that are heat
These elements, singly or in various combinations,
have increasing solid solubility in aluminum with
increasing temperature.
Therefore, such alloys can be strengthened by
subjecting them to appropriate thermal treatments
alone or in combination with cold working.
The effect of a strengthening heat treatment or cold
working, or both, may be negated by the thermal
cycle of a joining operation.
Heat treating in conjunction with or after joining
may provide optimum mechanical properties in a
welded or brazed joint.
Weldability of Al alloys
Substantially the same welding, brazing, or
soldering practices are used for both cast and
wrought products.
Conventional die castings are not normally used for
welded construction; however, such castings may be
adhesive bonded and soldered to a limited extent.
Vacuum die castings may be welded satisfactorily
for some applications because they are less porous
than conventional die castings.
Cast or extruded sections that are to be welded
together may be designed to provide desired joint
geometry, alignment, and reinforcement.
Some Al alloys are clad with high purity aluminum
or a special aluminum alloy on one or both sides to
improve corrosion resistance.
A cladding layer is usually from 2.5 to 5 percent of
the total thickness.
Special composites are also produced for brazing
or surface finishing purposes.
 In North America, The Aluminum Association Inc. is
responsible for the allocation and registration of aluminum
 Aluminum alloys can be categorized into a number of
groups based on the particular material’s characteristics
such as its ability to respond to thermal and mechanical
treatment and the primary alloying element added to the
aluminum alloy.
 The wrought having a 4-digit system, and the castings
having a 3-digit and 1-decimal place system.
 The wrought aluminum alloy identification system is
based on 4-digit designation.
 The first digit (Xxxx) indicates the principal alloying
element, which has been added to the aluminum alloy
and is often used to describe the aluminum alloy series.
 The second single digit (xXxx), if different from 0,
indicates a modification of the specific alloy, and the
third and fourth digits (xxXX) are arbitrary numbers
given to identify a specific alloy in the series.
Alloy Series Principal Alloying Element
1xxx 99.000% Minimum Aluminum
2xxx Copper
3xxx Manganese
4xxx Silicon
5xxx Magnesium
6xxx Magnesium and Silicon
7xxx Zinc
8xxx Other Elements
9xxx Unused
The cast alloy designation system is based on a 3
digit-plus decimal designation xxx.x
The first digit (Xxx.x) indicates the principal alloying
element, which has been added to the aluminum
The second and third digits (xXX.x) are arbitrary
numbers given to identify a specific alloy in the
The number following the decimal point indicates
whether the alloy is a casting (.0) or an ingot (.1 or
A capital letter prefix indicates a modification to a
specific alloy.
Alloy Series Principal Alloying Element
1xx.x 99.000% minimum Aluminum
2xx.x Copper
3xx.x Silicon Plus Copper and/or Magnesium
4xx.x Silicon
5xx.x Magnesium
6xx.x Unused Series
7xx.x Zinc
8xx.x Tin
9xx.x Other Elements
Letter Meaning
As fabricated – Applies to products of a forming process in which no
special control over thermal or strain hardening conditions is employed
Annealed – Applies to product which has been heated to produce the
lowest strength condition to improve ductility and dimensional stability
Strain Hardened – Applies to products which are strengthened through
cold-working. The strain hardening may be followed by supplementary
thermal treatment, which produces some reduction in strength. The “H” is
always followed by two or more digits
Letter Meaning
Solution Heat-Treated – An unstable temper applicable
only to alloys which age spontaneously at room
temperature after solution heat-treatment
Thermally Treated - To produce stable tempers other than
F, O, or H. Applies to product which has been heat-
treated, sometimes with supplementary strain-hardening,
to produce a stable temper. The “T” is always followed by
one or more digits
Further to the basic temper designation, there are two
subdivision categories, one addressing the “H” Temper
– Strain Hardening, and the other addressing the “T”
Temper – Thermally Treated designation.
Subdivisions of H Temper – Strain Hardened
The first digit after the H indicates a basic
H1 – Strain Hardened Only.
H2 – Strain Hardened and Partially Annealed.
H3 – Strain Hardened and Stabilized.
H4 – Strain Hardened and Lacquered or Painted.
The second digit after the H indicates the degree of
strain hardening:
HX2 – Quarter Hard
HX4 – Half Hard
HX6 – Three-Quarters Hard
HX8 – Full Hard
HX9 – Extra Hard
Subdivisions of T Temper – Thermally Treated
T1 - Naturally aged after cooling from an elevated
temperature shaping process, such as extruding.
T2 - Cold worked after cooling from an elevated
temperature shaping process and then naturally aged.
