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# 32

Sutra: International Journal of Mathematical Science Education, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2009

Useful Mathematical Symbols
Symbol What it is How it is read How it is used Sample expression

+

... plus ... ... or ...

Sum of a few values Logical disjunction Product of two values Logical conjunction Product of two values Product of two values Sum of many or infinitely many values

2+6=8 ¬(A + B) = ¬A * ¬B

*

Multiplication sign Logical AND symbol

... times ... ... and ...

2 x 6 = 12 ¬(A * B) = ¬A + ¬B

x ·

Multiplication sign Multiplication sign

... times ... ... times ... The summation of ...

4x2=8 4·2=8

summation sign

Integral sign

The integral of ...

integration

x dx = x /3 +c

2

3

double integral sign
Triple integral sign

The double integral of ... The triple integral of ... The line integral of ... The surface integral of ... ... minus ... Negative...

integration

f(x ,y) dx dy f(x,y,z) dx dy dz F dx F(x,y ,z) dx dy 2 - 6 = -4

integration

Line integral sign Surface integral sign Subtraction sign Minus sign

integration integration Difference of two values, negative number Expression of range, error, or tolerance Scalar (dot) product of two vectors Vector (cross) product of two vectors Product of three up to infinitely many values

-

±

Plus/minus sign

... plus or minus ...

540 kbps ± 10%

Dot product sign

... dot ...

A B= B A

x

Cross product sign

... cross ...

A x B = - (B x A )

Product sign

The product of ...

^

Carat

... to the power of ...

exponent

2 ^ 4 = 16

5) [ ] Square brackets w + [( x + y) + z] [2.. the half-open interval .....75 0.. . the half-open interval .z ) (3. Continuation sign ..2 0. 2009 33 ! Exclamation . it is true that . 1. . Infinite summations Infinite sequence Limit Denotes a quantity.. the quantity . 3...... and so on up to . the quantity .. 2.... ... .. or an open interval Denotes a quantity or a closed interval Denotes a half-open interval Denotes a half-open interval Denotes a quantity or a set lemniscate ( ) Parentheses (x + y ) + z (a1..... divided by .... 6. . over ...032 = 32 2:4 = 20:40 : Colon.... the set ..... ..032 = 3.y .open interval . . .. .. No. is to . set of coordinates... a 2....quantity. such that ..... ...4) ( ] [ ) Hybrid brackets Hybrid brackets { } Curly brackets E = {2..list. divided by . and so on indefinitely . 8...} .. a4) ( x . (x + y ) 4 = ±2 S = {1. Symbol following logical quantifier or used in defining a set ∃x | x > 4 and x < 5 ∀ x | x < 0 or x > -1 S = {x | x < 3} 3 :: 11 = 7 ∀x : x < :: Double colon .. .. 2. infinity ..75 3 ÷ 4 = 0. a3.. Vol.... increases without limit .. . the closed interval .} / ÷ % Slash Division sign Percent symbol Per mil symbol Division Division Proportion Proportion 3/4 = 0.... arithmetic mean .... . . ... The square root of ... percent .. list.. such that . .. ratio sign ... 4.....Sutra: International Journal of Mathematical Science Education. . Division or ratio . factoriall Product of all positive integers up to a certain value Algebraic expressions Algebraic expressions Extension of sequence z= 3! = 6 surd square root symbol . per mil . ........ symbol following logical quantifier or used in defining a set ∃x : x > 4 and x < 5 ∀x : x < 0 or x > -1 S = {x : x < 3} | Vertical line ....set of coordinates....it is true that .4] (2. averaged with ..4] [2. root of ... ..........

For some .. .. Vol.. . x y < Inequality sign .. is perpendicular to ... 2009 = Equal sign ....... | -5 | = 5 increment sign. is similar to . There exists a(n) . or space Indicates a small change.... For every . For all .......... is at most equal to .. is less than ..34 Sutra: International Journal of Mathematical Science Education. is not equal to . Denotes vertices of triangle Geometry Geometry Geometry Logical statements Logical statements -(-6) = 6 2 2z + 4 z . Indicates two values are the same Indicates two variables change in direct proportion Indicates two objects are geometrically similar Indicates two values are close to each other Indicates two values are different Indicates value on left is smaller than value on right Indicates value on left is smaller than or equal to value on right Indicates value on left is larger than value on right Indicates value on left is larger than or equal to value on right Distance of value from origin in number line..... 4>1 x>y Inequality sign ......... is approximately equal to ..6 = 0 Proportionality sign .. ABC ~ DEF Approximate equal sign ... x+y z Inequality sign . is greater than .... is less than or equal to . x y > Inequality sign . . Angle ... m= y/ x ABC = DEF L M L // M ∠ABC = angle symbol Existential quantifier ∠DEF ∃x : x > 4 and x < 5 ∀ x : x < 0 or x > -1 Universal quantifier .... 2. Triangle symbol Perpendicularity symbol // Parallel symbol the change in .. 2<4 x<y Inequality sign ... 1... is greater than or equal to .. is proportional to .. equals . x y | | absolute value sign The absolute value of .. plane.. No.. x y ~ Similarity sign ..... is parallel to . triangle .

14159 . . Logical statements Logical statements Logical statements Logical statements or mathematical proofs Sets ¬(¬A) A B A logical implication symbol logical equivalence symbol A B x = y and y = z x=z a A Three dots Element-of symbol Not-element-of symbol Subset symbol Proper subset symbol Union symbol Intersection symbol Sets Sets Sets Sets Sets b A A A B B A B=B A A B=B A Null symbol Hebrew aleph (uppercase) º Degree symbol Greek theta (lowercase) Greek phi (lowercase) Sets Transfinite cardinal Angular measure Temperature Angular variable Angular variable 1 ={} + 0 = 1 = 45º T = +20 ºC = 90º = 45º wavelength Greek lambda (lowercase) ... . Vol. No.. .... ... is not an element of a set .... . . . omega ......... . . prefix multiplier General science Volume of an object Ohms (resistance) Transfinite ordinal Angular velocity Period C = 0... = 36. The null set The empty set Aleph .. is an element of a set . Ratio Eigenvalue Lebesgue measure = 70 cm = 3:1 µ Greek mu (lowercase) Greek pi (lowercase) Greek omega (uppercase) micro. ......... if and only if . omega ....001 µF 3.. therefore ..... is a subset of ..... it follows that . then .. If .. . .. is a proper subset of ............... 2.. is logically equivalent to .. implies . union .... intersected with .. pi .. 1...Sutra: International Journal of Mathematical Science Education..... lambda .. theta .(10 -6) .. . degree(s) . R2 = 330 Greek omega (lowercase) . intersect .... . phi .000 rad/s = 1/60 s . 2009 35 ¬ Logical negation symbol not .....

3. -1. 1. Vol.N . -3. 2.Z Enhanced or bold N Enhanced or bold Z The set of natural numbers The set of integers The set of rational numbers The set of real numbers Number theory Set theory Number theory Set theory Number theory Set theory Number theory Set theory = {0. 2.} = {a/b | a and b are in } What is the cardinality of ? .36 Sutra: International Journal of Mathematical Science Education.} = {0. -2. 3. No. 2. 1.Q Enhanced or bold Q ..R Enhanced or bold R . 2009 .. 1.. .. .