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**Week 9: Fermi Week 9: Fermi- -Dirac Dirac Statistics Statistics
**

Announcements Announcements

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 1

Boltzmann Probability Function Boltzmann Probability Function

Electrons are going to move around energy levels Electrons are going to move around energy levels

as they collide/ interact with one another as they collide/ interact with one another

Assume a particle like view of electrons: two Assume a particle like view of electrons: two

electrons at E electrons at E

1 1

and E and E

2 2

interact to result in electrons interact to result in electrons

at E at E

3 3

and E and E

4 4

E

1

ψ

2

ψ

1

E

2

E

4

E

3

ψ

4

ψ

3

Interaction

Fig. 4.23: Twoelectronsinitiallywithwavefunctionsψ1 and

ψ2 at E1 andE2 interact andendupat different energiesat

E3 andE4. Their correspondingwavefunctionsareψ3 and

ψ4.

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 2

2

Boltzmann Probability Function Boltzmann Probability Function

In steady In steady- -state (no net motion of electrons) state (no net motion of electrons)

– – the probability of going back the other way (E the probability of going back the other way (E

3 3

and E and E

4 4

interact to result in E interact to result in E

1 1

and E and E

2 2

) must be ) must be

just as likely just as likely

Also: energy is conserved: Also: energy is conserved:

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 3

Boltzmann Statistics Boltzmann Statistics

Solution to these 2 Solution to these 2

equations equations

P(E)=f(E)= P(E)=f(E)=Aexp( Aexp(- -E/kT E/kT) )

Number of particles at Number of particles at

E E

1 1

and E and E

2 2

are N are N

1 1

and and

N N

2 2

There ratio depends on There ratio depends on

the energy spread the energy spread

*Used with permission from Kasap

∝ exp(–E/kT)

N

1

N

2

N(E)

E

E

2

E

1

0

Fig. 4.24: TheBoltzmannenergydistributiondescribesthe

statisticsof particles, e.g. electrons, whentheparticlesdo

not interact witheachother, i.e. whenthereareveryfew

electronscomparedwiththenumber of availablestates.

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

− =

kT

E E

exp

N

N

1 2

1

2

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 4

3

Assumptions in Boltzmann Statistics Assumptions in Boltzmann Statistics

Boltzmann probability function ignores Boltzmann probability function ignores Pauli's Pauli's

exclusion principle exclusion principle

The number of states at a given energy just The number of states at a given energy just

increases exponentially with the assumption that increases exponentially with the assumption that

any number of particles can have a particular any number of particles can have a particular

energy energy

This is an okay assumption for cases where there This is an okay assumption for cases where there

are a limited number of electrons and lots of states are a limited number of electrons and lots of states

(so the odds are you won’t have more than two in (so the odds are you won’t have more than two in

the same state) the same state)

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 5

Fermi Fermi- -Dirac Dirac Probability Function Probability Function

In general, though, we need to factor in In general, though, we need to factor in

Pauli’s Pauli’s Exclusion principle Exclusion principle

For an electron to go from E For an electron to go from E

1 1

and E and E

2 2

to E to E

3 3

and E and E

4 4

– – we have to GUARANTEE that E we have to GUARANTEE that E

3 3

and E and E

4 4

are are

empty! empty!

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 6

4

Fermi Fermi Dirac Dirac Function Function

*Used with permission from Kasap

E

E

F

0 1

/

2

1

f(E)

T

1

T =0

T

2

>T

1

Fig. 4.25: TheFermi-Dirac function, f(E), describes the

statistics of electrons inasolid. Theelectrons interact with

eachother andtheenvironment so that they obey thePauili

ExclusionPrinciple.

( )

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

+

=

kT

E E

exp 1

1

E f

F

New solution: New solution:

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 7

Concentration of Electrons (n) Concentration of Electrons (n)

*Used with permission from Kasap

E

0 1

/

2

1

f(E)

T

K

E E

g(E)

g(E) =A E

1/2

n

E

=g(E)f(E)

E

F

E

F

+Φ

E

0

(a) (b) (c) (d)

n

E

dE =n

0

∫

E

F

Fig. 4.26: (a) Above0 K, dueto thermal excitation, someof

theelectrons areat energies aboveEF. (b) Thedensity of

states, g(E) vs E in theband. (c) Theprobability of

occupancy of astateat anenergy E is f(E). Theproduct

g(E)f(E) is thenumber of electrons per unit energy per unit

volumeor electronconcentration per unit energy. Thearea

under thecurvewiththeenergy axis is theconcentrationof

electrons in theband.

dE ) E ( f ) E ( g dE n n

top

0

top

0

e

∫ ∫

= =

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 8

5

Solving for n at any E in the band Solving for n at any E in the band

dE ) E ( f ) E ( g dE n n

top

0

top

0

e

∫ ∫

= =

( )

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

+

=

kT

E E

exp 1

1

E f

F

E

h

m

2 8 ) E ( g

2 / 3

2

e

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

π =

Plug in for f(E) and g(E)

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

+

π

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

+

π

=

∫

∞

kT

E E

exp 1

E

h

m 2 8

) E ( n

kT

E E

exp 1

dE E

h

m 2 8

n

F

2 / 1

3

2 / 3

e

0

F

2 / 1

3

2 / 3

e

End up with:

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 9

Can Solve for E Can Solve for E

F F

for Metals for Metals

For metals, if you integrate n(E) over the For metals, if you integrate n(E) over the

valence band you should get the n we have valence band you should get the n we have

been calculating before (density of free been calculating before (density of free

electrons) electrons)

If you know n, you can calculate E If you know n, you can calculate E

F F

for a for a

metal metal

3 / 2

e

2

0 F

n 3

m 8

h

E

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

π

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 10

6

Fermi Energy Changes With T Fermi Energy Changes With T

The Fermi energy is defined as: The Fermi energy is defined as:

As you increase the temperature, the Fermi As you increase the temperature, the Fermi

energy will move energy will move

– – Because electrons get excited to higher states Because electrons get excited to higher states

( )

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ π

− =

2

0 F

2

0 F F

E

kT

12

1 E T E

MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 11

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