T3 - Solution heat treated, cold worked and naturally aged.
T4 - Solution heat treated and naturally aged.
T5 - Artificially aged after cooling from an elevated
temperature shaping process.
T6 - Solution heat treated and artificially aged.
T7 - Solution heat treated and stabilized (overaged).
T8 - Solution heat treated, cold worked and artificially
T9 - Solution heat treated, artificially aged and cold
T10 - Cold worked after cooling from an elevated
temperature shaping process and then artificially
Additional Subdivisions of T Temper
T10 Artificially aged and then cold worked
T42 (Wrought products only). Applicable to products solution heat-
treated and naturally aged which have mechanical properties
different from those of the T4 temper.
T51 stress relieve by stretching
T52 stress relieve by compressing
T54 stress-relieved by combined stretching and compressing
T62 (Wrought products only). Applicable to products solution heat-
treated and artificially aged which have mechanical
properties different from those of the T6 temper.
Mechanical properties of aluminum alloys can be
improved in several ways, but in general this can be
done through a general process of:
solid-solution hardening,
grain-boundary hardening,
work or strain hardening, and
aging or precipitation hardening
Nonheat-treatable alloys
The initial strengths of the nonheat-treatable alloys
depend primarily upon the hardening effect of
alloying elements such as silicon, iron, manganese,
and magnesium.
These elements increase the strength of aluminum by
formation of dispersed phases in the metal matrix
or by solid solution.
 The nonheat-treatable alloys are mainly found in the 1XXX,
3XXX, 4XXX and 5XXX series depending upon their major
alloying elements.
 Iron and silicon are the major impurities in commercially pure
aluminum but they do contribute to its strength.
 Magnesium is the most effective solution-strengthening
 Aluminum-magnesium alloys of the 5XXX series have
relatively high strength in the annealed condition.
 All of the nonheat-treatable alloys are work-hardenable.
 The nonheat-treatable alloys may be annealed by
heating to an elevated temperature to remove the
effects of cold working and improve ductility.
 The proper annealing schedule to use will depend upon
the alloy and its temper.
 When fusion welding the nonheat-treatable alloys, the
heat-affected zone may lose the strengthening effects
of cold working.
 Thus, the strength in this zone may decrease to near that
of annealed metal.
Heat-treatable alloys
 The heat-treatable alloys are found in the 2XXX, 4XXX,
6XXX and 7XXX series.
 The strength of any of these alloys depends only upon
the alloy composition, in the annealed condition as do
the nonheat-treatable alloys.
 However, copper, magnesium, zinc, and silicon, either
singly or in various combinations, show a marked
increase in solid solubility in aluminum with increasing
Therefore, these alloys can be strengthened by
appropriate thermal treatments.
Heat-treatable aluminum alloys develop their
improved strength by solution heat treating followed
by either natural or artificial aging.
Cold working before or after aging may provide
additional strength.
 Heat-treated alloys may be annealed to provide
maximum ductility with a sacrifice in strength properties.
 Annealing is achieved by heating the component at an
elevated temperature for a specified time, and then
cooling it at a controlled rate.
 During fusion welding, the heat-affected zone will be
exposed to sufficiently high temperatures to overage
heat-treated metal.
 As a result, this zone will be softened to some extent.
 In Al-Cu alloys for example,
precipitates other than equilibrium
of -phase (CuAl
) can be
produced during the aging process.
 In this regard, three metastable
precipitates of GP-I, GP-II (θ”-
phase), and ’-phase can be
produced in addition to the stable
 In general, the process takes place according to the
sequence of GP-I zone →GP-II zone (θ"-phase) →θ'-
phase →θ-phase. GP zones of the first kind (GP-I) are
platelike arrays of copper layers oriented parallel to {100}
planes in the aluminum matrix, while GP zones of the second
kind (GP-II) consist of an ordered tetragonal structure of
aluminum and copper layers arrangements.
 During deformation, depending on the size, spacing, and
degree of coherency, these precipitates are either sheared
or looped and bypassed by the dislocation motion.
 This mechanism of dislocation motion is called Orowan
These are aluminum / copper alloys with copper additions
ranging from 0.7 to 6.8% with the properties:
 High strength
 Heat treatable
 Ultimate tensile strength of 27 to 62 ksi, ~ 186 MPa to
427.5 MPa (1 ksi = 10
psi, 1 psi = 6894.7523 Pa).
 High performance alloys that are often used for
aerospace and aircraft applications
 Some of these alloys are considered non-weldable by
the arc welding processes because of their susceptibility
to hot cracking and stress corrosion cracking; however,
others are arc welded very successfully with the correct
welding procedures.
