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Week 9: Fermi Week 9: Fermi- -Dirac Dirac Statistics Statistics
Announcements Announcements
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 1
Boltzmann Probability Function Boltzmann Probability Function
Electrons are going to move around energy levels Electrons are going to move around energy levels
as they collide/ interact with one another as they collide/ interact with one another
Assume a particle like view of electrons: two Assume a particle like view of electrons: two
electrons at E electrons at E
1 1
and E and E
2 2
interact to result in electrons interact to result in electrons
at E at E
3 3
and E and E
4 4
E
1
ψ
2
ψ
1
E
2
E
4
E
3
ψ
4
ψ
3
Interaction
Fig. 4.23: Twoelectronsinitiallywithwavefunctionsψ1 and
ψ2 at E1 andE2 interact andendupat different energiesat
E3 andE4. Their correspondingwavefunctionsareψ3 and
ψ4.
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 2
2
Boltzmann Probability Function Boltzmann Probability Function
In steady In steady- -state (no net motion of electrons) state (no net motion of electrons)
– – the probability of going back the other way (E the probability of going back the other way (E
3 3
and E and E
4 4
interact to result in E interact to result in E
1 1
and E and E
2 2
) must be ) must be
just as likely just as likely
Also: energy is conserved: Also: energy is conserved:
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 3
Boltzmann Statistics Boltzmann Statistics
Solution to these 2 Solution to these 2
equations equations
P(E)=f(E)= P(E)=f(E)=Aexp( Aexp(- -E/kT E/kT) )
Number of particles at Number of particles at
E E
1 1
and E and E
2 2
are N are N
1 1
and and
N N
2 2
There ratio depends on There ratio depends on
the energy spread the energy spread
*Used with permission from Kasap
∝ exp(–E/kT)
N
1
N
2
N(E)
E
E
2
E
1
0
Fig. 4.24: TheBoltzmannenergydistributiondescribesthe
statisticsof particles, e.g. electrons, whentheparticlesdo
not interact witheachother, i.e. whenthereareveryfew
electronscomparedwiththenumber of availablestates.





⎛ −
− =
kT
E E
exp
N
N
1 2
1
2
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 4
3
Assumptions in Boltzmann Statistics Assumptions in Boltzmann Statistics
Boltzmann probability function ignores Boltzmann probability function ignores Pauli's Pauli's
exclusion principle exclusion principle
The number of states at a given energy just The number of states at a given energy just
increases exponentially with the assumption that increases exponentially with the assumption that
any number of particles can have a particular any number of particles can have a particular
energy energy
This is an okay assumption for cases where there This is an okay assumption for cases where there
are a limited number of electrons and lots of states are a limited number of electrons and lots of states
(so the odds are you won’t have more than two in (so the odds are you won’t have more than two in
the same state) the same state)
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 5
Fermi Fermi- -Dirac Dirac Probability Function Probability Function
In general, though, we need to factor in In general, though, we need to factor in
Pauli’s Pauli’s Exclusion principle Exclusion principle
For an electron to go from E For an electron to go from E
1 1
and E and E
2 2
to E to E
3 3
and E and E
4 4
– – we have to GUARANTEE that E we have to GUARANTEE that E
3 3
and E and E
4 4
are are
empty! empty!
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 6
4
Fermi Fermi Dirac Dirac Function Function
*Used with permission from Kasap
E
E
F
0 1
/
2
1
f(E)
T
1
T =0
T
2
>T
1
Fig. 4.25: TheFermi-Dirac function, f(E), describes the
statistics of electrons inasolid. Theelectrons interact with
eachother andtheenvironment so that they obey thePauili
ExclusionPrinciple.
( )





⎛ −
+
=
kT
E E
exp 1
1
E f
F
New solution: New solution:
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 7
Concentration of Electrons (n) Concentration of Electrons (n)
*Used with permission from Kasap
E
0 1
/
2
1
f(E)
T

K
E E
g(E)
g(E) =A E
1/2
n
E
=g(E)f(E)
E
F
E
F

E
0
(a) (b) (c) (d)
n
E
dE =n
0
 

E
F
Fig. 4.26: (a) Above0 K, dueto thermal excitation, someof
theelectrons areat energies aboveEF. (b) Thedensity of
states, g(E) vs E in theband. (c) Theprobability of
occupancy of astateat anenergy E is f(E). Theproduct
g(E)f(E) is thenumber of electrons per unit energy per unit
volumeor electronconcentration per unit energy. Thearea
under thecurvewiththeenergy axis is theconcentrationof
electrons in theband.
dE ) E ( f ) E ( g dE n n
top
0
top
0
e
∫ ∫
= =
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 8
5
Solving for n at any E in the band Solving for n at any E in the band
dE ) E ( f ) E ( g dE n n
top
0
top
0
e
∫ ∫
= =
( )





⎛ −
+
=
kT
E E
exp 1
1
E f
F
E
h
m
2 8 ) E ( g
2 / 3
2
e






π =
Plug in for f(E) and g(E)





⎛ −
+
π
=





⎛ −
+
π
=


kT
E E
exp 1
E
h
m 2 8
) E ( n
kT
E E
exp 1
dE E
h
m 2 8
n
F
2 / 1
3
2 / 3
e
0
F
2 / 1
3
2 / 3
e
End up with:
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 9
Can Solve for E Can Solve for E
F F
for Metals for Metals
For metals, if you integrate n(E) over the For metals, if you integrate n(E) over the
valence band you should get the n we have valence band you should get the n we have
been calculating before (density of free been calculating before (density of free
electrons) electrons)
If you know n, you can calculate E If you know n, you can calculate E
F F
for a for a
metal metal
3 / 2
e
2
0 F
n 3
m 8
h
E






π








=
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 10
6
Fermi Energy Changes With T Fermi Energy Changes With T
The Fermi energy is defined as: The Fermi energy is defined as:
As you increase the temperature, the Fermi As you increase the temperature, the Fermi
energy will move energy will move
– – Because electrons get excited to higher states Because electrons get excited to higher states
( )















⎛ π
− =
2
0 F
2
0 F F
E
kT
12
1 E T E
MatE 153, Dr. Gleixner 11