 These base materials are often welded with high
strength 2xxx series filler alloys designed to match their
performance, but can sometimes be welded with the
4xxx series fillers containing silicon or silicon and
copper, dependent on the application and service
 This aluminum alloy has a major alloying element of
copper with a concentration of up to 4.9 wt.%.
 Other alloying elements include silicon, iron, manganese,
magnesium, chromium, and zinc.
 This alloy was first developed in 1931 due to the
increasing demand in aircraft industry and was the first
exclusively used to build the DC-3.
 This was then followed by more general use by Boeing
in the late 1970s.
 These are the aluminum / zinc alloys with zinc additions
ranging from 0.8 to 12.0%.
 These alloys comprise some of the highest strength
aluminum alloys; heat treatable – with ultimate tensile
strength of 32 to 88 ksi (220.6 – 607.7 MPa)
 These alloys are often used in high performance
applications such as aircraft, aerospace, and
competitive sporting equipment.
Like the 2xxx series of alloys, this series
incorporates alloys which are considered unsuitable
candidates for arc welding, and others, which are
often arc welded successfully.
The commonly welded alloys in this series, such as
7005, are predominantly welded with the 5xxx
series filler alloys.
 This aluminum alloy has a major alloying element of zinc
with the concentration of up to 6.1 wt.%.
 Some other alloying elements include silicon, iron,
copper, manganese, magnesium, chromium, and
 This alloy was first introduced in Germany in 1920s and
then was further developed in the U.S. for use in
airplane wings.
Like 2024 aluminum alloy, 7075 aluminum alloys is
also susceptible to localized corrosion; however,
compared to 2024 aluminum alloy, this alloy has
more corrosion resistance due to its chromium
content while at the same time containing less
Nowadays, the main use of this alloy is for aircraft
application including circumferential frames,
stringers, lower wing spars, and upper wing skins.
Joining heat-
treatable cast
Filler metals for welded Al alloys
 Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by
William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich
Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology.
 Titanium is a strong, light metal
 It is as strong as steel but 45% lighter.
 It is also twice as strong as aluminum but only 60%
Titanium is not actually a rare substance as it ranks
as the ninth most plentiful element and the fourth
most abundant structural metal in the Earth’s crust
exceeded only by aluminum, iron, and magnesium.
Unfortunately, it is seldom found in high
concentrations and never found in a pure state.
Thus, the difficulty in processing the metal makes it
 Metals vary substantially in weight.
 At 0.5 g cm
lithium has the lowest density while osmium
and iridium are the heaviest metals with a density of 22.5 g
 The separation point between light and heavy metals is 5 g
 Therefore, titanium with a density of 4.51 g cm
is the
heaviest light metal.
 Although twice as heavy as the classic light metal –
aluminum – it has only about half the specific weight of iron
or nickel
Titanium is not easily corroded by sea water and is
used in propeller shafts, rigging and other parts of
boats that are exposed to sea water.
Titanium and titanium alloys are used in airplanes,
missiles and rockets where strength, low weight and
resistance to high temperatures are important.
Since titanium does not react within the human body,
it is used to create artificial hips, pins for setting
bones and for other biological implants.
 Titanium alloys have useful strength and resist oxidation
at temperatures as high as 595°C (1100
 The improved elevated-temperature characteristics of
these alloys combined with their high strength-to-weight
ratios make them an attractive alternative t0 nickel-
base superalloys for certain gas turbine components.
 Titanium alloys possess a weight reduction advantage
of approximately 40% over their nickel-base
 Titanium exists in two crystallographic forms.
 At room temperature, unalloyed titanium has a
hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure referred
to as  (alpha) phase.
 At 883°C (1621
F)  phase transforms to a body-
centered cubic (bcc) structure known as  (beta) phase.
 The manipulation of these crystallographic variations
through alloying additions, heat treatment, and
thermomechanical processing is the basis for the
development of a wide range of alloys and properties.
Alloying elements Range (approx)
Effect on structure
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
 stabilizer
Improve creep resistance
Titanium alloys in aircraft
 Compared to steels or aluminum alloys, titanium alloys
must be considered a much younger structural material.
 The first alloys were developed at the end of the
1940s in the USA.
 Among these was the classic titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V,
which still captures a large portion of aerospace
applications today.
The main drivers for titanium’s use in aerospace applications
 weight reduction (substitute for steels and Ni-based
 application temperature (substitute for Al alloys, Ni-based
superalloys, and steels)
 corrosion resistance (substitute for Al alloys and low-alloyed
 galvanic compatibility with polymer matrix composites
(substitute for Al alloys)
 space limitation (substitute for Al alloys and steels).
 Oftentimes, saving weight is the major reason for
choosing titanium alloys in fuselage applications, thus
making use of the high specific strength of the metal.
 Frequently, the substitution for high-strength steels is
worthwhile even if steel’s strength is higher, or for
aluminum-based alloys even if aluminum’s density is
 This has led to increased use of titanium alloys in
fuselages over the past four decades.
 Titanium alloys are used to stop fatigue crack growth in
aircraft fuselages.
 They are applied as thin, narrow rings placed around
the aluminum aircraft fuselage like a “belly band”,
preventing potential fatigue cracks from propagating
catastrophically in the outer skin.
 Nowadays, titanium alloys are also used for hydraulic
tubing of modern aircraft.
 Compared to steel tubes, weight savings of up to 40%
are possible.
The +  alloy Ti-3Al-2.5V is primarily used for this
application as it is easily deformed and
demonstrates sufficient strength.
Where high corrosion resistance is required at
moderate strengths, commercially pure titanium is
Aircraft floors surrounding on-board kitchens and
toilets are an example where the corrosive
environment dictates titanium’s use.
The piping system for de-icing equipment is
manufactured from unalloyed titanium.
Here strength is less important than thermal stability.
Since temperatures can well exceed 200C,
aluminum alloys may no longer be used.
Furthermore, excellent corrosion resistance is
required since warm aggressive media have to be
Despite higher initial cost, primary components of
aircraft landing gear are increasingly manufactured
from forged titanium alloys.
The higher up front cost pays off over the long term
as high-strength steels typically need to be
replaced at least once in an aircraft’s lifetime due
to their susceptibility to stress corrosion.
Landing gear component replacement is avoided if
made from titanium alloys
 Compared with the commercial aircraft market, the use of titanium
alloys is considerably higher in military fighter aircraft.
 The greater use is driven by design in response to the larger thermal
and mechanical loads associated with greater maneuverability and
supersonic cruise speed.
 The proportion of titanium alloys in military aircraft fuselages can
exceed 50%; for the SR-71 “Blackbird” it was 95%.
 Due to the aero kinetic heating of the surface skin, titanium alloys
were used since the temperature capability of the most advanced
elevated temperature aluminum alloys was insufficient.
Front fans of
commercial Rolls-Royce
Trent engines made of
 Titanium-matrix composites:
 Containing continuous silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforcement
 Developed to extend the elevated-temperature performance of
titanium and its alloys.
 One commercially available type, the SCS-6 fiber, has a
140 m diameter, a 33  m carbon core, and a carbon-rich
 SiC fibers generally constitute 35 t0 40 vol% of this
Titanium aluminides
These materials have essentially the same density as
titanium but can be used at much higher
The three alloy systems that have emerged as
primary candidates are:
 Ti
Al-based (designated -2),
 TiAl-based (designated ),
 and Ti
Titanium aluminides (cont…)
 The only drawback is difficult to process and fabricate
into structural components because they have limited
ductility and toughness at lower temperature ranges
and therefore require very high processing
 Current generation is known as GMPX (Gamma MetPX)
owned by PLANSEE AG, Austria, based on alloy
composition of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb developed by GKSS
Research Center Geesthacht, Germany.
Titanium powder metallurgy alloys:
 Production techniques such as rapid solidification
processing, mechanical alloying, and blended
elemental powder processing are being used to
produce titanium with compositions that would
impossible to achieve through conventional processing.
 E.g. Ti-6Al-4V with the additions of ceramics and or
intermetallic such as TiC, TiB
, and TiAl.
Commercially Pure Titanium:
 Grade 1 – 4, 7, 11
Titanium Alloys:
 6Al-4V or Grade 5
 6AL-4V ELI or Grade 23
 Grade 12
 5Al-2.5Sn
 Grade 1-4 are unalloyed and considered commercially
pure or "CP". They are used for corrosion resistance
applications where cost and ease of fabrication and
welding are important.
 Grade 5 is the most commonly used alloy. It has a
chemical composition of 6% Aluminum, 4% Vanadium,
remainder titanium, and is commonly known
as Ti6Al4V, Ti-6AL-4V or simply Ti 6-4. Grade 5 is used
extensively in Aerospace, Medical, Marine, and
Chemical Processing.
 Grade 6 contains 5% Aluminum and 2.5% Tin. It is also
known as Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. This alloy is used in airframes
and jet engines due to its good weldability, stability
and strength at elevated temperatures.
 Grade 7 contains 0.12 to 0.25% Palladium. This grade
is similar to Grade 2. The small quantity of Palladium
added gives it enhanced crevice corrosion resistance at
low temperatures and high pH.
 Grade 7H contains 0.12 to 0.25% Palladium. This
grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
Grade 9 contains 3.0% Aluminum and
2.5% Vanadium. This grade is a compromise
between the ease of welding and manufacturing of
the "pure" grades and the high strength of Grade
5. It is commonly used in aircraft tubing for
hydraulics and in athletic equipment.
Grade 11 contains 0.12 to 0.25% Palladium. This
grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
Grade 12 contains 0.3% Molybdenum and
0.8% Nickel.
Grades 13, 14, and 15 all contain 0.5% Nickel and
0.05% Ruthenium.
Grade 16 contains 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium. This
grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
Grade 16H contains 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium.
Grade 17 contains 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium. This
grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
Grade 18 contains 3% Aluminum,
2.5% Vanadium and 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium. This
grade is identical to Grade 9 in terms of
mechanical characteristics. The added Palladium
gives it increased corrosion resistance.
Grade 19 contains 3% Aluminum, 8% Vanadium,
6% Chromium, 4% Zirconium, and 4% Molybdenum.
Grade 20 contains 3% Aluminum, 8% Vanadium,
6% Chromium, 4% Zirconium, 4% Molybdenum and
0.04% to 0.08% Palladium.
Grade 21 contains 15% Molybdenum,
3% Aluminum, 2.7% Niobium, and 0.25% Silicon.
Grade 23 contains 6% Aluminum, 4% Vanadium.
Grade 24 contains 6% Aluminum,
4% Vanadium and 0.04% to 0.08% Palladium.
Grade 25 contains 6% Aluminum,
4% Vanadium and 0.3% to 0.8% Nickel and
0.04% to 0.08% Palladium.
Grades 26, 26H, and 27 all contain 0.08 to
0.14% Ruthenium.
Grade 28 contains 3% Aluminum,
2.5% Vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% Ruthenium.
Grade 29 contains 6% Aluminum,
4% Vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% Ruthenium.
 Grades 30 and 31 contain 0.3% Cobalt and
0.05% Palladium.
 Grade 32 contains 5% Aluminum, 1% Tin,
1% Zirconium, 1% Vanadium, and 0.8% Molybdenum.
 Grades 33 and 34 contain 0.4% Nickel,
0.015% Palladium, 0.025% Ruthenium, and
0.15% Chromium .
 Grade 35 contains 4.5% Aluminum, 2% Molybdenum,
1.6% Vanadium, 0.5% Iron, and 0.3% Silicon.
Grade 36 contains 45% Niobium.
Grade 37 contains 1.5% Aluminum.
Grade 38 contains 4% Aluminum, 2.5% Vanadium,
and 1.5% Iron. This grade was developed in
the 1990s for use as an armor plating. The iron
reduces the amount of Vanadium needed for
corrosion resistance. Its mechanical properties are
very similar to Grade 5.
 Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo used in
aircraft engine.
 Other advanced high-temperature titanium alloys for
service up to 595
C, such as Ti-1100 and IMI-834 are
being developed as castings.
 The alloys mentioned above exhibit the same degree of
elevated-temperature superiority, as do their wrought
counterparts over the more commonly used Ti-6Al-4V.
Alloys Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (commonly called
Ti-17) and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo for high strength in
heavy sections at elevated temperatures.
Alloys Ti-6242S, IMI 829, and Ti-6242 (Ti-6Al-2Sn-
4Zr-2Mo) for creep resistance.
Alloys Ti-6Al-2Nb-ITa-Imo and Ti-6Al-4V-ELI are
designed both to resist stress corrosion in aqueous
salt solutions and for high fracture toughness
Alloy Ti-5Al-2,5Sn is designed for weldability, and
the ELI grade is used extensively for cryogenic
Alloys Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-10V-2Fe-
3Al for high strength at low-to-moderate
 J.R. Davis: Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, ASM Specialty
Handbook, 1993.
 J. Dwight: Aluminium Design and Construction, E & FN Spon,
London, 1999.
 G.E. Totten and D.S. MacKenzie: Handbook of Aluminum,
Physical Metallurgy and Processes, Vol. 1, Marcel Dekker,
New York, 2003.
 C. Leyens and M. Peters (Eds): Titanium and Titanium Alloys,
Fundamentals and Applications, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2003.